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The German forces in Flanders were homogeneous and had unity of command, against a composite force of British, Indian, French and Belgian troops, with different languages, training, tactics, equipment and weapons. German discipline and bravery was eventually defeated by the dogged resistance of the Allied soldiers, the effectiveness of French 75 mm field guns, British skill at arms, skilful use of ground and the use of cavalry as a mobile reserve. Bold counter-attacks by small numbers of troops in reserve, drawn from areas less threatened, often had an effect disproportionate to their numbers. German commentators after the war like Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant-Colonel) Konstantin Hierl criticised the slowness of the 6th Army in forming a strategic reserve which could have been achieved by 22 October rather than 29 October; generals had "attack-mania", in which offensive spirit and offensive tactics were often confused. Casualties From 15–31 October the III Corps lost 5,779 casualties, 2,069 men from the 4th Division and the remainder from the 6th Division. German casualties in the Battle of Lille from 15–28 October, which included the ground defended by III Corps, were 11,300 men. Total German losses from La Bassée to the sea from 13 October – 24 November were 123,910. The Battle of Messines was fought in October 1914 between the armies of the German and British empires, as part of the Race to the Sea, between the river Douve and the Comines–Ypres canal. From 17 September – 17 October the belligerents had made reciprocal attempts to turn the northern flank of their opponent. Joseph Joffre, the head of Grand Quartier Général (Chief of the General Staff) ordered the French Second Army to move to the north of the 6th Army, by transferring by rail from eastern France from 2–9 September. Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Oberste Heeresleitung (German General Staff) ordered the German 6th Army to move from the German-French border to the northern flank on 17 September. By the next day French attacks north of the Aisne, led to Falkenhayn ordering the 6th Army to repulse French forces to secure the flank. The Battle of Messines メセンの戦い

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>The German forces in Flanders were homogeneous and had unity of command, against a composite force of British, Indian, French and Belgian troops, with different languages, training, tactics, equipment and weapons. German discipline and bravery was eventually defeated by the dogged resistance of the Allied soldiers, the effectiveness of French 75 mm field guns, British skill at arms, skilful use of ground and the use of cavalry as a mobile reserve. ⇒異なる言語、訓練、戦術、装備、武器を持つ英国、インド、フランス、ベルギーの軍団に対して、フランドルのドイツ軍団は同一等質であり、命令(系統)が統一されていた。(しかし)ドイツ軍の規律と勇気は、結局、連合国軍兵士の強固な抵抗、フランス軍の75ミリ野戦砲の有効性、英国軍の武器技能、地面(状況)の巧みな使用、および移動予備軍としての騎兵隊の使用などに敗れたのである。 >Bold counter-attacks by small numbers of troops in reserve, drawn from areas less threatened, often had an effect disproportionate to their numbers. German commentators after the war like Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant-Colonel) Konstantin Hierl criticised the slowness of the 6th Army in forming a strategic reserve which could have been achieved by 22 October rather than 29 October; generals had "attack-mania", in which offensive spirit and offensive tactics were often confused. ⇒あまり脅威にさらされていない地域から引き出された、少数の予備部隊による大胆な反攻撃は、多くの場合、彼らの員数に対して不釣り合いなほどの効果をもたらした。コンスタンチン・ヒエール中佐のような、戦後ドイツのコメンテーターは、10月29日ではなく10月22日までに達成されていたかもしれない戦略的準備の編成における、第6方面軍の遅鈍を批判した。将軍には「攻撃マニア(気性)」があり、攻撃精神(気力)と攻撃戦術とがしばしば混同されていた。 >Casualties  From 15–31 October the III Corps lost 5,779 casualties, 2,069 men from the 4th Division and the remainder from the 6th Division. German casualties in the Battle of Lille from 15–28 October, which included the ground defended by III Corps, were 11,300 men. Total German losses from La Bassée to the sea from 13 October – 24 November were 123,910. ⇒死傷者  10月15日-31日の間に、第III軍団は5,779人の死傷者を失ったが、(その内訳は)第4師団から2,069人、残りが第6師団からであった。10月15日-28日の第III軍団の防衛地を含み、「リールの戦い」におけるドイツ軍の死傷者は11,300人であった。10月13日-11月24日のラ・バセから海までの範囲におけるドイツ軍の総損失は123,910人であった。 > The Battle of Messines was fought in October 1914 between the armies of the German and British empires, as part of the Race to the Sea, between the river Douve and the Comines–Ypres canal. From 17 September – 17 October the belligerents had made reciprocal attempts to turn the northern flank of their opponent. Joseph Joffre, the head of Grand Quartier Général (Chief of the General Staff) ordered the French Second Army to move to the north of the 6th Army, by transferring by rail from eastern France from 2–9 September. Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Oberste Heeresleitung (German General Staff) ordered the German 6th Army to move from the German-French border to the northern flank on 17 September. By the next day French attacks north of the Aisne, led to Falkenhayn ordering the 6th Army to repulse French forces to secure the flank. ⇒「メセンの戦い」は、1914年10月にドイツと英帝国の方面軍同士の間で、「海への競争」の一部としてドゥーブ川とコミーヌ‐イープル運河間で戦われた。9月17日-10月17日、相互に対戦相手の北側面に回り込む画策をした。総参謀長のジョセフ・ジョフルは、フランス第2方面軍に対して、フランス東部から鉄道輸送によって9月2日-9日に第6方面軍の北に移動するよう命令した。ドイツ軍の参謀長エーリッヒ・フォン・ファルケンハインは、9月17日、ドイツ第6方面軍にドイツとフランスの国境から北側面へ移動するよう命じた。その翌日にフランス軍がエーヌ北部を攻撃したので、ファルケンハインは第6方面軍にフランス軍団を撃退して側面を確保するよう命じた。

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    In May, Falkenhayn estimated that the French had lost 525,000 men against 250,000 German casualties and that the French strategic reserve had been reduced to 300,000 troops. Actual French losses were c. 130,000 by 1 May and the Noria system had enabled 42 divisions to be withdrawn and rested, when their casualties reached 50 percent. Of the 330 infantry battalions of the French metropolitan army, 259 (78 percent) went to Verdun, against 48 German divisions, 25 percent of the Westheer (western army). Afflerbach wrote that 85 French divisions fought at Verdun and that from February to August, the ratio of German to French losses was 1:1.1, not the third of French losses assumed by Falkenhayn. By 31 August, 5th Army losses were 281,000 and French casualties numbered 315,000 men.

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    In The World Crisis, Winston Churchill used figures from French parliamentary records of 1920, to give French casualties from 5 August to 5 September 1914 of 329,000 killed, wounded and missing, German casualties from August to November of 677,440 men and British casualties in August and September of 29,598 men. By the end of August, the French Army had suffered 75,000 dead, of whom 27,000 were killed on 22 August. French casualties for the first month of the war were 260,000, of which 140,000 occurred during the last four days of the Battle of the Frontiers. In 2009, Herwig recorded that the casualties in the 6th Army in August were 34,598, with 11,476 men killed and 28,957 in September with 6,687 men killed. The 7th Army had 32,054 casualties in August, with 10,328 men killed and 31,887 casualties in September with 10,384 men killed. In the 1st Army in August there were 19,980 casualties including 2,863 men killed and in the 2nd Army 26,222 casualties. In the last ten days of August, the 1st Army had 9,644 casualties and the 2nd Army had losses of 15,693 men. Herwig wrote that the French army did not publish formal casualty lists but that the Official History Les armées françaises dans la grande guerre gave losses of 206,515 men for August and 213,445 for September. During the battle, French casualties were c. 260,000 men, of whom c. 75,000 men were killed.

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    The initiative held by the Germans in August was not recovered as all troop movements to the right flank were piecemeal. Until the end of the Siege of Maubeuge (24 August – 7 September), only the single line from Trier to Liège, Brussels, Valenciennes and Cambrai was available and had to be used to supply the German armies on the right, while the 6th Army travelled in the opposite direction, limiting the army to forty trains a day, that took four days to move a corps. Information on German troop movements from wireless interception, enabled the French to forestall German moves but the Germans had to rely on reports from spies, which were frequently wrong. The French resorted to more cautious infantry tactics, using cover to reduce casualties and centralised command as the German army commanders followed contradictory plans. The French did not need to obtain a quick decisive result and could concentrate on preserving the French army by parrying German blows. The Battle of La Bassée was fought by German and Franco-British forces in northern France in October 1914, during reciprocal attempts by the contending armies to envelop the northern flank of their opponent, which has been called the Race to the Sea. The German 6th Army took Lille before a British force could secure the town and the 4th Army attacked the exposed British flank further north at Ypres. The British were driven back and the German army occupied La Bassée and Neuve Chapelle. Around 15 October, the British recaptured Givenchy-lès-la-Bassée but failed to recover La Bassée. German reinforcements arrived and regained the initiative, until the arrival of the Lahore Division, part of the Indian Corps. The British repulsed German attacks until early November, after which both sides concentrated their resources on the First Battle of Ypres. The battle at La Bassée was reduced to local operations. In late January and early February 1915, German and British troops conducted raids and local attacks in the Affairs of Cuinchy, which took place at Givenchy-lès-la-Bassée and just south of La Bassée Canal, leaving the front line little changed. From 17 September to 17 October the belligerents had tried to turn the northern flank of their opponent. Joffre ordered the French Second Army to move to the north of the French Sixth Army, by moving from eastern France from 2 to 9 September and Falkenhayn ordered the German 6th Army to move from the German-French border to the northern flank on 17 September. Next day, French attacks north of the Aisne led to Falkenhayn to order the 6th Army to repulse the French and secure the flank. La Bassée ラ・バセ

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