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お願いします (1) If you became sick in ancient times, Egypt was where you would want to be. It offered the best medical care. The Greek poet Homer writes in about 725 BCE in the Odyssey about Egyptian doctors, "In medical knowledge the Egyptian leaves the rest of the world behind." Egyptians began practicing medicine by applying salves to the eyes as long as 6,000 years ago, and over the millennia their skills became world renowned, so much so that rulers of other countries sent for Egyptian doctors to cure their ills. Their treatments may sound primitive to us, but no doubt 6,000 years from now our "modern medicine" will seem positively barbaric to future scientists. (2) In many ways, medicine in ancient Egypt was like medicine today. Doctors then studied for many years in medical schools called peru-ankh, or "houses of life." They studied textbooks to learn how to recognize diseases by their symptoms and hat to do to cure the patient. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes, "They administer their treatments in accordance with a written law which was composed in ancient times by many famous physicians." (3) The Ebers Papyrus is one of the oldest medical documents from anywhere in the ancient world. The papyrus scroll is more than 60 feet long and is inscribed on both sides. Some of the cures don't sound too bad. For indigestion the Ebers Papyrus advises patients to "crush a hog's tooth and put it inside four sugar cakes. Eat for four days." But other cures sound pretty disgusting. For a cut, "after the scab has fallen off put on it: Scribe's excrement. Mix in fresh milk and apply as a poultice."

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(1) 古代にあなたが病気になるならば、エジプトは、あなたが、そこにいたいと思う場所でした。 そこは、最高の治療を提供しました。 「医学知識において、エジプト人は、他の世界の追随を許さない。」と、紀元前725年頃に、ギリシアの詩人ホメロスは、エジプトの医者についてオディセイの中で書いています。 エジプト人は、6,000年も前に目に膏薬を塗ることから医術を行い始めました、そして、千年の間に、彼らの技術は、世界的に有名になり、あまりにも有名になったので、他の国の君主が、彼らの病気を治療するためにエジプトの医者を呼びにやったほどでした。彼らの治療は、我々にとっては原始的に聞こえるかもしれませんが、間違いなく、今から6,000年後には、我々の「現代医療」も、未来の科学者には、明らかに野蛮に思えることでしょう。 (2) 多くの点で、古代エジプトの医療は、今日の医療に似ていました。 当時、医者は、ぺルアンクすなわち「生命の家」と呼ばれる医学校で、長年勉強しました。症状からどのようにして病気を知るか、そして、患者を治療するために何をするべきかを学ぶために、彼らは教科書を勉強しました。 「多くの有名な医者によって古代に確立された書かれた法則に従って、彼らは、治療を行います。」と、ギリシアの歴史家ディオドロス・シクルスは書いています。 (3) エーバース・パピルスは、古代の世界のどこにでもあった最も古い医学文書の1つです。パピルスの巻物は、長さ60フィート以上で、両面に書かれています。 治療の中には、あまり酷くない様に思えるものもあります。 消化不良に対して、エーバース・パピルスは、患者に「豚の歯を押しつぶして、それを4個の砂糖菓子に入れ、 4日の間食べなさい。」と勧めます。 しかし、かなり気持ち悪いと思われる治療もあります。 切り傷に対して、「かさぶたが落ちたあと、それに以下のものを付けなさい: 書記の排泄物。 新鮮なミルクに混ぜて、湿布薬として塗布しなさい。」

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