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お願いします (16) For the lucky children, there was school (but it was rare for a girl to be that lucky). Education was a privilege for a select few. The majority of children never learned to read or write. Education began for children at about five years old. Those who did go to school walked, carrying a lunch of bread cakes and drinks. Or, if they were wealthy enough, tutors came to their home. During the Middle Kingdom, temples and palaces built Houses of Instruction where a chosen group of boys trained for their future jobs. In school, children sat cross-legged on the floor and recited passages over and over and over again. When they knew the sayings by heart they would write them over and over and over again. Papyrus was too expensive to waste on school children, so students practiced their penmanship with reed brushes and ink cakes (just like watercolors) on polished limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the student's future, he would learn arithmetic, too. Teachers expected their students to work hard and were quick to whip those who didn't. One scribe wrote, "Don't waste your day in idleness, or you will be flogged. A boy's ear is on his back. He listens when he is beaten." (17) At 12 or 14 it was time to marry and begin a family. For in the words of a New Kingdom scribe, "Take to yourselves a wife while you are young, so that she may give you a son. You should begat him for yourself when you are still young, and should live to see him become a man." And above all, "Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing!"


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(16) 幸運な子供たちにとっては、学校がありました(しかし、女の子がそれほど幸運であることは珍しかったです)。 教育は、選ばれた少数の人々の特権でした。 大多数の子供たちは、読み書きを決して学びませんでした。 教育は、5才くらいの子供たちに対して始まりました。実際に学校に通う子供たちは、徒歩通学で、パン、ケーキ、飲物の昼食を携えていました。 あるいは、彼らが十分に裕福であるならば、家庭教師が、彼らの家に来ました。 中王国の頃、寺院や宮殿は、男の子の選ばれたグループが、彼らの将来の職業に備えて訓練を受ける「教育の館」を建てていました。学校では、子供たちは床にあぐらをかいて座り、文章を何度も何度も繰り返し復唱しました。 彼らが、格言を暗記すると、彼らは、それらを何度も何度も繰り返し書きました。パピルスは、学童に無駄遣いさせるにはあまりに高価だったので、学生は、葦の筆や固形の墨(水彩絵の具に似ている)を使って、磨かれた石灰岩や陶器の破片の上で彼らの習字の練習をしました。 徴税が、その生徒の将来の職業であるならば、彼は、算数も学んだことでしょう。 先生は、彼らの学生が勤勉であることを期待し、そうでない者は、すぐにむち打ちました。 1人の書記は書きました。「一日を怠惰に無駄に過ごしてはいけない、そうしないと、あなたは鞭で打たれます。 少年の耳は、彼の背中にあります。 叩かれるときも、彼は聞き耳を立てています。」 (17) 12才から14才が、結婚して、家族を持つ年齢でした。 なぜなら、新王国の書記の言葉に「若い時に妻を娶りなさい、そうすれば、彼女はあなたに息子を与えてくれます。 まだ若いとき、あなたは息子をもうけなさい、そして、彼が一人前になるのを見るまで生きなさい。」 そして、とりわけ、「休日をもうけなさい! そして、遊ぶことに飽きてはいけません!」





  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

    お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (17) Thousands of workers descended on Amarna, intent on raising a city. Brick makers poured mud from the riverbank into wooden molds then turned the bricks out to dry in the desert heat. Stone workers cut blocks from the quarries with bronze chisels and wooden mallets. In just four years the city was in full operation with commuters riding their donkeys from the suburbs in the north and south to the center of the city. (18) The largest structure in Amarna was the royal residence, of course. Built half on one side of the road, and half on the other, the east and west wings of the palace were connected by an overpass. The overpass was called the "Window of Appearances." From there Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their children would greet the crowds gathered on the road below. (19) The new temple at Amarna was nothing like the old gloomy houses for the gods. The open courtyard allowed the Aten's rays to shine in. The rambling open-air place of worship stretched the length of two football fields, empty except for small stands to place food offerings, one for each day of the year.

  • 日本語訳を!(9)

    お願いします (1) If you became sick in ancient times, Egypt was where you would want to be. It offered the best medical care. The Greek poet Homer writes in about 725 BCE in the Odyssey about Egyptian doctors, "In medical knowledge the Egyptian leaves the rest of the world behind." Egyptians began practicing medicine by applying salves to the eyes as long as 6,000 years ago, and over the millennia their skills became world renowned, so much so that rulers of other countries sent for Egyptian doctors to cure their ills. Their treatments may sound primitive to us, but no doubt 6,000 years from now our "modern medicine" will seem positively barbaric to future scientists. (2) In many ways, medicine in ancient Egypt was like medicine today. Doctors then studied for many years in medical schools called peru-ankh, or "houses of life." They studied textbooks to learn how to recognize diseases by their symptoms and hat to do to cure the patient. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes, "They administer their treatments in accordance with a written law which was composed in ancient times by many famous physicians." (3) The Ebers Papyrus is one of the oldest medical documents from anywhere in the ancient world. The papyrus scroll is more than 60 feet long and is inscribed on both sides. Some of the cures don't sound too bad. For indigestion the Ebers Papyrus advises patients to "crush a hog's tooth and put it inside four sugar cakes. Eat for four days." But other cures sound pretty disgusting. For a cut, "after the scab has fallen off put on it: Scribe's excrement. Mix in fresh milk and apply as a poultice."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) Ever the fastidious record keepers, Egyptians registered the child's name. All births, marriages, and deaths were recorded by the diligent scribes. Just as marriage required only a simple announcement to the proper authorities, so it was with a new child. To register a child the parents merely had to say something like what one princess said: "I gave birth to this baby that you see, who was named Merab and whose name was entered into the registers of the House of Life." (8) For the first three years a mother carried her baby around in a sling. One scribe tells children they should be appreciative. "Repay your mother for all her care. Give her as much bread as the needs, and carry her as she carried you, for you were a heavy burden to her." Breastfeeding for those first three years protected children from parasites in the drinking water. Digestive diseases were the most common illnesses for children. Mothers of sick children might recite this spell to ward off the evil spirit they thought to be the root of the problem: "Come on out, visitor from the darkness.... Have you come to do it harm? I forbid this! I have made ready for its protection a potion from the poisonous afat herb, from garlic which is bad for you, from honey which is sweet for the living but bitter for the dead."

  • 日本語訳を!!8

    お願いします (1) Spartacus was born into a world of comfort and freedom. His father may even have been a nobleman. And yet Spartacus died a Roman slave. (2) Ancient writers give us only a sketchy outline of Spartacus's early years, but he was probably born in Thrace on the eastern fringe of Rome's huge empire. He served in the Roman army for a while but then deserted. Now instead of fighting to defend Rome, he became a rebel and a robber. (3) When the Romans captured him, they made him a slave and put him on the auction block. Whoever offered the most money would own him. Like all slaves in ancient Rome, Spartacus could be bought and sold as easily as a pottery bowl or a bundle of grain. If he got into trouble or tried to escape, he might be forced to wear a metal band around his neck. On one of these collars, now in a museum, are the words:“I have run away. Capture me. When you have returned me to my master...you will get a reward.”He might have had a brand on his face, made with a sizzling-hot iron. He could not own land or vote. He could not marry legally, and his children would be born into slavery. He could not choose his work; his master would make that decision. (4) Many foreign slaves, mostly prisoners of war, did the backbreaking work of building roads and aqueducts. Another unpleasant job was cleaning the public toilets and baths. But one of the worst places to work was in the silver mines of Spain. This was often the fate of slaves who had been convicted of crimes. The Greek historian Diodorus describes the lives of these men: Their bodies are worn down from working in the mine shafts both day and night. Many die because of the terrible treatment they suffer. They are given no rest or break from their work but are forced by the whiplashes of their overseers to endure the most dreadful hardships.... They often pray more for death than for life.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-1

    お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

  • 日本語訳を教えてください(かなり長文です)(5)

    Why Chinese Mothers Are Superiorという記事の日本語訳教えてください。お願いします。 (And it's true that Chinese mothers get in the trenches, putting in long grueling hours personally tutoring, training, interrogating and spying on their kids.) Anyway, the understanding is that Chinese children must spend their lives repaying their parents by obeying them and making them proud. By contrast, I don't think most Westerners have the same view of children being permanently indebted to their parents. My husband, Jed, actually has the opposite view. "Children don't choose their parents," he once said to me. "They don't even choose to be born. It's parents who foist life on their kids, so it's the parents' responsibility to provide for them. Kids don't owe their parents anything. Their duty will be to their own kids." This strikes me as a terrible deal for the Western parent. Third, Chinese parents believe that they know what is best for their children and therefore override all of their children's own desires and preferences. That's why Chinese daughters can't have boyfriends in high school and why Chinese kids can't go to sleepaway camp. It's also why no Chinese kid would ever dare say to their mother, "I got a part in the school play! I'm Villager Number Six. I'll have to stay after school for rehearsal every day from 3:00 to 7:00, and I'll also need a ride on weekends." God help any Chinese kid who tried that one. Don't get me wrong: It's not that Chinese parents don't care about their children. Just the opposite. They would give up anything for their children. It's just an entirely different parenting model. Here's a story in favor of coercion, Chinese-style. Lulu was about 7, still playing two instruments, and working on a piano piece called "The Little White Donkey" by the French composer Jacques Ibert.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-6

    お願いします!!続き When did you begin to go on digs?While I was in college.But I started late.Some of my colleagues started when they were kids by going to day programs where you'd volunteer for a day and do some digging. Did you decide to go to South Asia because that's where your professors were working?No.Not at all.I had to work really hard to get over there.I knew I wanted to work nn ancient cities,but there are lots of places where I could that.I'm erom southern California,kind of he ddge nf the desert,and it's what I was used to,so I wanted to work some place arid,where you aren't tortured to death by bugs.I also wanted to go somewhere the snakes stay on the ground instead of dropping on you.My undergraduate professors at Rice University worked in West Africa,where there is completely fascinating archaeology,but way too many too diseases. What did you do at Harappa?I looked for kiln sites,to see where in the city people were manufacturing pottery,copper,faience,and other things.I did what's called a total walkover.That means I walked over the entire surface of the site at onemeter intervals with a very good assistant looking for a special type of debris characteristic of these crafts.You get melted bits of pottery,or pieces of crucible [small pots used for melting metal] with a little bit of metal left on it.We found that they were manufacturing in lots of different parts of the city.There wasn't a special quarter,like an industrial park.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (8) Much of what we know about the war with the Hyksos comes from the tomb of an Egyptian officer. Ahmose, son of Ibana, inscribed on the columns and walls of his tomb details of the many battles he fought with the Hyksos. "I was taken to the ship Northern, because I was brave. I followed the king on foot when he rode about on his chariot. When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty's presence." Ahmose was rewarded for his valor, he "was appointed to the ship Rising in Memphis. Then there was fighting on the water...I made a seizure and carried off a hand." To keep track of the number of enemy soldiers killed, it was the custom to cut off a hand and present it to the king. (9) For his victories―and the hands that went with them―Ahmose, son of Ibana, was awarded seven times the medal of honor called the Golden Fly. The Golden Fly was a gilded pin shaped like a horsefly. Although the horsefly may seem like an odd shape for a war medal,the Egyptians chose it because the horsefly was the tormentor of beasts. This medal of honor was presented only to the bravest soldiers. (10) A Roman historian writing in the first century CE, Josephus, tells us how it turned out in the end for the Hyksos.  They enclosed Avaris with a high strong wall in order to safeguard all their possessions and spoils. The Egyptian king attempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockading the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt. (11) Archaeologists working at Avaris don't see evidence of a mass slaughter. They believe the Hyksos were expelled and took their possessions with them. One way or the other the message was the same: Hands off Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願い (4) The general layout of an Egyptian house was the same whether you were rich or poor―in fact, not just rich or poor, but also dead or alive, since tombs (and temples) followed the same design. If you were to visit a typical worker's home, you would pull aside the burlaplike cloth flap covering the doorway, which kept flies and dust out, and step into the entrance hall. There might be a sheep or donkey, pausing mid-chew to watch you pass though. Did a flea from the animal jump onto your head? Or did the flea jump off you onto the animal? In a hot, sandy environment fleas are a fact of life. Even though the Egyptians shaved their bodies from head to toe to keep the fleas and lice from having place to hide, they were a constant problem. It must have been difficult to fall asleep with the fleas biting. The Ebers Papyrus had many housekeeping hints to keep scratching to a minimun and pests away. "To expel fleas in a house: sprinkle it throughout with natron water. To prevent mice from approaching: fat of cat is placed on all things. To prevent a serpent from coming out of its hole...a bulb of onion is placed in the opening of the hole and it will not come out." (5) The village of Deir el-Medina was home to well-paid tomb builders. Houses had real wooden doors and doorframes carved out of limestone, often inscribed with the home owner's name. The residents painted their doors red to repel demons. Beyond the entrance, you would enter a room for receiving guests. Egyptians owned very little furniture. You might sit on a woven mat or perhaps a stool. Only the very wealthy had chairs. Homeowners placed statues of the gods into wall niches, but otherwise had none of the knickknacks modern families often like to collect. At Deir el-Medina one homeowner, concerned about leaving his valuables behind, took an inventory and asked that a house sitter watch over things while he was away. The letter gives us an idea of what a typical Deir el-Medina household might contain.