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お願いします (16) For the lucky children, there was school (but it was rare for a girl to be that lucky). Education was a privilege for a select few. The majority of children never learned to read or write. Education began for children at about five years old. Those who did go to school walked, carrying a lunch of bread cakes and drinks. Or, if they were wealthy enough, tutors came to their home. During the Middle Kingdom, temples and palaces built Houses of Instruction where a chosen group of boys trained for their future jobs. In school, children sat cross-legged on the floor and recited passages over and over and over again. When they knew the sayings by heart they would write them over and over and over again. Papyrus was too expensive to waste on school children, so students practiced their penmanship with reed brushes and ink cakes (just like watercolors) on polished limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the student's future, he would learn arithmetic, too. Teachers expected their students to work hard and were quick to whip those who didn't. One scribe wrote, "Don't waste your day in idleness, or you will be flogged. A boy's ear is on his back. He listens when he is beaten." (17) At 12 or 14 it was time to marry and begin a family. For in the words of a New Kingdom scribe, "Take to yourselves a wife while you are young, so that she may give you a son. You should begat him for yourself when you are still young, and should live to see him become a man." And above all, "Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing!"


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(16) 幸運な子供たちにとっては、学校がありました(しかし、女の子がそれほど幸運であることは珍しかったです)。 教育は、選ばれた少数の人々の特権でした。 大多数の子供たちは、読み書きを決して学びませんでした。 教育は、5才くらいの子供たちに対して始まりました。実際に学校に通う子供たちは、徒歩通学で、パン、ケーキ、飲物の昼食を携えていました。 あるいは、彼らが十分に裕福であるならば、家庭教師が、彼らの家に来ました。 中王国の頃、寺院や宮殿は、男の子の選ばれたグループが、彼らの将来の職業に備えて訓練を受ける「教育の館」を建てていました。学校では、子供たちは床にあぐらをかいて座り、文章を何度も何度も繰り返し復唱しました。 彼らが、格言を暗記すると、彼らは、それらを何度も何度も繰り返し書きました。パピルスは、学童に無駄遣いさせるにはあまりに高価だったので、学生は、葦の筆や固形の墨(水彩絵の具に似ている)を使って、磨かれた石灰岩や陶器の破片の上で彼らの習字の練習をしました。 徴税が、その生徒の将来の職業であるならば、彼は、算数も学んだことでしょう。 先生は、彼らの学生が勤勉であることを期待し、そうでない者は、すぐにむち打ちました。 1人の書記は書きました。「一日を怠惰に無駄に過ごしてはいけない、そうしないと、あなたは鞭で打たれます。 少年の耳は、彼の背中にあります。 叩かれるときも、彼は聞き耳を立てています。」 (17) 12才から14才が、結婚して、家族を持つ年齢でした。 なぜなら、新王国の書記の言葉に「若い時に妻を娶りなさい、そうすれば、彼女はあなたに息子を与えてくれます。 まだ若いとき、あなたは息子をもうけなさい、そして、彼が一人前になるのを見るまで生きなさい。」 そして、とりわけ、「休日をもうけなさい! そして、遊ぶことに飽きてはいけません!」





  • 大大大至急!!日本語訳お願いします!

    parents today ,say some social critics ,have a special dilemma to deal with. on the one hand,there is the pressure of competition the need for mons and dads to give their kids a head stars in life , to make sure their sons and daughter keep ahead of their peers in the race to success. As a result,parents push kids to grow up too fast , boasting that their boy or girl is already reading at age two, for example, or taking college level math courses in middle school .on the other hand, modern society is fraught with dangers of all kinds (particularly what the BBS calls the sexualization and commercialization of childhood by TV , movies,games,and ads that target kids ) to which parents respond by helicopter their children,hovering over them, solving all their problems,overprotecting them.

  • 日本語訳を!(9)

    お願いします (1) If you became sick in ancient times, Egypt was where you would want to be. It offered the best medical care. The Greek poet Homer writes in about 725 BCE in the Odyssey about Egyptian doctors, "In medical knowledge the Egyptian leaves the rest of the world behind." Egyptians began practicing medicine by applying salves to the eyes as long as 6,000 years ago, and over the millennia their skills became world renowned, so much so that rulers of other countries sent for Egyptian doctors to cure their ills. Their treatments may sound primitive to us, but no doubt 6,000 years from now our "modern medicine" will seem positively barbaric to future scientists. (2) In many ways, medicine in ancient Egypt was like medicine today. Doctors then studied for many years in medical schools called peru-ankh, or "houses of life." They studied textbooks to learn how to recognize diseases by their symptoms and hat to do to cure the patient. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes, "They administer their treatments in accordance with a written law which was composed in ancient times by many famous physicians." (3) The Ebers Papyrus is one of the oldest medical documents from anywhere in the ancient world. The papyrus scroll is more than 60 feet long and is inscribed on both sides. Some of the cures don't sound too bad. For indigestion the Ebers Papyrus advises patients to "crush a hog's tooth and put it inside four sugar cakes. Eat for four days." But other cures sound pretty disgusting. For a cut, "after the scab has fallen off put on it: Scribe's excrement. Mix in fresh milk and apply as a poultice."

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    In much of the world, authority is not challenged, either out of respect or out of fear, and, sometimes because a hierarchy of rank has been fixed for so long that people have been trained for generations never to challenge it. In such countries children are not expected to question their teachers in school, and brilliant young scholars or inventive industrial geniuses are hampered in technical research because they hesitate to disagree with their "superiors." Clever researchers may be considered too young to have any right to present findings that contradict the knowledge and wisdom of their elders. The American is trained from childhood to question, analyze, search. "Go and look it up for yourself;’’ a child will be told. In many schools tasks are designed to stimulate the use of a wide range of materials. An assignment to "Write a paper on the world's supply of sugar," for example, will send even a young child in search of completely unfamiliar ideas. Even in the primary grades children are taught to use libraries and to search for new ideas. By the time they are 14, 15, or 16, many young scholars are making original and valuable contributions in all fields of science. Industry is so aware of this untouched resource that each year, through national competitions, it offers awards to teenagers in order to seek out (and later employ) young people with brilliant, inquiring minds.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(1)

    お願いします。 (1) What if you were an Egyptian tomb builder? Life for you 4,500 years ago may have gone this way: The barge floated upstream, bumping to a stop at the dock alongside a small farming village located a week's journey south of the capital of Mennefer. The king's men disembarked and marched double file over the pier heading for the village center. Word of their arrival rippled from house to mud-brick house. Men and women trickled out of their homes and formed a loose ring around the king's messengers. Curious and shy, the youngest children peeked out from behind their mother's legs. One of the king's men―a scribe―unrolled a scroll and held it at arm's length. He shouted out names. You caught your breath. Would you be on the list? (2) Your grandfather set the first stones in King Khufu's mer. Now 20 years later, the eternal home is nearly finished, but there is still much work to be done. A king's eternal home is more than just a mer . There are temples and causeways and walls and the queen's tombs to be built. A papyrus inscription, called the Turin Papyrus, written long after you had traveled to the afterlife, and long after kings had stopped being buried at Giza, claims the Great Pyramid was built in less than 23 years. But for all the years you can remember, you have watched your friends board the king's barge when he harvest was done. When the floods receded, and they came back, the women fussed over them, and the men treated them with respect. You caught them sometimes walking with a swagger. They had seen the world. (3) Not everyone came home. Those that came back brought news of the ones that stayed. They had married and had children and learned trades other than farming. They chose to stay on at the Giza Plateau and work for the king. (4) For two weeks now you have felt the restlessness of the flood time. If the king's men call your name, will you be one who never returns? Will this be the last time you see your village and your family?

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願い (4) The general layout of an Egyptian house was the same whether you were rich or poor―in fact, not just rich or poor, but also dead or alive, since tombs (and temples) followed the same design. If you were to visit a typical worker's home, you would pull aside the burlaplike cloth flap covering the doorway, which kept flies and dust out, and step into the entrance hall. There might be a sheep or donkey, pausing mid-chew to watch you pass though. Did a flea from the animal jump onto your head? Or did the flea jump off you onto the animal? In a hot, sandy environment fleas are a fact of life. Even though the Egyptians shaved their bodies from head to toe to keep the fleas and lice from having place to hide, they were a constant problem. It must have been difficult to fall asleep with the fleas biting. The Ebers Papyrus had many housekeeping hints to keep scratching to a minimun and pests away. "To expel fleas in a house: sprinkle it throughout with natron water. To prevent mice from approaching: fat of cat is placed on all things. To prevent a serpent from coming out of its hole...a bulb of onion is placed in the opening of the hole and it will not come out." (5) The village of Deir el-Medina was home to well-paid tomb builders. Houses had real wooden doors and doorframes carved out of limestone, often inscribed with the home owner's name. The residents painted their doors red to repel demons. Beyond the entrance, you would enter a room for receiving guests. Egyptians owned very little furniture. You might sit on a woven mat or perhaps a stool. Only the very wealthy had chairs. Homeowners placed statues of the gods into wall niches, but otherwise had none of the knickknacks modern families often like to collect. At Deir el-Medina one homeowner, concerned about leaving his valuables behind, took an inventory and asked that a house sitter watch over things while he was away. The letter gives us an idea of what a typical Deir el-Medina household might contain.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) The Ka, on the other hand, was stuck in the tomb. It had to stay with the body. In order to survive, the Ka needed to eat and drink. Friends and family of the dead person would bring offerings to the tomb for the Ka. They even brought clothing for it. The Ka needed the corpse, or the spirit would perish―and if it perished, good-bye Field of Reeds. In an emergency situation, the Ka could use a statue that looked like the deceased as a fallback body. Or it could even occupy a picture of the deceased on the tomb wall. Pharaohs paid artisans to recreate their images everywhere. A forgotten pharaoh was doomed. No sense taking chances. (5) The Akh was the spirit that represented immortality. It could shine with the stars at night and the sun in the day, or live forever in the Field of Reeds. The three spirits' main responsibility was to make sure that the dead person lived forever. Their job was to gain entrance to the Field of Reeds. And here's where it got tricky, because entering the Field of Reeds was as challenging as any video game. (6) When a person died, his or her spirit took off toward the setting sun and entered the dangerous Underworld. After a long journey the spirits arrived at a labyrinth of gates and doors. The gatekeepers and the magical doors would quiz the spirits. "I will not let xou through me," says the jamb of the door, "unless you tell me my name." "I will not open for you," says the bolt of the door, "unless you tell me my name." (7) There were many names to memorize in order to open the doors, names such as "She Who Licks Her Calves" and "He Who Cuts Up An Opponent" and "Toe of His Mother." Call one tormentor by the wrong name and you were condemned to haunt your own grave and wander the desert moaning through eternity.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (17) Thousands of workers descended on Amarna, intent on raising a city. Brick makers poured mud from the riverbank into wooden molds then turned the bricks out to dry in the desert heat. Stone workers cut blocks from the quarries with bronze chisels and wooden mallets. In just four years the city was in full operation with commuters riding their donkeys from the suburbs in the north and south to the center of the city. (18) The largest structure in Amarna was the royal residence, of course. Built half on one side of the road, and half on the other, the east and west wings of the palace were connected by an overpass. The overpass was called the "Window of Appearances." From there Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their children would greet the crowds gathered on the road below. (19) The new temple at Amarna was nothing like the old gloomy houses for the gods. The open courtyard allowed the Aten's rays to shine in. The rambling open-air place of worship stretched the length of two football fields, empty except for small stands to place food offerings, one for each day of the year.

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    1 What information do you learn about the speaker and their background? 2 What supporting details or example does the speaker use to support their idea ? 3 How does the speaker engage the audience? For example, using images, charts, humor, actions. 4 What is your opinion of the talk? What words or phrases would you use to describe it? 5 What language is the video was new to you? Make a note of three words or phrases that the speaker used. Write a sentence of difinition for each one. 上記のものはTED Talkについての質問なのですがいまいち質問の意味がわかりません。教えていただけると嬉しいです。

  • 17-5日本語訳

    お願いします。  The people of ancient India,like those of ancient Rome,used a counting board to keep track of sums.A counting board had columns marked off,each standing for units of 1,10,100,and so on.You put pebbles or other counters in each column to stand for your number.So far,so good,you could easily record how many pebbles were in each column.But if one of the columns was empty,things got sticky.Without zero,two ones could stand for one 100 and one 1,or one 10 and one 1,or-you get the idea.Finally,someone had the bright idea of putting a small dot(which later became a circle)wherever there was an empty column.In fact,the Sanskrit word for zero is shunya,which means“empty.”  By making arithmetic easier,the invention of zero has probably had more impact on the daily lives of people than any other scientific or technological discovery from ancient India.But if you'd asked a Mauryan emperor like Chandragupta what invention was most important to the strength of his kingdom,he probably would have told you the process of smelting iron.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) Ever the fastidious record keepers, Egyptians registered the child's name. All births, marriages, and deaths were recorded by the diligent scribes. Just as marriage required only a simple announcement to the proper authorities, so it was with a new child. To register a child the parents merely had to say something like what one princess said: "I gave birth to this baby that you see, who was named Merab and whose name was entered into the registers of the House of Life." (8) For the first three years a mother carried her baby around in a sling. One scribe tells children they should be appreciative. "Repay your mother for all her care. Give her as much bread as the needs, and carry her as she carried you, for you were a heavy burden to her." Breastfeeding for those first three years protected children from parasites in the drinking water. Digestive diseases were the most common illnesses for children. Mothers of sick children might recite this spell to ward off the evil spirit they thought to be the root of the problem: "Come on out, visitor from the darkness.... Have you come to do it harm? I forbid this! I have made ready for its protection a potion from the poisonous afat herb, from garlic which is bad for you, from honey which is sweet for the living but bitter for the dead."