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With 1.5 million Russian forces facing just 1 million combined German and Austro-Hungarians the Russian prospects appeared good. Alexeev consequently chose to launch the offensive in the north where the numerical disparity was at its greatest. He therefore instructed General Kuropatkin's Northern Army Group to attack from the northeast towards Vilnius; the focus of the attack however was to be from the east of the city, led by General Smirnov's Second Army (part of Evert's Western Army Group) consisting of 350,000 men and 1,000 guns, against which were ranged just 75,000 men and 400 guns of Eichhorn's German Tenth Army.


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  • Nakay702
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以下のとおりお答えします。ドイツ軍の「手すき」と見込まれるところに攻撃を仕かけようというロシア軍の作戦を述べています。 >With 1.5 million Russian forces facing just 1 million combined German and Austro-Hungarians the Russian prospects appeared good. Alexeev consequently chose to launch the offensive in the north where the numerical disparity was at its greatest. ⇒150万人のロシア軍に、ちょうど100万人のドイツ軍とオーストリア-ハンガリー軍の結合軍とが対峙するので、ロシア軍の見込みはよさそうであった。その結果アレックスィーフは、数の相違が最大であった北部への攻撃を選んだ。 >He therefore instructed General Kuropatkin's Northern Army Group to attack from the northeast towards Vilnius; the focus of the attack however was to be from the east of the city, led by General Smirnov's Second Army (part of Evert's Western Army Group) consisting of 350,000 men and 1,000 guns, against which were ranged just 75,000 men and 400 guns of Eichhorn's German Tenth Army. ⇒したがって彼は、クロパトキン将軍の北部方面軍集団に対して北東からヴィルニュスに向って攻撃をしかけるように指示した。しかし攻撃は、都市の東に焦点が当てられた。指揮官はスミルノフ将軍で、その軍隊は350,000人の兵士と1,000丁の銃からなる彼の第2方面軍(およびエバートの西部方面隊グループの一部)であった。それに対峙したのが、アイヒホルンのドイツ軍第10方面軍、兵士75,000人と銃400丁であった。





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    The Battle of Erzincan (Russian: Эрзинджанское сражение, Turkish: Erzincan Muharebesi) was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. In February 1916, Nikolai Yudenich had taken the cities of Erzurum and Trabzon. Trabzon had provided the Russians with a port to receive reinforcements in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha ordered the Third Army, now under Vehip Pasha, to retake Trabzon. Vehip's attack failed and General Yudenich counterattacked on July 2. The Russian attack hit the Turkish communications center of Erzincan forcing Vehip's troops to retreat as well as losing 34,000 men, half taken as POWs. As a result, the Third Army was rendered ineffective for the rest of the year.

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    The number of Zurückgestellte increased from 1.2 million men, of whom 740,000 were deemed kriegsverwendungsfähig (kv, fit for front line service), at the end of 1916 to 1.64 million men in October 1917 and more than two million by November, 1.16 million being kv. The demands of the Hindenburg Programme exacerbated the manpower crisis and constraints on the availability of raw materials meant that targets were not met. The German army returned 125,000 skilled workers to the war economy and exempted 800,000 workers from conscription, from September 1916 – July 1917. Steel production in February 1917 was 252,000 long tons (256,000 t) short of expectations and explosives production was 1,100 long tons (1,100 t) below the target, which added to the pressure on Ludendorff to retreat to the Hindenburg Line.

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    The German forces in Flanders were homogeneous and had unity of command, against a composite force of British, Indian, French and Belgian troops, with different languages, training, tactics, equipment and weapons. German discipline and bravery was eventually defeated by the dogged resistance of the Allied soldiers, the effectiveness of French 75 mm field guns, British skill at arms, skilful use of ground and the use of cavalry as a mobile reserve. Bold counter-attacks by small numbers of troops in reserve, drawn from areas less threatened, often had an effect disproportionate to their numbers. German commentators after the war like Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant-Colonel) Konstantin Hierl criticised the slowness of the 6th Army in forming a strategic reserve which could have been achieved by 22 October rather than 29 October; generals had "attack-mania", in which offensive spirit and offensive tactics were often confused. Casualties From 15–31 October the III Corps lost 5,779 casualties, 2,069 men from the 4th Division and the remainder from the 6th Division. German casualties in the Battle of Lille from 15–28 October, which included the ground defended by III Corps, were 11,300 men. Total German losses from La Bassée to the sea from 13 October – 24 November were 123,910. The Battle of Messines was fought in October 1914 between the armies of the German and British empires, as part of the Race to the Sea, between the river Douve and the Comines–Ypres canal. From 17 September – 17 October the belligerents had made reciprocal attempts to turn the northern flank of their opponent. Joseph Joffre, the head of Grand Quartier Général (Chief of the General Staff) ordered the French Second Army to move to the north of the 6th Army, by transferring by rail from eastern France from 2–9 September. Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Oberste Heeresleitung (German General Staff) ordered the German 6th Army to move from the German-French border to the northern flank on 17 September. By the next day French attacks north of the Aisne, led to Falkenhayn ordering the 6th Army to repulse French forces to secure the flank. The Battle of Messines メセンの戦い

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    Thackeray, of the 3rd Battalion, as commander in Delville Wood. The 9th Division drew in its left flank and the 3rd Division (Major-General J. A. L. Haldane), was ordered to attack Longueval from the west during the night. Huge numbers of shells were fired into the wood and Lukin ordered the men into the north-western sector, to support the attack on Longueval due at 3:45 a.m. During the night, the German 3rd Guards Division advanced behind a creeping barrage of 116 field guns and over 70 medium guns. The Germans reached Buchanan and Princes streets, driving the South Africans back from their forward trenches, with many casualties.

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    The armies were to capture Passchendaele Ridge and advance on Roulers and Thourout, to cut the railway supplying the German garrisons holding the Western Front north of Ypres and the Belgian coast. An attack by the Fourth Army would then begin on the coast, combined with Operation Hush (including an amphibious landing) in support of the main advance to the Netherlands frontier. On 13 May, Haig appointed General Hubert Gough to command the Ypres operation and the coastal force; Macmullen gave Gough the GHQ 1917 plan the next day. Entente offensive preparations Gough held meetings with his Corps commanders on 6 and 16 June where the third objective of the GHQ 1917 plan, which included the German Wilhelm Stellung (third line), was added to the first and second objectives to be taken on the first day. A fourth objective was also given for the first day but was only to be attempted opportunistically, in places where the German defence had collapsed. Gough intended to use five divisions from the Second Army, nine divisions and one brigade from the Fifth Army and two divisions from the French First Army (1re Armée). Gough planned a preparatory bombardment from 16–25 July. The Second Army was to create the impression of a more ambitious attack beyond Messines Ridge, by capturing outposts in the Warneton line. The Fifth Army was to attack along a front of approximately 14,000 yards (13,000 m), running from Klein Zillebeke in the south to the Ypres–Staden railway in the north, with the French First Army on the northern flank attacking with two divisions, from the boundary with the XIV Corps north to the flooded area just beyond Steenstraat. The infantry trained on a replica of the German trench system, built using information from aerial photographs and trench raids. Specialist platoons were given additional training on methods to destroy German pillboxes and blockhouses. The attack was not a breakthrough attempt, for the German fourth-line defensive position (the Flandern I Stellung), lay 10,000–12,000 yards (9,100–11,000 m) behind the front line, well beyond the fourth objective (red line).

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    The main French offensive in the south began on 14 August when the First Army advanced with two corps into the Vosges and two corps north-east towards Sarrebourg and the two right-hand corps of the Second Army of General de Castelnau advanced on the left of the First Army. One corps and the Second Group of Reserve Divisions advanced slowly towards Morhange in echelon, as a flank guard against a German attack from Metz. The First Army had captured several passes further south since 8 August, to protect the southern flank as the army advanced to Donon and Sarrebourg. Despite warnings from Joffre against divergence, the army was required to advance towards the Vosges passes to the south-east, eastwards towards Donon and north-east towards Sarrebourg. German troops withdrew during the day, Donon was captured and on the left flank an advance of 10–12 kilometres (6.2–7.5 mi) was made. At dusk the 26th Division of the XIII Corps attacked Cirey and were engaged by artillery and machine-guns and repulsed with many casualties. On 15 August, the Second Army reported that German long-range artillery had been able to bombard the French artillery and infantry undisturbed and that dug-in German infantry had inflicted many casualties on the French as they attacked.

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    The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers' offensive on the Eastern Front in the winter of 1915. The offensive was intended to advance beyond the Vistula River and perhaps knock Russia out of the war. The Central Powers planned four offensives on their Eastern Front in early 1915. The Germans, led by Paul von Hindenburg, would attack eastward from their front line in western Poland, which had been occupied after the Battle of Łódź in 1914, toward the Vistula River and also in East Prussia in the vicinity of the Masurian Lakes (site of the 1914 Battle of the Masurian Lakes). The Austro-Hungarians would emerge from the Carpathian Mountain passes to attack the Russians by driving toward Lemberg. They would be led by General Alexander von Linsingen. Further south General Borojevic von Bojna would attempt to relieve the besieged fortress at Przemysl. German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn strongly believed that the war would be won on the Western Front. Nonetheless, he sent four additional army corps to Paul von Hindenburg, commander of their Eastern Front. By February 1915, thirty-six percent of the German field army was in the east. German Ninth Army attacked from Silesia into Poland at the end of January; they released tear gas, which stopped their assault by blowing back on the attackers. The Russians counterattacked with eleven divisions under a single corps commander, losing 40,000 men in three days. In East Prussia, further Russian incursions were blocked by trench lines extending between the Masurian Lakes; they were held by the German Eighth Army, commanded by General Otto von Below. The Eighth Army was reinforced by some of the newly arrived corps, while the rest of them became the German Tenth Army, commanded by Colonel-General Hermann von Eichhorn, which was formed on the German left. The Tenth Army was to be one wing of a pincers intended to surround their opponents: General Sievers' Russian Tenth Army. A new Russian Twelfth Army under General Pavel Plehve was assembling in Poland roughly 100 km (62 mi) to the southwest. The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes 第二次マズーリ湖攻勢

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    The German offensive began during the night of 3 September against the fortifications of the Grand Couronné, either side of Nancy, which pushed back the 2nd Group of Reserve Divisions, comprising the 59th, 68th and 70th Reserve Divisions under General Léon Durand, to the north and the XX Corps of General Balfourier to the south, by the evening of 4 September. In the afternoon of 5 September Castelnau telegraphed to Joffre that he proposed to evacuate Nancy, to preserve the fighting power of the army. Next day Joffre replied that the Second Army was to hold the area east of Nancy if at all possible and only then retire to a line from the Forest of Haye to Saffais, Belchamp and Borville. The civilian authorities in the city had begun preparations for an evacuation but the troops on the Grand Couronné repulsed German attacks on the right flank, during 5 September. The Reserve divisions were only pushed back a short distance on the front to the east and north of Nancy. An attempt by Moltke to withdraw troops from the 6th Army, to join a new 7th Army being formed for operations on the Oise failed when Rupprecht and Dellmensingen were backed by the Emperor who was at the 6th Army headquarters. German attacks continued on 6 September and the XX Corps conducted a counter-attack which gave the defenders a short period to recuperate but the troops of the 2nd Group of Reserve Divisions, east and north of Nancy, began to give way.

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    From his assessment of French defensive capability Schlieffen concluded that the German army would need at least 48.5 corps to succeed with an attack on France by way of Belgium, but Moltke planned to attack through Belgium with just 34 corps at his disposal in the west. The Schlieffen plan [sic] amounts to a critique of German strategy in 1914 since it clearly predicted the failure of Moltke’s underpowered invasion of France. [...] Moltke followed the trajectory of the Schlieffen plan, but only up to the point where it was painfully obvious that he would have needed the army of the Schlieffen plan to proceed any further along these lines.

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    The Battle Zone was also usually organised in three defensive systems, front, intermediate and rear, connected by communication trenches and switch lines, with the defenders concentrated in centres of resistance rather than in continuous lines. About 36 of the 110 infantry and pioneer battalions of the Fifth Army held the Forward Zone. Artillery, trench mortars and machine-guns were also arranged in depth, in positions chosen to allow counter-battery fire, harassing fire on transport routes, fire on assembly trenches and to be able to fire barrages along the front of the British positions at the first sign of attack. Artillery positions were also chosen to offer cover and concealment, with alternative positions on the flanks and to the rear. About ​2⁄3 of the artillery was in the Battle Zone, with a few guns further forward and some batteries were concealed and forbidden to fire before the German offensive began. The Germans chose to attack the sector around St. Quentin taken over by the British from February–April 1917, following the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line. Germany had begun construction of the Siegfried Stellung (Hindenburg Line) in September 1916, during the battle of the Somme. It stretched over 500 km (300 mi) from the Channel to the Moselle River and was built by Belgian and Russian prisoners of war. The strongest section was the salient at St. Quentin between Arras and Soissons. The line was 1.5 km (1 mi) deep with barbed wire in zig-zag lines of 15 m (50 ft), protecting three lines of trenches, interconnecting tunnels and strong points. In the rear were deep underground bunkers known as stollen (galleries) and artillery was hidden on reverse slopes. The Germans withdrew to this line in an operation codenamed Alberich over five weeks, during which time German High Command ordered a scorched earth policy. The ground abandoned in the retreat was laid waste, wells were poisoned, booby-traps laid and most towns and villages were destroyed. The attacking armies were spread along a 69-kilometre (43 mi) front between Arras, St. Quentin and La Fère. Ludendorff had assembled a force of 74 divisions, 6,600 guns, 3,500 mortars and 326 fighter aircraft, divided between the 17th Army (Otto von Below), 2nd Army (Georg von der Marwitz) of Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht (Army Group Rupprecht of Bavaria) and the 18th Army (General Oskar von Hutier), part of Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz (Army Group German Crown Prince) and the 7th Army.