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But elsewhere in the north and south the brigades had been fought to a standstill. Turkish artillery fire intensified and at 10:30 Chavaul asked for air support to help locate their batteries. Part of the problem being they were a larger calibre than the British guns and were out-ranging them. At the same time he sent one of his reserve regiments the Warwickshire Yeomanry to support the Composite Brigade. By 11:30 the ANZAC Division was deployed in a crescent around three miles (4.8 km) the Turkish position and could observe the Turkish camel transports leaving to the east. But thirty minutes later the Turkish troops counter-attacked along the length of their line.


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>But elsewhere in the north and south the brigades had been fought to a standstill. Turkish artillery fire intensified and at 10:30 Chavaul asked for air support to help locate their batteries. Part of the problem being they were a larger calibre than the British guns and were out-ranging them. ⇒しかし他の場所では、北でも南でも、両旅団は行き止まり状態で戦っていた。トルコの砲火が強くなったので、10時30分、ショーヴェルはその砲撃隊を突き止めるために空軍の支援を要求した。一部の問題は、英国の銃より彼らのそれの方が大きい口径であり、射程距離が長いことであった。 >At the same time he sent one of his reserve regiments the Warwickshire Yeomanry to support the Composite Brigade. By 11:30 the ANZAC Division was deployed in a crescent around three miles (4.8 km) the Turkish position and could observe the Turkish camel transports leaving to the east. But thirty minutes later the Turkish troops counter-attacked along the length of their line. ⇒同時に彼は、合成旅団を支援するために彼の予備連隊のうちの1つ、ウォリックシャー・ヨーマンリー隊を派遣した。11時30分までに、アンザック師団はトルコ軍陣地の周辺を約3マイル(4.8km)にわたって三日月形状に展開し、トルコ軍のラクダ輸送隊が東方へ去っていくのを観察できた。しかし、その30分後にはトルコ軍隊が彼らアンザック師団の(三日月形の)戦線の長さに沿って反撃してきた。





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    Next day British armoured cars entered Junction Station, succeeding in cutting off communication between the Turkish Seventh and Eighth Armies.  Kressenstein's force was meanwhile pushed back beyond Jaffa. While the attack at El Mughar was being conducted the Australian Mounted Division had managed to slow the advance of the Turkish Seventh Army.  Clearly seeking a breakthrough Fevsi's force succeeded in pushing the Australians back several kilometres but the Allied line nevertheless held. Fevsi finally determined to withdraw his army to cover the approaches to Jerusalem, which Allenby after a pause captured the following month. Click here to view a map detailing actions fought during 1917. The Battle of Ayun Kara (14 November 1917), was an engagement in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the First World War. The battle was fought between the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and a similar sized rearguard from the Turkish 3rd Infantry Division, which was part of the XXII Corps of the Ottoman Eighth Army's 8th Army under Kress von Kressenstein.[nb 1] Following their success in the battles of Beersheba, Gaza, and Mughar Ridge, the Egyptian Expeditionary Force was pursuing the retreating Turkish forces north. The New Zealanders, part of the ANZAC Mounted Division, were on the divisions' left heading towards Rishon LeZion, when nine miles (14 km) south of Jaffa they encountered the Turkish rearguard on the edge of sand dunes to the west of the villages of Surafend el Harab and Ayun Kara. The Turkish forces consisted of around 1,500 infantry, supported by machine-guns and artillery. The battle started in the afternoon with the New Zealanders caught in the open. Despite Turkish artillery, machine-gun fire, and infantry assaults, the New Zealanders gradually fought their way forward. The New Zealanders won the battle for the cost of 44 dead and 81 wounded. The Turkish casualties were 182 dead and an unknown number of wounded, but it was their last attempt to secure their lines of communications. By that night the Turks were in full retreat and soon after the Egyptian Expeditionary Force occupied Jerusalem.

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    One of their artillery shells landed on a limber from the Aryshire Battery, Royal Horse Artillery killing four men, wounding several others and killed thirty-seven horse. The Turkish soldiers were now advancing in waves towards the New Zealand Brigade. But supported by their artillery they managed to drive them back. The Composite Brigade was the Turkish next target. The Warwickshire Yeomanry, reinforcing them, had to fight off three battalions by themselves. The 3rd Brigade also being attacked, informed Chauval that there was little chance of them being able to break through the Turkish lines. Back in the north the Composite Brigade by 14:00 was being forced back and the Ayrshire Battery supporting them was in danger of being overrun.

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    The ANZAC Division withdrew by bounds, squadrons leap-frogging each other. First to their horse lines and then rode back to safety. The Turkish regiment had shown the ANZAC Division they were still a force to be reckoned with. Turning their attack into defence and then driving them off. The ANZAC casualties were seventy-three dead, 243 wounded and six missing.[18] Turkish casualties for this battle are not known, but altogether they had lost more than half of the 18,000 man force in their advance, into the Sinai. It was intended for the ANZAC Division to camp that night close by, with the intention of shadowing the Turkish force the next day, if they withdrew. However Chauvel withdrew the division except for some observation posts left behind, all the way back to Oghratina.

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    Only 1,000 men were left to defend Mecca. Many of them were asleep in barracks in the valley on June 10 when the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali fired a shot into the air from the window of the Hashemite palace signaling the beginning of the Arab Revolt. Hearing this his 5000 supporters started firing on Turkish troops in three fortresses overlooking the holy city, and at the Jirwall barracks on Jeddah road. The attack upon the Turkish forces was sudden and their acting commanding officer was unaware that a revolt had started. As Sharif's and the Ottoman banners were of same colour, the Turkish commander could not see the difference. He telephoned Sharif Hussain about the situation and he was told the reason and he (the Turkish commander) was told to surrender. He refused. The battle started and continued. The next day Binu Hashim's forces advanced and captured Bash-Karakol at Safa corner adjacent to the Masjid al-Haram. On the third day, Hamidia, the Ottoman Government Office, was captured, as well as the Deputy Governor. Now the captive Deputy Governor ordered his remaining Turkish troops to surrender. They refused.

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    When they arrived at a plateau 2,500 yards (2,300 m) from El Magruntein, the Warwickshire Yeomanry on the right was ordered to attack the B1 and B2 redoubts, while the Royal Gloucestershire Hussars were "sent to the left along the edge of the sand-dunes" to attack the right of the A1 redoubt, the most westerly of the defences. The troops dismounted to begin their attack 2,000 yards (1,800 m) from their objectives, but were immediately engaged by heavy machine-gun fire and shrapnel from two guns. By 10:00 the attack from the north, led by the Auckland Mounted Rifles and supported by two machine-guns, with the Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment on their right, had ridden into Rafa as they circled around El Magruntein. Here, they quickly captured the village along with six German and two Ottoman officers, 16 other ranks and 21 Bedouins.

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    British patrols discovered them on 8 August and the remainder of the ANZAC Division got into a position to attack the next day. The assault was launched on early 9 August and became a day of attack and counter-attack. Finally in the early evening Chauvel, commanding the ANZAC Division, ordered his troops to withdraw leaving the Turkish force in command of the battle ground.Victory in the battle of Romani had exhausted the ANZAC Mounted Division, and the two units most heavily involved, the 1st and 2nd Light Horse Brigades, were sent to rest at Romani and Etmaler. While the rest of the division, with the 5th Mounted Brigade under command, were ordered to follow the withdrawing Turkish force.

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    On February 12, Fort Kara-gobek was taken. On the 13th, the Russians continued their attacks. On February 14, Fort Tafet was taken, and with that the Russians had penetrated through both rings of the cities's defenses. By February 15, the remaining forts surrounding Erzurum were evacuated. Early in the morning of February 16, Russian cossacks were among the first to enter the city. Turkish units had successfully withdrawn and avoided encirclement, however casualties were already high. 327 pieces of artillery were lost to the Russians. Support units of the Third Army and around 250 wounded at the hospital of Erzurum were taken prisoner. While aerial reconnaissance revealed that the Turks were retreating, the Russian pursuit was not effective as it could have been. Meanwhile remnants of the X and XI Corps established another defensive line, 8 kilometers east of Erzurum.

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    The cavalry, always the most honored branch of the army in Austria, was top notch, and the commanders Auffenberg relegated command to were very capable of deploying them to full effectiveness. Three of the Five Generals under his command were General der Kavallerie. The Infantry were also dependable, led by the professional soldiers brought into the military before the outbreak of the war. It was a dependable army and would prove so in the course of the first months of the war. Von Plehve's forces were superior in numbers. In fact all along the front the Russians were in numerical superiority, this made the position on Auffenberg's flanks dangerous. Plehve had the trusty Russian Cossacks, recruited from loyal monarchist families in the Urals and well trained, they could hold their own easily against their counterparts across the front. The infantry, however, was a weak point. While the Austro-Hungarians were properly supplied and trained, even Russian peacetime formations had supply problems from the beginning of mobilization. The Russian strength was in their numbers. The Austro-Hungarians moved forward in good order on 26 August and smashed into the Russian lines. Von Plehve's right flank was already shaken by the defeat of the Russian Fourth Army at the Battle of Kraśnik a few days earlier, and despite his typical quick action, he could do nothing to oppose a superior enemy. By the 31st, the Austro-Hungarians had taken approximately 20,000 prisoners, a huge amount for the first month of the war. These prisoners were some of Russia's best soldiers, despite their inferior supply they were loyal. The conscripts that would fill the ranks of Russia's armed forces in the coming years of war would be lacking in proper training and far less willing to fight and by the time of the Kerensky Offensive in 1917 loyal soldiers were few and far between on the Russian line. The first two battles (Kraśnik and Komarow) of Conrad's invasion of Poland had been crushing successes, and it seemed as though the Russian might not be able to prevent a crisis in Poland and conduct their invasion of East Prussia simultaneously, particularly with the conclusion of the Battle of Tannenberg a few days later. Russia lost 20,000 of its better soldiers. The two Austro-Hungarian armies were poised to move farther into Poland, and the Austro-Hungarians received a huge boost to morale. Despite the remaining lack of security in the east the triple victory of Kraśnik-Komarow-Tannenberg and the successful advance in France gave the Germans and Austro-Hungarians their greatest hope of a victorious Schlieffen Plan. However, this would be proved false hope in a matter of days - not only due to the German defeat at the Battle of the Marne.

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    The Battle of Karakilisa (Armenian: Ղարաքիլիսայի ճակատամարտ Gharakilisayi chakatamart, Turkish: Karakilise Muharebesi or Karakilise Muharebeleri) was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Karakilisa (now Vanadzor), on May 25-28, 1918.The outnumbered Armenian defenders managed to turn back the invading Ottoman forces, which broke the armistice, signed on December 1917, with Transcaucasian commissariat entering Western Armenia, conquering Erznka, Erzerum, Sarighamish, Kars and Alexandropol and reaching Karakilisa. The victory here as well as at Sardarabad and Abaran were instrumental in allowing the First Republic of Armenia to come into existence. In several months, the cities of Erznka, Erzerum, Sarikamish, Kars and Alexandropol were conquered. On May 20, they conquered the Akhbulag, Djrajur and Kaltakhchi villages. On May 21, they conquered Vorontsovka. Pressed by the Turkish regular army, Armenian forces were retreating. Part of Ottoman-Turkish forces moved to Yerevan, another one to Karakilisa. The latter forces included about 10 thousand soldiers, 70 pieces of artillery and 40 machine-guns. The Armenian population was leaving their homes moving to the south to Yerevan and Syunik. Garegin Nzhdeh (with his troops) reached Karakilisa and managed to unite the population for the fight. The Armenian forces reached the number of 6 thousand, with 70 pieces of artillery and 20 machine-guns. After a violent battle of 4 days, on May 25-28, both sides had serious losses. Although the Ottoman army managed to invade Karakilisa and massacre all its population of 4,000 souls, it had no more forces to intrude farther into Armenian territories. Wehib Pasha speaking to his headquarters, “ We do not have the strength to defeat the Armenians. The three day battle in Karakilise shows that as long as their existence is in danger they will prefer to die fighting. We must not bring on a battle with the force that 1,200,000 Armenians can raise. If the Georgians join in the hostilities, it will be impossible to advance... In short, we must come to terms with the Armenians and Georgians. Karakilisa カラキリサ

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    The German Admiralty also decided that the Type UB II submarine would be ideal for Mediterranean service. Since these were too large to be shipped in sections by rail to Pola like the Type UB I, the materials for their construction and German workers to assemble them were sent instead. This meant a shortage of workers to complete U-boats for service in home waters, but it seemed justified by the successes in the Mediterranean in November, when 44 ships were sunk, for a total of 155,882 tons. The total in December fell to 17 ships (73,741 tons) which was still over half the total tonnage sunk in all theaters of operation at the time.