• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


お願いします (1) No one in the ancient world loved their children more than the Egyptians. The Greeks, who sometimes left unwanted infants (most often girls) outdoors to die, were shocked to discover the Egyptians did not. The Greek geographer Strabo believed the fact "that they bring up all the children that are born" to be the Egyptians' most admirable quality. In Egypt, children (even girls) were considered a blessing. Pregnant women were fussed over, envied, and admired. And right behind them, the fathers stood all puffed up with their fatherhood. Egyptian men were loving fathers―and proud of it! (2) The medical document called the Berlin Papyrus, contains directions for the oldest-known pregnancy test. The test involves watering cereals with urine, and has a bonus feature of predicting the sex of the unborn child. "The woman must moisten it with urine every day.... If he barley grows it means a male child. If the wheat grows it will mean a female child. If neither grows, she will not give birth." (3) When it was time to deliver, women went to special birth houses. For the upper class, the birth house might be a luxurious room built next to the temple. For the less wealthy, the birth house might be a special room on the roof of the house where cool winds blew. Squatting with each foot on a large brick, or sitting in a special birthing chair with a hole in the seat, a woman gave birth assisted by female neighbors. The women in labor repeated prayers to Amun, "make the heart of the deliverer strong, and keep alive the one that is coming."


  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数110
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

(1) 古代世界でエジプト人ほど、自分の子供たちを愛した人々はいませんでした。 ギリシア人は、時々、不要な幼児(しばしば女児)を屋外に放置して死なせましたが、彼らは、エジプト人が、そうしないのを知って衝撃を受けました。 ギリシアの地理学者ストラボンは、「彼らが、生まれたすべての子供たちを育てて」エジプト人にするという事実は、最も賞賛に値する特質であると思いました。エジプトでは、子供たち(女の子さえ)は、天の恵みと考えられました。 妊婦は、気遣われ、うらやまれ、賞賛されました。 そして、正に彼女たちの背後には、父親になることに得意満面の父親たちがいました。 エジプトの男性は、父親になることが大好きでした ― また、それを誇りに思っていました! (2) ベルリン・パピルスと呼ばれる医学文書には、知られている中で最も古い妊娠検査の指示が掲載されています。その検査は、尿で穀類を湿らせることを含みます、そして、まだ生まれていない子供の性別を予測するおまけの特徴があります。 「女性は、毎日、それ(穀類)を尿で湿らせなければなりません .... 大麦が成長するならば、それは男の子供を意味します。 小麦が成長するならば、それは女の子供を意味します。 どちらも成長しないならば、彼女は出産しません。」 (3) 出産する頃になると、女性は、特別な産屋(うぶや、出産所)に行きました。 上流階級にとって、産屋は、神殿の隣に建てられた豪華な部屋かもしれません。 それほどお金持ちでない人々にとっては、産屋は、涼しい風が吹く家の屋上にしつらえられた特別な部屋かもしれません。大きなレンガに片足ずつのせてしゃがむか、あるいは、座席に穴のある特別な分娩椅子に座って、女性は、同性の隣人に助けられて出産しました。 分娩中の女性は、アメン神に祈りを繰り返しました「妊婦の心を強くしたまえ、そして、生まれ来るものを生かしたまえ。」





  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(1)

    お願いします。 (1) In monster movies the Mummy lurches forward, dragging his leg. Ancient Egyptians wouldn't have been scared by this stumbling bag of rags. In fact, they would probably have pointed and laughed, because every Egyptian knew mummies don't lurch. They don't drag their legs. They walk with the grace of an athlete, because in the Field of Reeds, which is where the dead lived, that limp would magically disappear. Deaf in one ear? No problem. Festering wound? No problem. Perfect health is yours in the Field of Reeds. (2) The Egyptians imagined that the Field of Reeds looked like home―only better. A gentle river meandered through fertile fields while munching cows looked on. The cows were fat and happy. They didn't even need to swish their tails, because there were no annoying flies in the Field of Reeds. The fields were always bursting with ripe foods ready to pick. No one was ever sick or hungry, and best of all, no one had to work. (3) The trick was getting in. The Egyptians believed that everyone had three spirits―the Ba, the Ka, and the Akh. Each spirit played a different role when the body died. In its natural state, the Ba―the person's personality―looked like a bird with a miniature version of the dead person's head. After death the Ba lived in the tomb, but was free to come and go as it pleased. The Ba often went to the land of the living where it changed into anything it fancied.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします  List of the items left behind by me in the village: [the words that are in italics are words we don't know the meaning of or how to translate them] ・3 sacks barley ・1 1/2 sacks emmer [grain] ・26 bundles of onions ・2 beds ・sheqer-box ・2 couches for a man ・2 folding stools ・1 pedes-box ・1 inlaid tjay-box ・har ・2 griddle stones ・1 gatit-box ・2 footstools ・2 folding stools of wood ・1 sack lubya beans ・12 bricks natron [salt] ・2 tree trunks ・1 door ・2 sterti of sawn wood ・2 hetep-containers ・1 small hetep-container ・1 mortar ・2 medjay  ...Please have Amen-em-wia stay in my house so he can watch it. (6) Think about listing the entire contents of your house. Egyptians had far fewer belongings than we do today. The sacks of grain were the equivalent of cash. In a barter system you trade what you have for what you need. Do you need a donkey? Maybe your neighbor will trade for your bed. (7) Guests were never invited beyond the main room. The back of the house was private. Only the women, children, and immediate male members of the family were allowed there. It must have been a punishment, similar to making a child sit in the corner, to be sent to the back of the house. We know this because when Egyptians were trying to convince someone they were being sincere they would swear, "May I be sent to the back of the house if I am not telling the truth." So what was in the back of the house that was so awful? The kitchen was in the back of the house. At Deir el-Medina the kitchens were open air, with brick ovens in the shape of a beehive and stairs leading to the roof. Today getting sent to the kitchen isn't so bad. But in a hot desert climate, the room with the oven probably wasn't the most pleasant room in the house. In fact, the place in the house that seemed the nicest was the living space on the roof. Houses were dark and airless with no windows to bring in light or fresh air. Perhaps that's why the Egyptians often ate and slept on the roof.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (6) The Hyksos army was made up of professional soldiers. They drove chariots, wore body armor and leather helmets, and wielded bows designed to shoot arrows farther than ordinary wooden bows. It's no surprise that the Hyksos beat the Egyptians in those first battles. But the Egyptians learned from the encounters. They stole the ddsign of the chariot from the Hyksos and then improved upon it. The Egyptians made the chariot lighter. The redesign positioned the driver over the axle and they covered the wooden axle with metal so that it turned more smoothly. These changes made it easier for the horse to pull the chariot. The driver stood, holding onto straps for balance, with a soldier at his side. The soldier held a shield and was armed with a bow and arrows, a sword, and a javelin. The back of the chariot was open so that the charioteers could jump out with ease and engage in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. (7) The Egyptians trained. They held battle competitions in front of the king. Archers shot at targets. Wrestlers grappled with one another. Swordsmen clashed blades. What had once been a rag-tag scrabble of men became an organized military. But they still had work to do on their style of waging war. Before a battle, the Egyptians notified the enemy which day they planned to attack and where. If the enemy wasn't ready, the Egyptians rescheduled. And if the enemy retreated into their fortress, rather than rudely barging in, the Egyptians would patiently wait outside hoping to starve them out. Unfortunately, Egypt's enemies weren't always as courteous.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (8) The Egyptians even fashioned an inhaler for asthmatics, "bring seven stones and heat them on fire. Take one of them, place parts of these drugs over it, cover it with a new jar with a pierced bottom. Introduce a tube of reed through this hole and put your mouth on this tube so that you swallow its fumes." Experience taught the doctors that there were some things beyond their skill, just as there are today. When examining "a patient with stomach disease suffering from pain in the arms, in the breat and on one side of the stomach" doctors were advised to "say ‘death threatens.’" The symptoms described what we now know is a heart attack.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(3)

    お願いします。  There are challenges to living in a country that is mostly desert. By the time the Old Kingdom rolled around, about 2700 BCE, Egyptians were up to meeting those challenges―the most obvious would concern water. Although the derert continually tried to push in on the farmland along the edge of the Nile, the Egyptians had learned how to push back. They coaxed the waters of the Nile inland, filling the buckets of their shadufs and emptying them into channels they had dug through their gardens. Not only were they irrigating their farmlands, they were expanding them. Farmers grew more food than the people could possibly eat. The king's granaries filled. The government organized and financed massive irrigation projects. When you grow more food than you can possibly eat you are left with something to trade with other nations―grain. What Egyptians didn't have they could now get through trade.  A challenge less obvious to those nnt used to surviving in a desert environment is the lack of wood. There are no tall trees in a desert. Actually, there are no trees at all, with the exception of what grew right along the edge of the Nile and in the occasional oasis. Egyptians needed wood―a lot of wood―especially for boats and coffins. They had their eye on the cedar that grew to the northeast, in the land that we now call Lebanon. It was ideal for both boats and coffins because cedar resists rot, and a rotting boat or a rotting coffin can be a problem. And so it began―we've got grain, we need wood, you've got wood, you need grain, let's trade. It was not much different, in principle, from trading baseball cards.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(3)

    お願いします。 (8) With so much to lose, the Egyptians came up with a cheat sheet. During the Old Kingdom, only pharaohs could get into the Field of Reeds. Not wanting to risk forgetting a name or a spell, the kings had the answers to all the questions, along with all the magic spells, buried with them. We call the book of spells from the Old Kingdom the Pyramid Texts. During the Middle Kingdom, when the Field of Reeds was open to everyone, the spell were conveniently written on the sides of the coffins. We call those the Coffin Texts. In the New Kingdom the spells were written on scrolls and buried with the body. The words written during the New Kingdom are now known as the Book of the Dead. The Egyptians thought of every possible unpleasantness and wrote spells to protect against it. They even had a spell that prevented them from having to stand on their head and eat feces―or step in some. "What I detest is feces, and I will not eat it... and I will not touch it with my toes." Obviously the ancients weren't taking chances on anything less than a perfect afterlife.

  • 日本語訳を!

    (4) Considering that 19 types of excrement are mentioned in the cures, from fly excrement to ostrich excrement, it's no surprise Egyptian doctors had a problem with disgruntled patients. They handled malpractice efficiently, though. Diordorus writes,  If they follow the rules of this law as they read them in the sacred book and yet are unable to save their patient, they are absolved from any charge; but if they go contrary to the law's prescriptions they must submit to a trial with death as the penalty. If you're a physician and you follow the rules, all's well. But get creative with your treatments and you won't be treating anyone, unless it's in the afterlife. (5) Just as medical doctors do today, in ancient Egypt doctors specialized. The Greek historian Herodotus writes, "The practice of medicine is so divided among them that each physician treats one disease and no more. There are plenty of physicians everywhere. Some are eye-doctors, some deal with the head, others with the teeth or the belly, and some with hidden maladies...." The Ebers Papyrus even had a section on psychiatry, directing doctors on how to diagnose and treat depression. (6) The Egyptians had a cure for the common cold that was probably as good as anything you can find in a pharmacy today. It required a dose of the milk of a mother who had given birth to a boy, while chanting the spell, "May you flow out...who causes the seven openings in the head to ache." The Egyptians understood injuries caused by an accident, or in battle. They understood parasites and worms such as tapeworms, which they called "snakes in the belly." But for germs that couldn't be seen, Egyptians believed demons were responsible. There's nothing like a good spell to rid the body of evil spirits. The Ebers Papyrus states, "Magic is effective together with medicine. Medicine is effective together with magic." And so many medical treatments were odd combinations of science and magic.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) A wax cone on your head wasn't the only "must have" party accessory. Men and women showed up at banquets with their cosmetic chests, keeping them nearby to touch up their makeup. The chests, themselves were works of art with inlaid jewels and painted scenes. Inside, the Egyptians kept a mirror called a "see-face" made from polished copper―or if you were really rich, silver. Wealthy women carried their see-face in a mirror bag over their shoulders. You might pack your cosmetic chest with bronze tweezers to pluck your eyebrows and hairpins made of ivory. You would definitely include a flat stone palette to crush black and green rocks into powder for eyeliner. Everyone wore heavy eyeliner. Men and women were already wearing eye makeup by the time the pyramids were built. As a popular New Kingdom love poem says, "I wish to paint my eyes, so if I see you my eyes will sparkle." So much for the natural look. Chemists from modern cosmetic companies have found that ancient Egyptians used the same proportion of fat as they do today to give their eye makeup that luxurious creamy texture. (8) What would our ancient fashion magazine say about hair? It would probably advise us to get rid of it. Men and women either shaved their heads or kept their hair cropped very short. In a climate where fleas and head lice thrived,this was practical hair-care practice. Archaeologists found a wig workshop at Deir el-Bahri along with several wigs. Like clothing, the quality of the wig depended on your station in life. The best wigs were shoulder length, made from as many as 120,000 human hairs woven into a mesh cap and fixed in place with beeswax. Some were ironed straight, others curled into ringlets, and for the really wealthy, braided with beads and jewels. If you weren't able to afford a good wig, yours might be made from palm fronds.