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お願い (4) The general layout of an Egyptian house was the same whether you were rich or poor―in fact, not just rich or poor, but also dead or alive, since tombs (and temples) followed the same design. If you were to visit a typical worker's home, you would pull aside the burlaplike cloth flap covering the doorway, which kept flies and dust out, and step into the entrance hall. There might be a sheep or donkey, pausing mid-chew to watch you pass though. Did a flea from the animal jump onto your head? Or did the flea jump off you onto the animal? In a hot, sandy environment fleas are a fact of life. Even though the Egyptians shaved their bodies from head to toe to keep the fleas and lice from having place to hide, they were a constant problem. It must have been difficult to fall asleep with the fleas biting. The Ebers Papyrus had many housekeeping hints to keep scratching to a minimun and pests away. "To expel fleas in a house: sprinkle it throughout with natron water. To prevent mice from approaching: fat of cat is placed on all things. To prevent a serpent from coming out of its hole...a bulb of onion is placed in the opening of the hole and it will not come out." (5) The village of Deir el-Medina was home to well-paid tomb builders. Houses had real wooden doors and doorframes carved out of limestone, often inscribed with the home owner's name. The residents painted their doors red to repel demons. Beyond the entrance, you would enter a room for receiving guests. Egyptians owned very little furniture. You might sit on a woven mat or perhaps a stool. Only the very wealthy had chairs. Homeowners placed statues of the gods into wall niches, but otherwise had none of the knickknacks modern families often like to collect. At Deir el-Medina one homeowner, concerned about leaving his valuables behind, took an inventory and asked that a house sitter watch over things while he was away. The letter gives us an idea of what a typical Deir el-Medina household might contain.


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  • sayshe
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(4) あなたがお金持ちであっても貧乏であっても、エジプトの家の一般的な間取りは同じでした ― 実際、お金持ちとか貧乏とか言うだけでなく、死者も生者も同じでした、なぜならば、お墓は、(そして、神殿も)同じ設計に従ったからでした。 あなたが、典型的な労働者の家を訪問するならば、あなたは、戸口を覆う黄麻布の様な垂れ幕をはねのけることでしょう、この布は、ハエやホコリが入るのを防ぎました、それから、あなたは、玄関に足を踏み入れることになったでしょう。 羊やロバがいて、モグモグ噛むのを止めて、あなたが通るのを見ているかもしれません。ノミが、動物から、あなたの頭に跳び移りましたか? それとも、ノミは、あなたから動物に跳び移ったでしょうか? 熱い、砂埃の多い環境では、ノミは、避けがたい人生の現実です。 たとえエジプト人が、ノミやシラミが隠れる場所を無くすために、頭の先からつま先まで彼らの体毛を剃っていたとしても、ノミやシラミは、恒常的な問題でした。 ノミが噛むので、寝入ることは、難しかったにちがいありません。エーバース・パピルスは、引っ掻くことを最小限に抑えて、害虫を寄せ付けないようにする、多くの家事のヒントを記していました。 「家のノミを追い出す方法: 家じゅうにナトロン(ソーダ)水を撒きなさい。 ネズミを寄せ付けないようにする方法: 猫の脂肪をあらゆるものに塗り付けなさい。 ヘビがその穴から出てくるのを防ぐ方法 ... タマネギの球根で穴の入口を塞ぎなさい、そうすれば、ヘビは出てきません。」 (5) デイル・エル・メディナの村は、稼ぎの良い墓の建設労働者たちにとって故郷でした。 家々には、本物の木製の扉があり、扉の枠は、石灰岩から切り出されたもので、しばしば、その家の持ち主の名前が刻まれていました。 住人は、悪魔を払いのけるために彼らの扉を赤く塗りました。 玄関から向こうに行くと、あなたは、客を迎えるための部屋に入ったことでしょう。 エジプト人は、ごくわずかの家具しか所有していませんでした。あなたは、織られた敷物か、おそらく、背もたれのない椅子に座るかもしれません。 大変なお金持ちしか、背もたれのある椅子を持っていませんでした。 家の持ち主は、神の像を壁の隙間に飾っていましたが、それ以外は、現代の家族が収集するのをしばしば好む装飾品のどんな物も持っていませんでした。 デイル・エル・メディナの、ある家の持ち主が、彼の貴重品を残して出かけることを心配して、目録を作って、彼の留守中に、留守番が品々を見張るように求めました。 その書簡は、典型的なデイル・エル・メディナの家庭にあったと思われるものについて我々に知識を与えてくれます。



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    お願いします (8) The village of Deir el-Medina has been called a company town. The only people who lived there were the 40 to 60 tomb builders and their families. For generations the skilled craftsmen worked on the king's tombs, cutting into the cliffs of the west bank of the Nile across the river from the ancient city of Thebes. These artisans needed to be within easy commute of the necropolis, or city of the dead, where they worked. The workmen walked to the Valley of the Kings by way of a mountain path. During the week, rather than walking all the way back to their village, the workmen stayed at a camp of stone huts they had built on a level spot along the pathway. The tiny one- or two-room huts were clustered, sharing common walls. The group of huts looked like a honeycomb. An Egyptian workweek ran ten days, so it was not unusual for the workers to stay on the job for eight days and then travel to their families in the village for the "weekend." (9) Building a village within walking distance of the Valley of Kings had its problems. The biggest surely had to be water. Water had to be carried from the floodplain up to the valley to the village. With about 68 homes at Deir el-Medina, that's a lot of water. The state supplied half a dozen water carriers. And, of course, they recorded the deliveries. For the average six-person household, each person would get about four gallons a day for drinking and bathing (not including laundry, which was done by laundrymen, whose service was also provided by the state). Toting the water must have been an annoyance, especially if the deliveries were delayed for any reason. But Deir el-Medina's misfortune turns out to be our good fortune.

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    お願いします!!続き Say you were a merchant from Oman,in what is now known as the Middle East,come to Harappa to trade alabaster vases and fine woolen cloth for shell bangles and stone beads.The first thing you would have noticed was what wasn't there-no great temples or monuments,like the ones you had seen in the cities of Mesopotamia and Persia.You probably would have thought Harappa a poor place,without the grandeur of home.But hen you would have noticed the tidy,neat streets.Even as a stranger in a strange city,you didn't have to leave extra time in case you got lost in the maze of streets every time you went to the market.The streets were straight and predictable,and quieter than you were used to.Houses weren't open to the stredt,so you didn't hear every word that people were saying inside as you walked by.Instead,the main doorway of eabh house was located along a side street and had an entryway that screened the inside from curious eyes.The windows opened onto the courtyard at its center. You'd have noticed that the city smelled better than most cities you visited.Major streets had built-in garbage bins.Each block of houses had a private well and bathrooms with drains.The small drains leading from the bathing areas and toilets emptied hnto slightly larger drains in the side streets that flowed into huge covered sewer in the main streets,big enough for people to climb inside and clean.These big city sewers emptied outside of the city wall into gullies and were washed out every year by the rains.

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    お願いします (7) A wax cone on your head wasn't the only "must have" party accessory. Men and women showed up at banquets with their cosmetic chests, keeping them nearby to touch up their makeup. The chests, themselves were works of art with inlaid jewels and painted scenes. Inside, the Egyptians kept a mirror called a "see-face" made from polished copper―or if you were really rich, silver. Wealthy women carried their see-face in a mirror bag over their shoulders. You might pack your cosmetic chest with bronze tweezers to pluck your eyebrows and hairpins made of ivory. You would definitely include a flat stone palette to crush black and green rocks into powder for eyeliner. Everyone wore heavy eyeliner. Men and women were already wearing eye makeup by the time the pyramids were built. As a popular New Kingdom love poem says, "I wish to paint my eyes, so if I see you my eyes will sparkle." So much for the natural look. Chemists from modern cosmetic companies have found that ancient Egyptians used the same proportion of fat as they do today to give their eye makeup that luxurious creamy texture. (8) What would our ancient fashion magazine say about hair? It would probably advise us to get rid of it. Men and women either shaved their heads or kept their hair cropped very short. In a climate where fleas and head lice thrived,this was practical hair-care practice. Archaeologists found a wig workshop at Deir el-Bahri along with several wigs. Like clothing, the quality of the wig depended on your station in life. The best wigs were shoulder length, made from as many as 120,000 human hairs woven into a mesh cap and fixed in place with beeswax. Some were ironed straight, others curled into ringlets, and for the really wealthy, braided with beads and jewels. If you weren't able to afford a good wig, yours might be made from palm fronds.

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  • g4330
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  (4) あなたが豊かであるか貧しいだけが、金持ち、事実上貧しいか、死ぬまたはまた生きていなかったことにかかわらずエジプトの家の一般的なレイアウトは同じでした、墓(そして、寺)が同じデザインに従ったので。 あなたが典型的な労働者の家を訪問するなら、ハエとほこりを避けた戸口を覆うburlaplike布フラップを片方に引いて、玄関ホールに踏み込むでしょうに。 中間の咀嚼は、もっとも、あなたが通るのを見るためには羊かロバ、止まりであるかもしれません。 動物からのノミはあなたの頭までジャンプしましたか? または、ノミはあなたを動物に始めましたか? 熱くて、砂地の環境で、ノミは現実です。 エジプト人は、ノミとシラミには隠れる場所があるのを妨げるために頭からつま先まで彼らのボディーを剃りましたが、それらは一定の問題でした。 ノミが噛み付いていて寝入るのは、難しかったに違いありません。 エーバースPapyrusで、minimunに引っ掻き続ける多くの家事のヒントと病害虫は離れているようになりました。 「家でノミを追放するためには以下のこと、」 あらゆる点で天然炭酸ソーダ水をそれにまき散らします。 ネズミがアプローチするのを防ぐために: 猫の脂肪は万物に置かれます。 蛇が穴から出て来るのを防ぐために…「たまねぎの球は穴の始まりに置かれます、そして、出て来ないでしょう。」 (5) Deirの高架鉄道メディナの村は十分支払われた墓の建築業者への家でした。 家で、世帯主の名前がしばしば記された、石灰岩で本当の板戸とドアフレームを彫りました。 居住者は悪霊を退けるために赤く彼らのドアを塗装しました。 入り口を超えて、あなたは客を迎える部屋に入るでしょう。 エジプト人はほとんど家具を所有していませんでした。 あなたは織布マットかおそらくスツールの上に座るかもしれません。 非常に裕福には、いすがあるだけでした。 マイホーム所有者は、神の像を壁ニッチに置きましたが、そうでなければ、近代家族が集めるのがしばしば好きである装飾品のいずれも持っていませんでした。 Deirの高架鉄道メディナでは、1人の彼の貴重品を後に残すことに関して心配しているマイホーム所有者が、在庫を取って、彼が遠くにいた間留守番をする人がものを監視するように頼みました。 手紙は典型的なDeir高架鉄道メディナ家庭が含むかもしれないことに関する考えを私たちに与えます。  



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    お願いします (4) The dwarf-god Bes was a welcome sight to woman in labor. Bes fought off evil spirits that might threaten her or her body. During the Middle Kingdom, Bes's likeness might be carved onto the boomerang-shaped magic wand women often placed on their stomachs while giving birth. During the New Kingdom, Bes's picture might be painted on the birth house wall. Childbirth was dangerous to both mother and baby, so divine help from any of the gods associated with newborns was sought out, particularly from the chief god of newborns―the pregnant hippo-goddess, Taweret. (5) Scholars believe one out of every two or three newborns died, but they can only estimate because many newborns did not have their own burial. If a mother and baby both died in childbirth, they would be buried together. Babies who died soon after birth might be placed in clay pots and buried under the home, and those who never lived long enough to be named might be thrown into the Nile to the crocodiles. Mothers anxiourly watched their babies for danger signs. With predictions such as, "If the child made a sound like the creaking of the pine trees, or turned his face downward, he would die," it's no wonder they were anxious. (6) Parents named their children quickly. A child without a name was doomed to the "second death"―complete erasure―no life after death. Mothers wasted no time announcing their newborn's mame. Some names were long―Hekamaatreemperkhons. And some names were short―Ti. Some names described the child―Nefertiti, the Beautiful Woman Has Come. Some names connected the child with one of the gods―Tutankhamen, the Living Image of Amun. And some names were what the mother cried out when she gave birth―Nefret, pretty.

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    お願いします (1) Flush toilets and trash pickups are very modern improvements. Did you ever wonder what life in a crowded place was like before these modern conveniences when people merely threw their waste out the door? The streets were so narrow in most ancient Egyptian villages that if you stretched out your arms, your fingertips would touch the buildings on opposite sides. So it didn't take long for these alleylike roadways to accumulate unhealthy amounts of trash. Imagine the stink of rotting garbage on top of human and animal excrement in the Egyptian heat. It's no wonder that everyone who could afford it burned incense in their homes. Better to catch a spicy whiff of frankincense and myrrh than the smelly stew piled onto the packed dirt streets. (2) The ground, baked rock-hard from the sun, was as solid as any modern poured-cement foundation. Burik makers carried mud from the Nile in leather buckets to the building site where it was mixed with straw and pebbles, then poured into wooden molds. The bricks dried quickly in the hot Egyptian sun. Unlike stone tombs and temples, mud-brick houses weren't meant to survive the homeowner. The bricks crumbled over time. If a house builder wanted to build a new house on top of a house that had collapsed, he merely watered the clay rubble. The soupy mix leveled itself like pudding in a pie plate and then hardened in the sun, making the perfect foundation. (3) Houses and additions were built willy-nilly. Most towns grew with no plan at all and expanded into a jumbled cluster of dwellings. Even towns that did have plans, such as Deir el-Medina, which was located across the river from Thebes and used by the state for tomb builders and their families during the 13th century BCE, became chaotic after a while. Families added onto their houses where they could and divided the interiors to suit their personal needs.

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    お願いします。 (1) What if you were an Egyptian tomb builder? Life for you 4,500 years ago may have gone this way: The barge floated upstream, bumping to a stop at the dock alongside a small farming village located a week's journey south of the capital of Mennefer. The king's men disembarked and marched double file over the pier heading for the village center. Word of their arrival rippled from house to mud-brick house. Men and women trickled out of their homes and formed a loose ring around the king's messengers. Curious and shy, the youngest children peeked out from behind their mother's legs. One of the king's men―a scribe―unrolled a scroll and held it at arm's length. He shouted out names. You caught your breath. Would you be on the list? (2) Your grandfather set the first stones in King Khufu's mer. Now 20 years later, the eternal home is nearly finished, but there is still much work to be done. A king's eternal home is more than just a mer . There are temples and causeways and walls and the queen's tombs to be built. A papyrus inscription, called the Turin Papyrus, written long after you had traveled to the afterlife, and long after kings had stopped being buried at Giza, claims the Great Pyramid was built in less than 23 years. But for all the years you can remember, you have watched your friends board the king's barge when he harvest was done. When the floods receded, and they came back, the women fussed over them, and the men treated them with respect. You caught them sometimes walking with a swagger. They had seen the world. (3) Not everyone came home. Those that came back brought news of the ones that stayed. They had married and had children and learned trades other than farming. They chose to stay on at the Giza Plateau and work for the king. (4) For two weeks now you have felt the restlessness of the flood time. If the king's men call your name, will you be one who never returns? Will this be the last time you see your village and your family?

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    Some infantry divisional commanders considered the artillery insufficient for the width of the proposed attack. They thought a more narrowly focused attack would make better use of the available artillery. Chetwode and Chauvel, "the two most experienced generals in the force", watched the extension of the Ottoman defences at Gaza with "some foreboding." They had seen the strength and determination of Ottoman defenders in entrenched positions at the Battle of Magdhaba and the Battle of Rafa. After receiving fresh information regarding Ottoman deployments on 10 April, Dobell modified his plan to incorporate a more flexible approach. While the first stage would remain unchanged, during the second stage of the battle he might attack directly by swinging his line slightly northeast, with only one division attacking Gaza to create a gap for Desert Column, depending on whether the hostile Atawineh defences were reinforced by units from the Hareira detachment. Or he might send most of his force to the coastal side of Gaza to make an attack there. By 16 April Murray had moved his advanced GHQ EEF in a railway train, from El Arish to Khan Yunis, and was in telephone communication with Dobell's Eastern Force battle headquarters at Deir el Belah, 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the Wadi Ghuzzee. Meanwhile, Chetwode moved his Desert Column headquarters from near In Seirat to Tel el Jemmi. Just after 19:00, the infantry divisions marched towards the Wadi Ghuzzee crossings, while the Anzac Mounted Division left Deir el Belah at 18:30 with the New Zealand Mounted Brigade leading the night march. At 04:30 on 17 April the Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment led the way across the Wadi Ghuzzee at the Shellal ford, followed by the remainder of the Anzac Mounted Division.

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    On 19 January, British aerial reconnaissance found the Ottoman Army had evacuated El Kossaima and reduced the strength of their main desert base at Hafir el Auja. However, GHQ believed the Ottoman garrisons would continue to hold onto the Nekhl area in the centre of the Sinai Peninsula, including the villages of Bir el Hassana, Gebel Helal, Gebel Yelleg and Gebel el Heitan, to maintain control over the Arab population. To address the problem of Ottoman Army units in the rear of the advancing EEF, a raid was carried out by two columns of light horse and yeomanry at Nekhl. The two columns moved out from Serapeum, near Ismailia on the Suez Canal, with three aircraft in support to carry out the attack, 60 miles (97 km) to the east. However, as the columns were approaching the area on 17 February, the reconnaissance aircraft found the Ottoman garrisons had retired, and no fighting occurred.

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    However, the Australian official historian described the First Battle of Gaza quite differently. "In itself the engagement was a severe blow to the British Army, since it affected the troops on both sides to a degree out of all proportion to the casualties suffered, or to the negative victory gained by the Turks. There was not a single private in the British infantry, or a trooper in the mounted brigades, who did not believe that failure was due to staff bungling and to nothing else." Preparations for the second attack included the extension of the railway to Deir el Belah, the headquarters of Eastern Force, to enable "all available troops" to be deployed for battle. Water reservoirs for 76,000 gallons were built in the Wadi Ghuzzee and dumps of ammunition and supply were established nearby. The weather was "reasonably cool" and the health of the troops "was good." Morale had "recovered from the disappointment of the First Battle, in which victory had so narrowly eluded them." Up until 4 April, Eastern Force had been responsible for the southern sector of the Suez Canal Defence troops, 150 miles (240 km) away. This duty was transferred to the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, lightening Dobell's load.

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    以下の文章がものすごく難しくて、長いしどう訳せばいいかわかりません。 だれか教えてください。お願いします。 (1)After spending a period of time abroad, you may have to prepare yourself for a period of re-adjustment when you return home. (2)Simply because, if you have had a full experience living and learning overseas, you are likely to have changed, so the place you return to may itself appear to have changed, as indeed it might have. (3)But as you try to settle back into your former routine, you may recognize that your overseas experience has changed some or many of your ways of doing things, even what it means to “be yourself”. (4)But this intellectual and personal growth means that you can expect a period of difficulty in adjusting to the new environment at home.

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    In June 1916 Sharif Hussain, the Hashemite ruler of Mecca revolted against the Ottoman Empire which, under the rule of the Young Turks, had by that time begun movement towards ethnic nationalism and was marginalizing the office of the Caliph. Hussain wanted to move north and create an Arab state from Yemen to Damascus and establish a Hashemite Caliphate. Medina was, at the time, deemed important in that regard and was connected to the Ottoman Empire through a railway line. Hussain's forces besieged Medina, beginning in 1916 and lasting till January 1919.

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    お願いします (1) Ancient Egyptians recognized the importance of the right name. It announced to the world who you were, where you came from, and what was expected of you. Almost all of the kings from the 18th dynasty had the birth names Amenhotep or Thutmose. Their names showed the world that they pleased the gods. Amenhotep links the king with the sun god Amun―it means, "Amen (or Amun, or Amon depending on how you choose to spell it) is satisfied." Thutmose links the king with the god of wisdom Thoth―it means "Thoth is born." By the Middle Kingdom, kings were adding four official names to their birth name, but they could add many, any more. If you could give yourself a few more names, what might you choose? Amenhotep III liked to call himself "The Dazzling Sun Disk." Historians have nicknamed him "Amenhotep the Magnificent." Not bad for a child-king who began his reign when he was only 10 or 12 yearr old. (2) If you were forced to pick one word to sum up the essence of a king's rule, you might pick "trade" for Hatshepsut's time in power, "conquest" for Thutmose III's reign, and for Amenhotep III the word might be "diplomacy." From the start Amenhotep III made sure the world knew about him. In a time without newspapers or television, getting the word out about your accomplishments wasn't easy. Amenhotep III used beetles. Not live beetles―fake beetles. These pocket-size, turquoise-glazed stones, carved in the shape of beetles called scarabs, bore testimony on their bellies. Details of Amenhotep III's big moments were inscribed on their undersides. Because dozens of these scarabs have been found in neighboring countries scholars call them imperial news bulletins.

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    These had to be located by careful reconnaissance on foot as the country was very rough and due to the low cloud and mist aerial reconnaissance could not be used. Artillery was also severely hampered by the rough terrain making it virtually impossible to produce effective artillery fire support. On the plain the operations of the XXI Corps were carried out without any of the difficulties suffered by the XX Corps. The XXI Corps moved its right forward from the Wadi Deir Ballut to Ras el Ain and secured a commanding position near Abu Tellul and Musallabeh which overlooks the Jordan Valley and the Beisan to Jericho road. Their final objective was a line north of the Wadi Deir Ballut (which becomes the Wadi el Jib) and the Wadi Abu Lejja where it enters the Nahr el Auja north of Mulebbis an advance of 4.5 miles (7.2 km). After the passage of the Nahr el Auja an advance had reached El Haram near ancient Arsuf making it possible to take the Ottoman positions in enfilade. The attack was carried out by infantry from the 232nd Brigade and 234th Brigade of the 75th Division and the 162nd Brigade of the 54th (East Anglian) Division closely supported by artillery in a creeping barrage. One section followed close behind the infantry leaving the rest of the battery in action and as soon as the leading section was able to open fire the four other guns moved forward to join it. Deir el Ballut was taken about at 14:00 on 10 March and by 11:00 on 11 March all the ground to the south of the Wadi had been evacuated by the Ottoman forces leaving behind 112 soldiers who were taken prisoner and about 40 dead at a cost to the two infantry divisions of 104 casualties. The final line captured was found to be overlooked on all sides so a slight retirement to the heights just to the south was made and the positions consolidated. Elsewhere objectives had not all been gained but the depth of the advance in the centre was 5 miles (8.0 km) over a 14-mile (23 km) front at a cost of over 1,300 casualties; only 169 prisoners had been captured. The new line established by these infantry corps remained almost the same for six months; until the general advance in September 1918. The success of these infantry operations provided a sufficiently large base to support the Transjordan operations which began at the end of the month with the first Transjordan attack on Amman.