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お願いします (1) Spartacus was born into a world of comfort and freedom. His father may even have been a nobleman. And yet Spartacus died a Roman slave. (2) Ancient writers give us only a sketchy outline of Spartacus's early years, but he was probably born in Thrace on the eastern fringe of Rome's huge empire. He served in the Roman army for a while but then deserted. Now instead of fighting to defend Rome, he became a rebel and a robber. (3) When the Romans captured him, they made him a slave and put him on the auction block. Whoever offered the most money would own him. Like all slaves in ancient Rome, Spartacus could be bought and sold as easily as a pottery bowl or a bundle of grain. If he got into trouble or tried to escape, he might be forced to wear a metal band around his neck. On one of these collars, now in a museum, are the words:“I have run away. Capture me. When you have returned me to my master...you will get a reward.”He might have had a brand on his face, made with a sizzling-hot iron. He could not own land or vote. He could not marry legally, and his children would be born into slavery. He could not choose his work; his master would make that decision. (4) Many foreign slaves, mostly prisoners of war, did the backbreaking work of building roads and aqueducts. Another unpleasant job was cleaning the public toilets and baths. But one of the worst places to work was in the silver mines of Spain. This was often the fate of slaves who had been convicted of crimes. The Greek historian Diodorus describes the lives of these men: Their bodies are worn down from working in the mine shafts both day and night. Many die because of the terrible treatment they suffer. They are given no rest or break from their work but are forced by the whiplashes of their overseers to endure the most dreadful hardships.... They often pray more for death than for life.

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(1) スパルタクスは、快適で自由な世界に生まれました。彼の父親は、貴族でさえあったかもしれません。しかし、スパルタクスは、ローマの奴隷となって死にました。 (2) 古代の作家は、我々にスパルタクスの若い頃のおおまかな概略しか教えてくれませんが、彼は、おそらくローマと言う巨大な帝国の東の端にあるトラキアで生まれたようです。彼は、しばらくローマ軍のために働きましたが、その後、軍務を放棄しました。そして、ローマを守るために戦う代わりに、彼は、反逆者で強盗になりました。 (3) ローマ人は、彼を捕らえると、彼らは、彼を奴隷にして、彼を競売台にのせました。誰でも最も多くのお金を提示した人が、彼を所有することになりました。古代ローマのすべての奴隷と同様に、スパルタクスは、陶器の鉢や穀物の包みと同じくらい簡単に売り買いされました。トラブルに巻き込まれたり、逃げようとすれば、彼は、金属製の首輪をつけさせられるかもしれません。現在、博物館にある、これらの首輪の1つには、次の様な言葉が書かれています:「私は逃げました。 私を捕らえてください。私の主人に私を返却すれば、... 報酬がもらえます。」彼は、顔に赤熱した鉄でつけられた烙印が押されていたかもしれません。彼は、土地を所有することや、投票することができませんでした。彼は、法的に結婚することができませんでした、また、彼の子供たちも生まれても奴隷の身分でした。彼は、自分の仕事を選ぶことができませんでした; それを決めるのは、彼の主人でした。 (4) 多くの外国の奴隷は、大部分が捕虜でしたが、彼らは、道や水道を建設する骨の折れる仕事をしました。 もう一つの不快な仕事は、公共トイレや浴室の清掃でした。しかし、最悪の職場の一つは、スペインの銀山でした。これは、しばしば、犯罪の有罪判決を受けた奴隷の運命でした。ギリシアの歴史家ディオドロスは、こうした男たちの生活について述べています: 彼らの身体は、昼も夜も鉱山の縦坑で働いて疲れ果てている。多くの奴隷が、彼らが受ける酷い扱いのために死ぬ。彼らは休息や仕事の休憩を与えられず、監督の鞭ひもによって、最もひどい困難に耐えることを強制される .... 彼らは、しばしば、生きることよりも死を願う。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (9) But Spartacus didn't intend to live―or die―as a slave. He secretly organized 200 gladiators in the school and together they planned a daring escape. At the last moment, the managers of the school discovered the plot and captured more than half of the men. But, according to Plutarch, Spartacus and about 70 men escaped with knives and skewers that they stole from the school's kitchen. (10) As the rebels slipped through the darkened streets of Capua, they got a lucky break: they happened upon cart full of weapons, intended for use in the gladiatorial games. The men helped themselves and left the city, armed with swords and daggers.Their first hiding place was in the top of Mt. Vesuvius, an inactive volcano. (11) When the news broke about the slaves' escape, Rome sent 3,000 foot soldiers to surround the slaves and starve them out. Spartacus and his men were outnumbered, but not outwitted. While the Romans guarded the road, the rebels cut some thick vines they found growing near the mouth of the volcano. They twisted the vines into ropes, which they used to climb down the mountain. Surprising their enemies, they seized the Roman camp, and the defeated Romans fled. (12) As word of this astonishing victory spread, thousands of farm slaves left their masters and joined Spartacus. The rebel band grew to nearly 70,000 men who roamed the countryside and broke into slaves' barracks. The rebels freed thousands of men and armed them for battle against Rome and their former masters. (13) The Senate thought it would be easy to defeat Spartacus, but Spartacus's men defeated the Roman forces again and again. Then the senators appointed Crassus, one of Rome's top generals, as commander in chief. Crassus sent a lieutenant named Mummius against the ex-slaves. The rebels crushed Mummius so completely that he lost his soldiers, his tents, and equipment―even his horse. The soldiers who survived the battle saved their own lives by handing over their weapons to the enemy.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (14) Crassus was furious. He armed the men again. Then he divided 500 of the soldiers into 50 groups of 10. In each group, the men drew straws, and one man was chosen. Plutarch says that Crassus ordered the death of these fifty men, that they be executed“with a variety of appalling and terrible methods, performed before the eyes of the whole army, gathered to watch.”Crassus finally led Rome to victory, but only after a long, fierce struggle. Most of the rebels were killed. According to Plutarch, Spartacus refused to give up and fought savagely, even after the last of his men had deserted him. In the end, he died a soldier's death―with his sword in his hand. (15) The Romans crucified 6,000 rebels and left hanging on wooden crosses all along the Appian Way―a road that led to Rome. Their rotting bodies served as a horrible warning to rebellious slaves. (16) Although Rome was cruel to its slaves, not all of them suffered as terribly as the gladiators and mine workers did. Many captured people were skilled craftsmen who were allowed to continue their work as potters, artists, or metal workers. Those who worked in the homes of wealthy aristocrats were also treated fairly well―compared to less fortunate slaves. Household slaves were usually well fed and clothed. And their jobs were much safer and more pleasant. They worked as nannies, cooks, and seamstresses. Welleducated Greek slaves could become household secretaries or tutors for their masters' children. (17) Although slaves might become friendly with the master and his family, they still had to take orders. And if they committed crimes, they could be tortured, burned alive, crucified, or sent to fight wild beasts in the arena while the audience watched and cheered. The upper classes never suffered these violent punishments. Aristocratic criminals were killed with the sword―a quicker, less agonizing way to die.

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    お願いします (18) Slaves were sometimes able to gain their freedom legally. Freedmen, as these lucky ones were called, were usually educated people or household workers. Freed slaves, both men and women, could legally marry―though a former slave could not marry a senator. They were even allowed to own property. Although freedmen could live anywhere they liked, many stayed with their former masters to work for pay. They still needed to make a living. (19) Even though slaves had few possessions of their own, Roman mastes often gave gifts of money to hard workers. A slave could keep this gift, called a peculium, as his private property. Valuable slaves who were careful with their savings might eventually tuck away enough to buy their freedom. This system motivated slaves to work hard. It helped the masters too because, by the time a slave had saved enough money, he or she was probably growing old, and the master could use the money to auy another, younger, slave. (20) Many freedmen worked almost as hard as the slaves did. Most remained desperately poor. But at least as freedmen, they were servants who were paid for their work. And they could not be taken from their families and sold as Spartacus was.

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    お願いします (6) On March 15, the day known in Rome as the Ides of March, Caesar went to a meeting of the Senate. As usual, he had no bodyguards. On the way, a soothsayer─a “truth teller” who can tall the future─stopped him with a warning: “Caesar, beware the Ides of March.” (The Romans called the middle day of the month the “Ides”; it usually fell on the 15th.) The dictator ignored him and walked on. But when he arrived at the meeting place, a group of senators─mostly old friends and men he had pardoned and promoted─surrounded him. They quickly closed in and, drawing their knives, began to stab him. Bleeding from 23 brutal wounds, Caesar fell and died at the base of a statue he had commissioned: a statue of Pompey─his rival and friend. (7) Who was this man who stirred such a powerful mix of love, admiration,fear, and hatred? (8) Julius Caesar was born into a noble family, but he always supported the rights of the common people. He was the plebeian's favorite politician. They believed that he understood and cared about their needs. He did, but he was no saint. He was practical, strong willed, and hungry for power. Street-smart, he made very few mistakes, and he knew how to take advantage of the mistakes of his enemies. (9) In 60 BCE, Julius Caesar wanted to become a consul, but he was broke. He had already spent everything he had (or could borrow) to pay for his political career up to that point. He needed money and he needed help. So he made a bargain with two other men who also needed something: Cicero's friend Pompey and Crassus, the richest man in Rome. The three formed the First Triumvirate.

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    お願いします (13) The Romans were completely outnumbered, and the men with Horatius panicked. They threw their weapons on the ground and started running. Horatius begged them to stay and fight. He said it would be foolish to run away, leaving the enemy free to cross the bridge and march into Rome. Shouting over the noise of battle, he asked them at least to destroy the bridge, if they were too afraid to fight. He would meet the enemy alone on the other side. (14) Horatius's courage astonished Romans and Etruscans alike, but only two Roman soldiers were brave enough to cross the bridge and fight beside him. The three men fought on the riverbank while the rest of the Romans hacked away at the bridge with their swords. When only a small strip of bridge was left, Horatius insisted that his two companions return across it to safety. (15) Livy tells the story of how Horatius stood alone, facing the enemy: “Looking round with eyes dark with menace upon the Etruscan chiefs, he challenged tham to single combat, calling tham the slaves of a tyrant king....” At first the Etruscans held back, but then, shamed by Horatius's courage, they began to hurl their javelins at him. Horatius caught their weapons on his shield. “As stubborn as ever, he stood on the bridge, his feet planted wide apart. The Etruscans were about to charge him when two sounds split the air: the crash of the broken bridge and the cheer of the Romans when they saw the bridge fall.” (16) This stopped the Etruscans in their tracks. Then Horatius prayed to the god of the river. “‘Holy Father Tiber...receive these arms and your soldier into your kindly waters.’ With that, he jumped into the river with all his armor on and safely swam across to his friends: an act of daring more famous than believable in later times.” The Roman people placed a statue in the public square to honor Horatius. As a reward for his amazing courage, they gave him as much land as he could plow in a day.