• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


お願いします (1) If you became sick in ancient times, Egypt was where you would want to be. It offered the best medical care. The Greek poet Homer writes in about 725 BCE in the Odyssey about Egyptian doctors, "In medical knowledge the Egyptian leaves the rest of the world behind." Egyptians began practicing medicine by applying salves to the eyes as long as 6,000 years ago, and over the millennia their skills became world renowned, so much so that rulers of other countries sent for Egyptian doctors to cure their ills. Their treatments may sound primitive to us, but no doubt 6,000 years from now our "modern medicine" will seem positively barbaric to future scientists. (2) In many ways, medicine in ancient Egypt was like medicine today. Doctors then studied for many years in medical schools called peru-ankh, or "houses of life." They studied textbooks to learn how to recognize diseases by their symptoms and hat to do to cure the patient. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes, "They administer their treatments in accordance with a written law which was composed in ancient times by many famous physicians." (3) The Ebers Papyrus is one of the oldest medical documents from anywhere in the ancient world. The papyrus scroll is more than 60 feet long and is inscribed on both sides. Some of the cures don't sound too bad. For indigestion the Ebers Papyrus advises patients to "crush a hog's tooth and put it inside four sugar cakes. Eat for four days." But other cures sound pretty disgusting. For a cut, "after the scab has fallen off put on it: Scribe's excrement. Mix in fresh milk and apply as a poultice."


  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数187
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

(1) 古代にあなたが病気になるならば、エジプトは、あなたが、そこにいたいと思う場所でした。 そこは、最高の治療を提供しました。 「医学知識において、エジプト人は、他の世界の追随を許さない。」と、紀元前725年頃に、ギリシアの詩人ホメロスは、エジプトの医者についてオディセイの中で書いています。 エジプト人は、6,000年も前に目に膏薬を塗ることから医術を行い始めました、そして、千年の間に、彼らの技術は、世界的に有名になり、あまりにも有名になったので、他の国の君主が、彼らの病気を治療するためにエジプトの医者を呼びにやったほどでした。彼らの治療は、我々にとっては原始的に聞こえるかもしれませんが、間違いなく、今から6,000年後には、我々の「現代医療」も、未来の科学者には、明らかに野蛮に思えることでしょう。 (2) 多くの点で、古代エジプトの医療は、今日の医療に似ていました。 当時、医者は、ぺルアンクすなわち「生命の家」と呼ばれる医学校で、長年勉強しました。症状からどのようにして病気を知るか、そして、患者を治療するために何をするべきかを学ぶために、彼らは教科書を勉強しました。 「多くの有名な医者によって古代に確立された書かれた法則に従って、彼らは、治療を行います。」と、ギリシアの歴史家ディオドロス・シクルスは書いています。 (3) エーバース・パピルスは、古代の世界のどこにでもあった最も古い医学文書の1つです。パピルスの巻物は、長さ60フィート以上で、両面に書かれています。 治療の中には、あまり酷くない様に思えるものもあります。 消化不良に対して、エーバース・パピルスは、患者に「豚の歯を押しつぶして、それを4個の砂糖菓子に入れ、 4日の間食べなさい。」と勧めます。 しかし、かなり気持ち悪いと思われる治療もあります。 切り傷に対して、「かさぶたが落ちたあと、それに以下のものを付けなさい: 書記の排泄物。 新鮮なミルクに混ぜて、湿布薬として塗布しなさい。」





  • 日本語訳を!

    (4) Considering that 19 types of excrement are mentioned in the cures, from fly excrement to ostrich excrement, it's no surprise Egyptian doctors had a problem with disgruntled patients. They handled malpractice efficiently, though. Diordorus writes,  If they follow the rules of this law as they read them in the sacred book and yet are unable to save their patient, they are absolved from any charge; but if they go contrary to the law's prescriptions they must submit to a trial with death as the penalty. If you're a physician and you follow the rules, all's well. But get creative with your treatments and you won't be treating anyone, unless it's in the afterlife. (5) Just as medical doctors do today, in ancient Egypt doctors specialized. The Greek historian Herodotus writes, "The practice of medicine is so divided among them that each physician treats one disease and no more. There are plenty of physicians everywhere. Some are eye-doctors, some deal with the head, others with the teeth or the belly, and some with hidden maladies...." The Ebers Papyrus even had a section on psychiatry, directing doctors on how to diagnose and treat depression. (6) The Egyptians had a cure for the common cold that was probably as good as anything you can find in a pharmacy today. It required a dose of the milk of a mother who had given birth to a boy, while chanting the spell, "May you flow out...who causes the seven openings in the head to ache." The Egyptians understood injuries caused by an accident, or in battle. They understood parasites and worms such as tapeworms, which they called "snakes in the belly." But for germs that couldn't be seen, Egyptians believed demons were responsible. There's nothing like a good spell to rid the body of evil spirits. The Ebers Papyrus states, "Magic is effective together with medicine. Medicine is effective together with magic." And so many medical treatments were odd combinations of science and magic.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) But just because doctors in ancient Egypt used magic to cure what they couldn't see, it didn't mean they weren't gifted physicians in terms of science. Brain surgery was successfully performed 5,000 years ago, broken arms set, legs amputated, and the patients survived because of the skill of the surgeons. We think that because surgical instruments were made from a volcanic glass called obsidian that the surgeries were more like hackings, but the flakes were sharper than scalpels used today. One tomb carving shows what many Egyptologists believe to be a tracheotomy, which is cutting open the throat to clear the airway so the patient can breathe. At Saqqara, in the Tomb of the Physician, wall paintings of surgery are captioned with the words, "Do not let it be painful," which leads scholars to believe hat Egyptian surgeons used anesthesia. (8) Egyptian doctors used many herbs to heal. The ancient Egyptians believed that demons hated honey, in fact, that they feared it. Honey was used in many of the remedies to ward off evil spirits. We now know that honey boosts the immune system and is an antibiotic, as are onions, another frequently prescribed remedy. Garlic, used for almost everything, is about 1 percent the strength of penicillin, a good medicine to fight bacteria. Egyptian prescriptions worked. And just like our modern physicians, Egyptian doctors adjusted the dosage according to the age of the patient. "If it is a big child, he should swallow it like a draught, if he is still in swaddles, it should be rubbed by his nurse in milk and thereafter sucked on 4 days."

  • 英文を日本語に訳してください。お願いします。

    今度の水曜日(2/17)のAM8:00までにエキサイト翻訳とかを使わずに英文を日本語に訳してください。お願いします。 ・Is something missing from modern medicine? People get sick when they are unhappy. This is the belief of Dr.Bernie Siegel, an American pediatric and general surgeon who has written numerous books for patients and doctors. He feels that modern medicine over-emphasizes scientific knowledge and information. In particular, it dose not pay enough attention to the relationship between a person's feelings about life and their physical condition. Medical students and young doctors often say that their motivation to be doctors is not help people, and not to earn a high salary or to enjoy high social status. But, claims Siegel, the training they receive harms them by not teaching them to treasure this beautiful motivation. ・Patients can learn from their sickness For Siegel, it is important to view sickness as an opportunity to learn. He has studied patients who survive a serious illness, observing how they live longer than their doctors expect. He say these are usually people who notice their feelings and are able to accept them. A serious illness may, for example, make a patient feel angry about having wasted years doing a job that now seems meaningless. Some patients might never face these feelings. By noticing their feelings and expressing their emotions, he says, patients are able to make wise choices with regard to their treatment. Patients need to be encouraged to accept and enjoy being themselves more than they could before they became sick. They can become more aware of something deep within themselves. This new approach to life that has come from their sickness then begins to bring benefits to their bodies, and they are often able, to an important extent, to heal themselves. ・Doctors can learn from remarkable recoveries Patients are sometimes cured and survive against all the predictions of their doctors. But the medical profession tends to ignore remarkable cases which do not fit into the conventional way of solving medical problems. Conventional medical training does not teach doctors the importance of learning from cases of patients being cured for reasons that are not directly caused by medical treatment. Nor do medical schools teach doctors the value of other patients finding inspiration from such cases.

  • 日本語訳を!(10)

    お願いします (1) The invaders didn't swoop across Egypt like a tidal wave. At the beginning of the Second Intermediate Peiod, they trickled in―immigrants from the east settling into the delta of northern Egypt. We call the invaders the Hyksos. Soon so many Hyksos had moved into the delta that they had their own king―and that irritated the king of Egypt. This as Egyptian soil, after all. Who did that foreign king think he was ruling in Egypt? No matter how hard the Hyksos tried to blend in, they were still foreigners. It didn't matter if they worshipped Egyptian gods, wore Egyptian clothes, or ate Egyptian food. They were still foreigners. Even their Egyptian name, heqa-khasut, smacked of somewhere else. It meant "chiefs of foreign lands." (2) True, the Hyksos brought with them the hump-backed Zebu cattle that the Egyptians liked so much. And those apples sure were tasty...not to mention the olives. And oh, the sound of the lyre and the lute! Their notes echoed through the chambers of the royal palace. Then there was the vertical loom. For weaving linen it couldn't be beat. The Hyksos' potter's wheels were better, too. But why were the Hyksos hiring scribes to copy Egyptian texts? Stealing Egyptian medical practices, no doubt. And it was totally unacceptable to build Avaris, a walled fortree, and claim it as their capital. (3) Manetho, an Egyptian priest, writes that the Hyksos' king "found a city very favorably situated on the east of the...Nile, and called it Avaris. This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier." Nowhere did the Hyksos' foreignness offend Egyptians as much as at Avaris. Why, those Hyksos dared to live in the same place that they buried their dead. Barbarians!

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします A favorite story has Egypt's enemies running in a frenzied retreat from hordes of cats. Cats were loved so much that for a time it was a crime to kill one. The penalty for killing a cat―even by accident―was death. (15) The ancient Egyptian word for dog also comes from the sound it makes―iwiw. But dogs were never revered like cats. It was an insult to be called "the pharaoh's dogs," and there are no images of a dog being petted. Still, leather collars marked with their names such as Brave One, Reliable, and Good Herdsman, prove that their nwners valued them. (Except for that dog named "Useless"?)

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (17) Thousands of workers descended on Amarna, intent on raising a city. Brick makers poured mud from the riverbank into wooden molds then turned the bricks out to dry in the desert heat. Stone workers cut blocks from the quarries with bronze chisels and wooden mallets. In just four years the city was in full operation with commuters riding their donkeys from the suburbs in the north and south to the center of the city. (18) The largest structure in Amarna was the royal residence, of course. Built half on one side of the road, and half on the other, the east and west wings of the palace were connected by an overpass. The overpass was called the "Window of Appearances." From there Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their children would greet the crowds gathered on the road below. (19) The new temple at Amarna was nothing like the old gloomy houses for the gods. The open courtyard allowed the Aten's rays to shine in. The rambling open-air place of worship stretched the length of two football fields, empty except for small stands to place food offerings, one for each day of the year.

  • 日本語訳を!(19)

    お願いします (1) Flush toilets and trash pickups are very modern improvements. Did you ever wonder what life in a crowded place was like before these modern conveniences when people merely threw their waste out the door? The streets were so narrow in most ancient Egyptian villages that if you stretched out your arms, your fingertips would touch the buildings on opposite sides. So it didn't take long for these alleylike roadways to accumulate unhealthy amounts of trash. Imagine the stink of rotting garbage on top of human and animal excrement in the Egyptian heat. It's no wonder that everyone who could afford it burned incense in their homes. Better to catch a spicy whiff of frankincense and myrrh than the smelly stew piled onto the packed dirt streets. (2) The ground, baked rock-hard from the sun, was as solid as any modern poured-cement foundation. Burik makers carried mud from the Nile in leather buckets to the building site where it was mixed with straw and pebbles, then poured into wooden molds. The bricks dried quickly in the hot Egyptian sun. Unlike stone tombs and temples, mud-brick houses weren't meant to survive the homeowner. The bricks crumbled over time. If a house builder wanted to build a new house on top of a house that had collapsed, he merely watered the clay rubble. The soupy mix leveled itself like pudding in a pie plate and then hardened in the sun, making the perfect foundation. (3) Houses and additions were built willy-nilly. Most towns grew with no plan at all and expanded into a jumbled cluster of dwellings. Even towns that did have plans, such as Deir el-Medina, which was located across the river from Thebes and used by the state for tomb builders and their families during the 13th century BCE, became chaotic after a while. Families added onto their houses where they could and divided the interiors to suit their personal needs.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(5)

    お願いします。  Documents were often written on paper made from the papyrus plant. Papyrus makers would peel the skin off the triangular stem of the papyrus reed, then slice the stem into thin strips. They laid the strips next to each other overlapping slightly, then arranged another layer on top going in the opposite direction. After covering the reed strips with linen, they pounded the sheet with a mallet. The crushed reeds oozed sticky papyrus sap. When dry, the sap glued the strips together. The sheets were most often used like the pages of a book, but if the scribes wanted long rolls, they glued the ends of the sheets of paper together with flour and water paste. Scribes wrote on the papyrus sheets with pens that looked like paintbrushes. They dipped their brushes in water, then rubbed the brush on a cake just as you mix watercolors. Black cakes were charcoal often made from the soot on cooking pots. Red cakes came from the red earth of the desert.  Hieroglyphs are everywhere in Egypt. There are even markings like ancient graffiti on the stones along travel routes. Some are very old like this inscription written nearly 4,000 years ago at a quarry in the mountainous derert: "I was commander of the troops...in this highland, equipped with water skins, baskets,...and every fresh vegetable of the South. I made its valleys green, and its heights pools of water; settled with children throughout...." And some are more recent, like the "thank-you note" that a group of priests wrote in 196 BCE to their 13-year-old Pharaoh Ptolemy V for making it a law that their temple receive money. They carved the law and their appreciation on polished black stone. They wrote the thank you note three ways―in hieroglyphs, demotic, and Greek.

  • 日本語訳を!(17)

    お願いします (1) No one in the ancient world loved their children more than the Egyptians. The Greeks, who sometimes left unwanted infants (most often girls) outdoors to die, were shocked to discover the Egyptians did not. The Greek geographer Strabo believed the fact "that they bring up all the children that are born" to be the Egyptians' most admirable quality. In Egypt, children (even girls) were considered a blessing. Pregnant women were fussed over, envied, and admired. And right behind them, the fathers stood all puffed up with their fatherhood. Egyptian men were loving fathers―and proud of it! (2) The medical document called the Berlin Papyrus, contains directions for the oldest-known pregnancy test. The test involves watering cereals with urine, and has a bonus feature of predicting the sex of the unborn child. "The woman must moisten it with urine every day.... If he barley grows it means a male child. If the wheat grows it will mean a female child. If neither grows, she will not give birth." (3) When it was time to deliver, women went to special birth houses. For the upper class, the birth house might be a luxurious room built next to the temple. For the less wealthy, the birth house might be a special room on the roof of the house where cool winds blew. Squatting with each foot on a large brick, or sitting in a special birthing chair with a hole in the seat, a woman gave birth assisted by female neighbors. The women in labor repeated prayers to Amun, "make the heart of the deliverer strong, and keep alive the one that is coming."

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(6)

    お願いします。  For more than 3,000 years, the sons and the occasional daughter of the rich and the royal studied to become scribes. It was a profession for the privileged. But over time, fewer and fewer scribes learned the ancient sacred symbols. The Greek alphabet found its way into Egyptian writing and even vowels became visible. Eventually, there was no one left who knew how to read those first words drawn in pictures.  In modern times, the curious drawings taunted scholars. The mysterious history of ancient Egypt was right there in front of them. If only someone could read it. The carvings circling temple columns, the paintings coloring coffins, the words written on tomb walls waited in silence for someone to crack the code. Who would be first to figure out what the ancients had written?  In 1799 the French army was in Egypt as part of Napoleon's grand plan to conquer the world. His engineers were rebuilding an old fort along the branch of the Nile called the Rosetta. The men had torn away one wall and were clearing the rubble when they found a gleaming black stone carved in three different scripts. Even though the engineers could not read the words, they knew the stone must be important. Napoleon sent artists to make copies of the text carved in the stone and the copies were sent to scholars all over Europe.  The slab of black stone that the priests had carved the thank-you note into 2,000 years before became known as the Rosetta Stone. Scholars translated the Greek right away, but no one could read demotic or hieroglyphs. How did those curious carvings work?