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お願いします (8) The village of Deir el-Medina has been called a company town. The only people who lived there were the 40 to 60 tomb builders and their families. For generations the skilled craftsmen worked on the king's tombs, cutting into the cliffs of the west bank of the Nile across the river from the ancient city of Thebes. These artisans needed to be within easy commute of the necropolis, or city of the dead, where they worked. The workmen walked to the Valley of the Kings by way of a mountain path. During the week, rather than walking all the way back to their village, the workmen stayed at a camp of stone huts they had built on a level spot along the pathway. The tiny one- or two-room huts were clustered, sharing common walls. The group of huts looked like a honeycomb. An Egyptian workweek ran ten days, so it was not unusual for the workers to stay on the job for eight days and then travel to their families in the village for the "weekend." (9) Building a village within walking distance of the Valley of Kings had its problems. The biggest surely had to be water. Water had to be carried from the floodplain up to the valley to the village. With about 68 homes at Deir el-Medina, that's a lot of water. The state supplied half a dozen water carriers. And, of course, they recorded the deliveries. For the average six-person household, each person would get about four gallons a day for drinking and bathing (not including laundry, which was done by laundrymen, whose service was also provided by the state). Toting the water must have been an annoyance, especially if the deliveries were delayed for any reason. But Deir el-Medina's misfortune turns out to be our good fortune.


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  • sayshe
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(8) デイル・エル・メディナの村は、企業町と呼ばれていました。 そこで生活する人々は、40~60人の墓の建設労働者と彼らの家族だけでした。 数世代にわたって、熟練した職人たちが、王の墓に取り組み、テーベの古都から川の対岸にあるナイル川の西の岸の崖を穿っていました。これらの職人は、彼らが働く、ネクロポリス、すなわち、死者の街に通いやすい所にいる必要がありました。 労働者は、山道を通って王家の谷へ徒歩で通いました。 週の間は、わざわざ彼らの村に歩いて帰るよりもむしろ、沿道に沿った水平な場所に彼らが建てた石の小屋の宿舎に、労働者はとどまりました。小さい一部屋か二部屋の小屋が、壁を共有して、集まっていました。 一群の小屋は、ハチの巣のように見えました。 エジプトの週労働時間は10日を基準にしていたので、労働者が、8日間働いて、それから「週末」に村にいる彼らの家族のもとに帰ることは珍しくありませんでした。 (9) 王家の谷に歩いて行ける距離に村を造ることには、それなりの問題点もありました。最大の問題は、間違いなく、水であったに違いありません。 水は、氾濫原(氾濫でできた平野)から谷を登ってその村まで運ばれなければなりませんでした。 デイル・エル・メディナには、約68世帯が暮らしていたので、それは大量の水になりました。 国は、6人の水の運搬人を提供しました。 そして、もちろん、彼らは(水の)配達を記録しました。平均的な6人の世帯にとって、それぞれの人が、飲み水、入浴のための水を一日に約4ガロン得たことでしょう(これらに、洗濯用の水は含まれていません、洗濯は、洗濯夫によってなされました、そして、洗濯夫のサービスも国によって提供されました)。 特に配達が、何らかの理由で、遅れるならば、水を運ぶことは悩みの種であったにちがいありません。 しかし、デイル・エル・メディナの不幸は、我々の幸運であることがわかります。



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    お願い (4) The general layout of an Egyptian house was the same whether you were rich or poor―in fact, not just rich or poor, but also dead or alive, since tombs (and temples) followed the same design. If you were to visit a typical worker's home, you would pull aside the burlaplike cloth flap covering the doorway, which kept flies and dust out, and step into the entrance hall. There might be a sheep or donkey, pausing mid-chew to watch you pass though. Did a flea from the animal jump onto your head? Or did the flea jump off you onto the animal? In a hot, sandy environment fleas are a fact of life. Even though the Egyptians shaved their bodies from head to toe to keep the fleas and lice from having place to hide, they were a constant problem. It must have been difficult to fall asleep with the fleas biting. The Ebers Papyrus had many housekeeping hints to keep scratching to a minimun and pests away. "To expel fleas in a house: sprinkle it throughout with natron water. To prevent mice from approaching: fat of cat is placed on all things. To prevent a serpent from coming out of its hole...a bulb of onion is placed in the opening of the hole and it will not come out." (5) The village of Deir el-Medina was home to well-paid tomb builders. Houses had real wooden doors and doorframes carved out of limestone, often inscribed with the home owner's name. The residents painted their doors red to repel demons. Beyond the entrance, you would enter a room for receiving guests. Egyptians owned very little furniture. You might sit on a woven mat or perhaps a stool. Only the very wealthy had chairs. Homeowners placed statues of the gods into wall niches, but otherwise had none of the knickknacks modern families often like to collect. At Deir el-Medina one homeowner, concerned about leaving his valuables behind, took an inventory and asked that a house sitter watch over things while he was away. The letter gives us an idea of what a typical Deir el-Medina household might contain.

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    However, the Australian official historian described the First Battle of Gaza quite differently. "In itself the engagement was a severe blow to the British Army, since it affected the troops on both sides to a degree out of all proportion to the casualties suffered, or to the negative victory gained by the Turks. There was not a single private in the British infantry, or a trooper in the mounted brigades, who did not believe that failure was due to staff bungling and to nothing else." Preparations for the second attack included the extension of the railway to Deir el Belah, the headquarters of Eastern Force, to enable "all available troops" to be deployed for battle. Water reservoirs for 76,000 gallons were built in the Wadi Ghuzzee and dumps of ammunition and supply were established nearby. The weather was "reasonably cool" and the health of the troops "was good." Morale had "recovered from the disappointment of the First Battle, in which victory had so narrowly eluded them." Up until 4 April, Eastern Force had been responsible for the southern sector of the Suez Canal Defence troops, 150 miles (240 km) away. This duty was transferred to the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, lightening Dobell's load.

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    The effect of British artillery-fire diminished, as the north end of the village was out of view on a slight north-facing slope; German reinforcements reached the village and artillery and machine–gun fire from Delville Wood and Longueval, raked the 26th Brigade. By the afternoon, the western and south western parts of the village had been occupied and the 27th Brigade, intended for the attack on Delville Wood had been used to reinforce the attack. At 1:00 p.m. Furse ordered the 1st South African Brigade to take over the attack on Delville Wood.

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  • g4330
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  (8) Deirの高架鉄道メディナの村は企業城下町と呼ばれました。 そこに住んでいた唯一の人々が、40~60人の墓の建築業者と彼らの家族でした。 何世代も、熟練した職人は王の墓の上で働いていました、川の向こう側にテーベの古都からナイルの西銀行のがけに切れて。 これらの職人は、ネクロポリス、または墓地の簡単な通勤の中にいる必要がありました。そこでは、彼らが働いていました。 労働者は山道を通って王家の谷まで歩きました。 いっぱいに前に歩くよりむしろそれらの村への週に、労働者はそれらが小道に沿った平らな場所で建設した石の小屋のキャンプにいました。 共有壁を共有して、小さいものか2部屋の小屋は群生しました。 小屋のグループはミツバチの巣に似ていました。 エジプトの週労働日数が10日間走ったので、労働者が8日間現職にとどまって、次に、「週末」のときに村の彼らの家族に旅行するのは、珍しくはありませんでした。 (9) キングのバレーの歩ける距離中に村を造るのにおいて、問題がありました。 最も大きいのは、確実に水でなければなりませんでした。 水は谷までの洪水はんらん原から村まで運ばれなければなりませんでした。 約68の家がDeirの高架鉄道メディナにある状態で、それは多量の水です。 州は半ダースの海運業者を供給しました。 もちろん、そして、彼らは配送を記録しました。 6人の平均した家庭に、各人は飲酒と入浴のために1日あたり約4ガロンを得るでしょう(洗濯を含んでいなくて)。洗濯がまた、サービスが州が提供された洗濯屋によって行われました。 特に配送がどんな理由でも遅らせられたなら、水を運ぶのは、いらだちであったに違いありません。 しかし、Deirの高架鉄道メディナの不運は私たちの幸運であると判明します。  



  • 日本語訳を! 7-(1)

    お願いします。 (1) What if you were an Egyptian tomb builder? Life for you 4,500 years ago may have gone this way: The barge floated upstream, bumping to a stop at the dock alongside a small farming village located a week's journey south of the capital of Mennefer. The king's men disembarked and marched double file over the pier heading for the village center. Word of their arrival rippled from house to mud-brick house. Men and women trickled out of their homes and formed a loose ring around the king's messengers. Curious and shy, the youngest children peeked out from behind their mother's legs. One of the king's men―a scribe―unrolled a scroll and held it at arm's length. He shouted out names. You caught your breath. Would you be on the list? (2) Your grandfather set the first stones in King Khufu's mer. Now 20 years later, the eternal home is nearly finished, but there is still much work to be done. A king's eternal home is more than just a mer . There are temples and causeways and walls and the queen's tombs to be built. A papyrus inscription, called the Turin Papyrus, written long after you had traveled to the afterlife, and long after kings had stopped being buried at Giza, claims the Great Pyramid was built in less than 23 years. But for all the years you can remember, you have watched your friends board the king's barge when he harvest was done. When the floods receded, and they came back, the women fussed over them, and the men treated them with respect. You caught them sometimes walking with a swagger. They had seen the world. (3) Not everyone came home. Those that came back brought news of the ones that stayed. They had married and had children and learned trades other than farming. They chose to stay on at the Giza Plateau and work for the king. (4) For two weeks now you have felt the restlessness of the flood time. If the king's men call your name, will you be one who never returns? Will this be the last time you see your village and your family?

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    These had to be located by careful reconnaissance on foot as the country was very rough and due to the low cloud and mist aerial reconnaissance could not be used. Artillery was also severely hampered by the rough terrain making it virtually impossible to produce effective artillery fire support. On the plain the operations of the XXI Corps were carried out without any of the difficulties suffered by the XX Corps. The XXI Corps moved its right forward from the Wadi Deir Ballut to Ras el Ain and secured a commanding position near Abu Tellul and Musallabeh which overlooks the Jordan Valley and the Beisan to Jericho road. Their final objective was a line north of the Wadi Deir Ballut (which becomes the Wadi el Jib) and the Wadi Abu Lejja where it enters the Nahr el Auja north of Mulebbis an advance of 4.5 miles (7.2 km). After the passage of the Nahr el Auja an advance had reached El Haram near ancient Arsuf making it possible to take the Ottoman positions in enfilade. The attack was carried out by infantry from the 232nd Brigade and 234th Brigade of the 75th Division and the 162nd Brigade of the 54th (East Anglian) Division closely supported by artillery in a creeping barrage. One section followed close behind the infantry leaving the rest of the battery in action and as soon as the leading section was able to open fire the four other guns moved forward to join it. Deir el Ballut was taken about at 14:00 on 10 March and by 11:00 on 11 March all the ground to the south of the Wadi had been evacuated by the Ottoman forces leaving behind 112 soldiers who were taken prisoner and about 40 dead at a cost to the two infantry divisions of 104 casualties. The final line captured was found to be overlooked on all sides so a slight retirement to the heights just to the south was made and the positions consolidated. Elsewhere objectives had not all been gained but the depth of the advance in the centre was 5 miles (8.0 km) over a 14-mile (23 km) front at a cost of over 1,300 casualties; only 169 prisoners had been captured. The new line established by these infantry corps remained almost the same for six months; until the general advance in September 1918. The success of these infantry operations provided a sufficiently large base to support the Transjordan operations which began at the end of the month with the first Transjordan attack on Amman.

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    At the conclusion of the Battle of Romani on 12 August 1916, the Ottoman Army had been pushed back to its forward position at Bir el Abd, the last oasis in the series stretching from the Romani area. The Ottomans' main forward base was pushed back to El Arish, with a fortified advanced post at Bir el Mazar, where a small group of wells provided reliable water. El Arish was the target of an air raid on 18 June 1916 by 11 aircraft of the 5th Wing under Colonel W. G. H. Salmond. The planes flew out to sea until east of El Arish, then turned inland to approach from the southeast. Two Ottoman aircraft on the ground and two of the ten aircraft hangars were set on fire; bombs hit four others and troops were also attacked. Three British aircraft were forced to land, one in the sea. The Egyptian Expeditionary Force required huge amounts of ammunition and supplies and a reliable source of water for an advance to El Arish. To provide this, the British army built a railway and pipeline across the Sinai Peninsula to El Arish. From the middle of August to the Battle for Magdhaba on 23 December 1916, British forces waited for this necessary infrastructure to be put in place. These four months have often been described as a period of rest for the Anzac Mounted Division as there were no major battles. However, the mounted troops were busy providing screens for the construction, patrolling newly occupied areas and carrying out reconnaissances to augment aerial photographs to improve maps of the newly occupied areas.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(5)

    お願いします。 (14) When you arrive at the barracks, the smell of fresh baking bread makes your mouth water. Bakers pull loaves out of ovens large enough for you to stand in. You take some bread for yourself and then some fore your grandfather's Ka. You wander to the west side of the pyramid looking for his tomb. Your mother told you that his tomb is a miniature version of King Khufu's mer, except grandfather's is made from mud brick instead of stone. You pass the tomb of a husband and wife who worked on the Great Pyramid. You are one of the fdw who can read bits and pieces of hieroglyphs. What you read makes you quicken your pace past the tomb. It is cursed. "O all people who enter this tomb who will make evil against this tomb and destroy it; may the crocodile be against them on water, and snakes be against them on land; may the hippopotamus be against them on water, the scorpion against them on land." Even though you would never rob a tomb, the curse gives you the creeps, and you watch the ground ahead for snakes and scorpions. (15) Maybe you had better head back. The Overseer of All the King's Works will have assigned your job and you are anxious to see what you will be doing. Most of the farmers have to do all the heavy lifting, but maybe you will be lucky since you can read a little. Maybe you will be assigned a more skilled job. You hope that you can work on one of the boats in one of the boat pits. Wouldn't it be faaulous to be a boat builder for the afterlife? To help build the boat that King Khufu will use to navigate the stars?

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    お願いします (13) Carter pulled back the bolts on the innermost shrine's doors. Barely breathing, he swung open the doors. Inside, filling the entire shrine, was King Tut's stone sarcophagus. Winged goddesses carved into the yellow quartzite at each corner protectively embraced the sarcophagus and what lay within. The lid, however, was made from pink granite. Someone had painted it yellow to match the base. Had the original lid broken? This lid had cracked, too. The crack had been disguised with plaster and paint. (14) When Carter hoisted the lid to the sarcophagus, the likeness of Tutankhamen looked up at him from the seven-foot humanshaped coffin. The symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt―the cobra and the vulture―seemed to sprout from Tut's forehead. And around the crown someone had lovingly placed a tiny flower wreath. The wreath was made of olive leaves, blue water-lily petals, and cornflowers. (15) When the workmen raised the coffin's cover, Carter began to worry. The coffin nested inside had been damaged by water. What if King Tut were badly damaged? Fearing the lid was too fragile to lift, Carter decided to remove the whole coffin. But when the workmen hoisted it, it was much heavier than it should have been. It wasn' until Carter opened the second coffin that he found out why. The third and innermost coffin was made of solid gold. It weighed 250 pounds. (16) When the last lid to the last coffin was finally raised, three years after the discovery of that first step sliced into the valley floor, Carter and King Tut were at last face to face. Later, when Carter tried to put down on paper how he felt at that moment, he found he couldn't. There were no words to ddscribe his intense emotions. He was overhelmed by the realization that it had been more than 3,000 years since another human being had looked into the golden coffin.

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    お願いします!続き After about a month of travel,the ship from Dholavira arrived at the delta of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.Here they paused until the captain could hire a local fisherman to help guide the ship through the treacherous channels of the delta before it arrived at last in the great city of Ur. Many people of the Indus Valley had made the trip before,and some of them had probably settled there to live.The captain most likely would have contacted a merchant originally from the Indus Valley to help convert Mesopotamian weights and measures and interpret for his Akkadian-speaking customers. The people of southern Mesopotamia may have paid for some of their goods with fine embroidered woolen shawls and blankets.They might also have traded in silver from Anatolia,which was widely used in Mesopotamia,and perhaps even in the more valuable gold bangles from Egypt.These simple,round bracelets were a convenient way to measure and carry gold,and could be melted down and made into other objects. On the slower return journey,the captain stopped at Dilmun,the island that today is called Bahrain,and traded Mesopotamian silver and textiles for pearls from the Persian Gulf.He also stopped at Magan,in what is now Oman,for copper and large,heavy seashells. Finally,around the beginning of June,the captain would have seen the long red flag at the top of his mast begin to flap in the southwesterly winds.That meant it was time to set sail and catch the winds before the monsoon became too strong.After filling the water pots,he and his crew headed east to the mouth of the Indus and the Gulf of Kutch.The whole trip took almost five months,but he was coming home with a ship full of valuable things that he could sell for a good profit in Dholavira and up the Indus River at Mohenjo Daro.

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    In August 1916 the German armies on the Somme had been subjected to great strain; the IX Reserve Corps had been "shattered" in the defence of Pozières. Ten fresh divisions had been brought into the Somme front and an extra division had been put into the line opposite the British. Movement behind the German front was made difficult by constant Anglo-French harassing-fire by artillery, which added to equipment shortages by delaying deliveries by rail and interrupting road maintenance. Destruction, capture, damage, wear and defective ammunition had caused 1,068 of 1,208 field guns and 371 of 820 heavy guns to be out of action by the end of August.

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    Murray believed a British advance into the Sinai to occupy Qatiya/Katiamore would be more cost effective than the static defences recently established. The War Office agreed to this, but not to his more ambitious plan to advance to the Ottoman border. He believed that the area captured in an advance to El Arish or Rafa could be held with fewer troops than would be needed for a passive defence of the Suez Canal. Murray had estimated a force of 250,000 could cross the Sinai and that 80,000 troops could be maintained in the Katia area. If such a large Ottoman force were to reach Katia then the British would need a very large force to defend the Suez Canal. British occupation of the oasis area which stretched eastwards from Romani and Katia to Bir el Abd along the ancient silk road would deny drinking water to any Ottoman invasion force.

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    Already for some time the Austrian commander-in-chief, General Conrad von Hötzendorf, had been proposing the idea of a Strafexpedition that would lethally cripple Italy, Austria-Hungary's ex-ally, claimed to be guilty of betraying the Triple Alliance, and in previous years he had had the frontier studied in order to formulate studies with regard to a possible invasion. The problem had appeared to be serious, mostly because the frontier ran through high mountains and the limited Italian advances of 1915 had worsened the situation and excluded a great advance beyond the valleys of Valsugana and Val Lagarina (both connected by railway) and the plateaus of Lavarone, Folgaria and Asiago.

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    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.