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The Ottoman Empire constructed a branch railway line from the Jaffa–Jerusalem railway at Ramleh running south to reach Sileh about 275 miles (443 km) from the Suez Canal during the autumn of 1914. The 100 miles (160 km) stretch of the railway to Beersheba was opened on 17 October 1915. By May 1916 it had been extended on to Hafir El Auja then south across the Egyptian frontier, to almost reached the Wadi el Arish in December 1916 when the Battle of Magdhaba was fought. German engineers directed the construction of stone Ashlar bridges and culverts along this railway line built to move large numbers of troops long distances quickly and keep them supplied many miles from base. Ottoman military town of Hafir el Aujah, the Principal Desert Base Any attack on the Suez Canal would require artillery and a bridging train to be dragged across the desert. Two Ottoman divisions plus one more in reserve, with camel and horse units, were ready to depart in mid-January. The advance across the Sinai took ten days, tracked by British aircraft, even though German aircraft stationed in Palestine in turn aided the Ottomans and later flew some bombing missions in support of the main attack. Kress von Kressenstein's force moved south by rail, continuing on foot via el Auja carrying iron pontoons for crossing and attacking the Suez Canal at Serapeum and Tussum. It was known at Force in Egypt headquarters that the 10th, 23rd and 27th Division had assembled near Beersheba. By 11 January Nekhl had been occupied by a small Ottoman force. On 13 January 1915 it was known to the British that strong columns were passing through el Auja and El Arish. On 25 January one regiment was reported to be approaching Qantara. The next day a force of 6,000 soldiers was reported 25 miles (40 km) east of the Little Bitter Lake at Moiya Harab when defenders at Qantara were fired on by part of the approaching force. On 27 January the El Arish to Qantara road was cut 5 miles (8.0 km) to the east and Baluchistan and Kubri posts were attacked. The force had moved towards the Suez Canal in three echelons; the main group along the central route with smaller forces on the northern and southern routes. The northern group of about 3,000 men moved via Magdhaba to El Arish and thence along the northern route towards Port Said. The central group of about 6,000 or 7,000 men moved via the water cisterns at Moiya Harab and the wells at Wady um Muksheib and Jifjafa towards Ismailia. This was at the midpoint of the Suez Canal near the vital British railway and water pumping equipment. The main force marched from Beersheba through El Auja and Ibni, between the Maghara and Yelleg hills to Jifjafa and Ismailia. The third group of about 3,000 moved via Nekl southwards towards the town of Suez at the southern end of the Suez Canal.


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>The Ottoman Empire constructed ~ many miles from base. ⇒オスマン帝国はラムレから南に走るヤッファ‐エルサレム鉄道の支線を建設し、1914年秋にスエズ運河から約275マイル(443キロ)のシレに到達した。ベールシェバに通じる拡張鉄道は1915年10月17日に運行開始した。1916年5月までにはハフィール・エル・オージャまで拡張され、その後エジプトの国境を越えて南に向かい、1916年12月に「マグダバの戦い」が行われたワジ・エル・アリーシュにほぼ到達した。ドイツ軍の工兵が、この鉄道線に沿って石造りのアシュラー橋と埋設溝の建設を指揮し、多数の軍隊を迅速に長距離移動させ、基地から何マイルも離れた場所に(兵や物資を)供給し続けた。 >Ottoman military town of Hafir el Aujah, the Principal Desert Base  Any attack on the Suez Canal ~ Suez Canal at Serapeum and Tussum. ⇒□主要な砂漠基地であるオスマンの軍事都市ハフィル・エル・オージャ  スエズ運河を攻撃するには、砂漠の中で大砲を引きずり、橋を渡る列車が必要であった。ラクダ部隊や馬部隊を擁するオスマン帝国の2個師団と1個予備師団が1月中旬に出発する準備を整えていた。パレスチナに駐留するドイツ軍航空機がオスマン軍を支援し、後に主要攻撃を支援して数回にわたる爆撃任務を遂行したにもかかわらず、シナイを横切る進軍は英国軍航空機に追跡されて10日間もかかった。クレス・フォン・クレッセンシュタインの軍は、セラペウムとツスムでスエズ運河を渡ってそれを攻撃するために、鉄道で鉄の浮橋を運んで南へ移動し、エル・オージャを経由してそこから徒歩で進み続けた。 >It was known at Force ~ Kubri posts were attacked. ⇒第10、第23、第27師団がベールシェバの近くに集結したことがエジプトの軍団本部に知られていた。1月11日までにネクルが小規模のオスマン軍に占領されていた。1915年1月13日に強力な縦隊がエル・アウジャとエル・アリシュを通過していることが英国軍に知られていた。1月25日、1個連隊がカンタラに近づいていると報告された。翌日、モイヤ・ハラブの小ビター湖の東25マイル(40キロ)地点で、カンタラの防衛隊が接近軍の一部によって発砲されたことが、兵士6,000人の軍団に報告された。1月27日、エル・アリシュから東へ5マイル(8キロ)の地点でカンタラに通じる道路が切断され、バルチスタンとクブリの哨戒陣地が攻撃された。 >The force had moved ~ southern end of the Suez Canal. ⇒軍団は3つの梯形編成軍を成してスエズ運河に向かって移動した。(すなわち)中央ルートに沿った主要グループが、北ルートと南ルートに小規模軍団を従えていた。約3,000人の北グループはマグダバ経由でエル・アリシュに移動し、そこから北ルートに沿ってサイード港に向かった。約6,000人ないし7,000人の兵士の中央グループは、モイヤ・ハラブの貯水槽とワジ・ウム・ムクシェイブとジフジャファの井戸を経由してイスマイリアに移動した。これは、英国軍の重要な鉄道と揚水設備に近く、スエズ運河の中間点にあった。主力軍は、ベールシェバからマガラとイェレグの丘陵地帯の間のエル・アウジャやイブニを通ってジフジャファとイスマイリアまで行進した。約3,000人の第3グループは、ネクル経由で南に向ってスエズ運河の南端にあるスエズの町に向かって移動した。



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    The Battle of Romani was the last ground attack of the Central Powers on the Suez Canal at the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the First World War. The battle was fought between 3 and 5 August 1916 near the Egyptian town of Romani and the site of ancient Pelusium on the Sinai Peninsula, 23 miles (37 km) east of the Suez Canal. This victory by the 52nd (Lowland) Division and the Anzac Mounted Division of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) over a joint Ottoman and German force, which had marched across the Sinai, marked the end of the Defence of the Suez Canal campaign, also known as the Offensive zur Eroberung des Suezkanals and the İkinci Kanal Harekâtı, which had begun on 26 January 1915.

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    El Arish was 90 miles (140 km) by road from the nearest British base at Kantara on the Suez Canal, initially making resupply difficult. The arrival of the Royal Navy on 22 December, quickly followed by the first stores on 24 December, meant that during the next fortnight the important Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) forward base grew quickly as 1,500 tons of supplies arrived by ship. Supplies of all kinds were unloaded by the Egyptian Labour Corps and distributed by the Egyptian Camel Transport Corps. Vitally important, the supply activities at El Arish were protected by the infantry garrison and ground based artillery, supported by the navy. On 4 January 1917 the first construction train arrived at El Arish, but it was some time before the railway, with its vast capacity to support the development of infrastructure and the supply of large garrisons, was fully developed.

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    The main force was attacked by aircraft dropping 20 pounds (9.1 kg) bombs. Two smaller flanking columns of this Ottoman force made secondary attacks on 26 and 27 January 1915 near Qantara in the northern sector of the Suez Canal and near the town of Suez in the south. From 31 January the British defenders expected an attack and by 1 February at least 2,500 infantry attackers were 6 miles (9.7 km) east of Serapeum with two guns, another force of 8,000 was at Moiya Harab 30 miles (48 km) to the south east and a third force of 3,000 was at Bir el Mahadat 10 miles (16 km) east north east of El Ferdan. In the rear of these forces were "considerable forces" at Bir el Abd 40 miles (64 km) from the Canal, at El Arish and at Nekhl. The Ottoman Expeditionary Force, moving only at night, believed that it had been unnoticed, as scouts had observed British officers playing football, when Ottoman forces already established themselves in a camp 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of the Suez Canal. Kress von Kressenstein's Suez Expeditionary Force arrived at the Canal on 2 February 1915 and the Ottomans succeeded in crossing the Suez Canal about Ismailia on the morning of 3 February 1915. By 2 February slight forward movements of the attacking force made it clear the main attack would be on the central sector, to the north or south of Lake Timsah and the armoured train with four platoons of New Zealand infantry and two platoons reinforced the 5th Gurkhas post on the east bank. The 22nd (Lucknow) Brigade (the 62nd and 92nd Punjabis and the 2/10th Gurkha Rifles) from Sector II, the 2nd Queen Victoria's Own Rajput Light Infantry, and two platoons of the 128th Pioneers from general reserve at Moascar, the 19th Lancashire Battery RFA (four 15-pounders), 5th Battery Egyptian Artillery (four mountain guns and two Maxim guns), two sections of the 1st Field Company East Lancashire Royal Engineers and the 137th Indian Field Ambulance were in position between the Great Bitter Lake and Lake Timsah. 3 February Tussum and Serapeum Squads of men were seen by the light of the moon at about 04:20 on 3 February moving pontoons and rafts towards the Suez Canal. They were fired on by an Egyptian battery, and the 62nd Punjabis along with the 128th Pioneers at Post No. 5 stopped most attempts to get their craft into the water. A further attempt along a stretch of 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to get pontoons and rafts to the canal was made slightly to the north of the first attempt. Three pontoons loaded with troops crossed the canal under cover of machine gun and rifle fire from the sand dunes on the eastern bank. As they landed on the western bank of the canal all three boat loads of soldiers were attacked and killed, wounded, or captured. As dawn lit the area, the failure of the attempt to cross the canal was complete.

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    On 19 January, British aerial reconnaissance found the Ottoman Army had evacuated El Kossaima and reduced the strength of their main desert base at Hafir el Auja. However, GHQ believed the Ottoman garrisons would continue to hold onto the Nekhl area in the centre of the Sinai Peninsula, including the villages of Bir el Hassana, Gebel Helal, Gebel Yelleg and Gebel el Heitan, to maintain control over the Arab population. To address the problem of Ottoman Army units in the rear of the advancing EEF, a raid was carried out by two columns of light horse and yeomanry at Nekhl. The two columns moved out from Serapeum, near Ismailia on the Suez Canal, with three aircraft in support to carry out the attack, 60 miles (97 km) to the east. However, as the columns were approaching the area on 17 February, the reconnaissance aircraft found the Ottoman garrisons had retired, and no fighting occurred.

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    Chilembwe's aims have also come under scrutiny. According to Robert I. Rotberg, Chilembwe's speech of 23 January appeared to stress the importance and inevitability of martyrdom as a principal motivation. The same speech depicted the uprising as a manifestation of desperation but because of his desire to "strike a blow and die", he did not have any idea of what he would replace colonialism with if the revolt succeeded. Rotberg concludes that Chilembwe planned to seize power in the Shire Highlands or perhaps in all of Nyasaland. John McCracken attacks the idea that the revolt could be considered nationalist, arguing that Chilembwe's ideology was instead fundamentally utopian and created in opposition to localised abuses of the colonial system, particularly thangata. According to McCracken, the uprising failed because Chilembwe was over-reliant on a small Europeanised petite bourgeoisie and did not gain enough mass support. Rotberg's examination the Chilembwe revolt from a psychoanalytical perspective concludes that Chilembwe's personal situation, his psychosomatic asthma and financial debt may have been contributory factors in his decision to plot the rebellion. Raid on the Suez Canal The Raid on the Suez Canal, also known as Actions on the Suez Canal, took place between 26 January and 4 February 1915 after a German-led Ottoman Army force advanced from Southern Palestine to attack the British Empire-protected Suez Canal, before the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Substantial Ottoman forces crossed the Sinai peninsula, but their attack failed mainly because of strongly held defences and alert defenders. Since its opening in 1869 the Suez Canal had featured prominently in British policy and concerns. Among its great advantages were as a line of communication and also the site for a military base as the well equipped ports at Alexandria and Port Said made the region particularly useful. However, the popularity of the British was in decline in Egypt as the people disliked the occupation and the imposition of a foreign country and alien religion in control of their country. The Convention of Constantinople of 1888 by the European Powers guaranteed freedom of navigation of the Suez Canal. In August 1914 Egypt was defended by 5,000 men in the Force in Egypt. Raid on the Suez Canal 第一次スエズ攻勢?訳がわかりませんでした。

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    With the victory at Magdhaba the occupation of El Arish was secure. This was the first town captured on the Mediterranean coast and infantry from the 52nd (Lowland) Division and the 5th Mounted Yeomanry Brigade quickly began to fortify the town. The Royal Navy arrived on 22 December 1916, and supplies began landing on the beaches near El Arish on 24 December. After the arrival of the railway on 4 January 1917 followed by the water pipeline, El Arish quickly developed into a major base for the EEF.

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    A small advance guard moved ten miles (16 km) further, to within sight of the main Ottoman defences at El Magruntein, reporting "great activity" in the area. The weather cleared on 5 January, allowing a patrol from No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps (AFC), to observe 2,000 to 3,000 Ottoman soldiers digging defences south of Rafa in the area of El Magruntein. Two days later, British air patrols found Ottoman garrisons in strength at El Kossaima and Hafir el Auja in central northern Sinai, which could threaten the right flank of the advancing EEF or reinforce Rafa. While the British air patrols were absent on 7 January, German airmen took advantage of the growing concentration of EEF formations and supply dumps, bombing El Arish during the morning and evening.

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    French troops in Chad who had returned from the Kamerun Campaign, prevented a Darfurian withdrawal westwards. Dinar withdrew into the Marra mountains 50 miles (80 km) south of El Fasher and sent envoys to discuss terms but the British believed he prevaricating and ended the talks on 1 August. Internal dissension reduced the force with Dinar to c. 1,000 men and Anglo-Egyptian outposts were pushed out from El Fasher, to the west and south-west after the August rains. A skirmish took place at Dibbis on 13 October and Dinar opened negotiations but was again suspected of bad faith. Dinar fled south-west to Gyuba and a small force was sent in pursuit. At dawn on 6 November, the Anglo-Egyptians attacked in the Affair of Gyuba and Dinar's remaining followers scattered and the body of the Sultan was found 1-mile (1.6 km) from the camp. After the expedition, Darfur was incorporated into Sudan.

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    Subsequently, Ottoman advance troops and outposts were maintained on the Sinai peninsula on a line between El Arish and Nekhl, with forces at Gaza and Beersheba. During the next few months Kress von Kressenstein commanded mobile units and launched a series of raids and attacks in an attempt to disrupt traffic on the Suez Canal. Colonel Kress von Kressenstein did all he could to keep the British occupied, launching an attack on 8 April 1915 when a mine was placed in the Suez Canal, which was located and disabled by a patrol, and between 5 and 13 May 1915 he personally led a charge. During the Gallipoli Campaign these tactics were abandoned. Von Kressenstein also demanded German special forces, which were promised to arrive in February 1916, to prepare another expedition against the Canal. He moved to the headquarters of the Fourth Army in Ain Sofar in August, then to the new headquarters in Jerusalem, and waited for the German specialists. However, the Ottoman line of communication was extended towards Egypt, with the completion of the 100-mile (160 km) section of the Ottoman railway to Beersheba, which was opened on 17 October 1915.

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    However, the Australian official historian described the First Battle of Gaza quite differently. "In itself the engagement was a severe blow to the British Army, since it affected the troops on both sides to a degree out of all proportion to the casualties suffered, or to the negative victory gained by the Turks. There was not a single private in the British infantry, or a trooper in the mounted brigades, who did not believe that failure was due to staff bungling and to nothing else." Preparations for the second attack included the extension of the railway to Deir el Belah, the headquarters of Eastern Force, to enable "all available troops" to be deployed for battle. Water reservoirs for 76,000 gallons were built in the Wadi Ghuzzee and dumps of ammunition and supply were established nearby. The weather was "reasonably cool" and the health of the troops "was good." Morale had "recovered from the disappointment of the First Battle, in which victory had so narrowly eluded them." Up until 4 April, Eastern Force had been responsible for the southern sector of the Suez Canal Defence troops, 150 miles (240 km) away. This duty was transferred to the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, lightening Dobell's load.