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18-3日本語訳

お願いします。  Ashoka wanted Kalinga not only for its riches,but also because the highways that connected north and south India ran right through the middle of the state.And war elephants or no war elephants,what Ashoka wanted,he usually got.His attack was brutal and effective.By the time the war was over,one out of every four Kalingans was dead or wounded.Many more had been taken prisoner and were separated from what was left of their families.Those who survived faced lives as broken and barren as their wrecked houses and ruined fields.Ashoka reported that“150,000”were deported,100,000 were killed,and many more died(from other causes).”  As Ashoka stared out over the ruins left by his armies,something changed.He'd seen the agony of defeated people before,but this was different.He was different.He remembered the lessons of dharma,artha,kama,and moksha,and realized suddenly that there was nothing honorable,creative,beautiful,or peaceful about this victory.  So Ashoka,who called himself“Beloved of the Deities,”sent out a royal edict,a message,which he had proclaimed in every village and carved into rock pillars for all to see:“After the Kalingas had been conquered,Beloved of the Deities came to feel a strong inclination towards dharma,a love for dharma,and for instruction of dharma.Now Beloved of the Deities feels deep remorse for having comquered the Kalingas.”  Ashoka adopted a new philosophy,one he called“conquest by dharma,”instead of by arms.As he explained in one of his proclamations:  I have had this edict written so that sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests,or that if military conquests are made,that they be done with forbearance and light punishment,or better still that they consider making conquest by dharma only,for that bears fruit in this world and the next.May all their intense devotion be given to this which has result in this world and the next.

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  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

 アショカがカリンガを望んだのは、その富のためだけではなく、南北インドをつないぐ幹線道路が同国の中央を通って走っていたからです。 それから、戦闘用の象あるいは非戦闘用の象が、アショカが望んだもので、たいてい彼はそれらを手に入れました。 彼の攻撃は残忍で、効果的でした。 戦争が終わる頃には、カリンガの人の4人に1人は、死ぬか負傷していました。さらに大勢が捕虜になって、残された彼らの家族から切り離されました。 生き残った人々も、壊された家や荒廃した田畑同様の荒れて不毛となった生活に直面しました。 アショカは「150,000人が追放され、100,000人が戦死し、さらに多くが、(他の原因で)死んだと報告しました。」  彼の軍が去った後の廃墟をアショカが見つめた時、何かが変わりました。 彼は以前にも敗れた人々の苦しみを目にしていましたが、これは異なりました。 彼は変わりました。 彼は自然の法、アルサ、カーマ、解脱の教えを思い出し、この勝利には名誉なこと、創造的なこと、美しいこと、平穏なことが何もないと突然悟りました。  それで、アショカは自分自身を「神々の愛せし者」と名乗りましたが、彼はメッセージすなわち国王の命令を発布しました、そして、彼はそれをあらゆる村で宣言し、万人が目にするように岩の柱にそれを刻みました: 「カリンガの民が征服されしあと、神々の愛せし者は、自然の法、自然の法に対する愛情に強く惹かれ、自然の法の教えを求める気持ちになった。 今、神々の愛せし者は、カリンガの民を征服したことへの心からの後悔の念を感ずる。」  アショカは、新しい哲学、彼が「自然の法による征服」と言ったものを武器による(征服の)代わりに採用しました。 彼は宣言の1つにおいて次の様に説明しました:

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

  • 18-4日本語訳

    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.

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  • sayshe
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#1.です。最後の部分が抜け落ちました。申し訳ありません。以下を参考にして下さい。  アショカがカリンガを望んだのは、その富のためだけではなく、南北インドをつないぐ幹線道路が同国の中央を通って走っていたからです。 それから、戦闘用の象あるいは非戦闘用の象が、アショカが望んだもので、たいてい彼はそれらを手に入れました。 彼の攻撃は残忍で、効果的でした。 戦争が終わる頃には、カリンガの人の4人に1人は、死ぬか負傷していました。さらに大勢が捕虜になって、残された彼らの家族から切り離されました。 生き残った人々も、壊された家や荒廃した田畑同様の荒れて不毛となった生活に直面しました。 アショカは「150,000人が追放され、100,000人が戦死し、さらに多くが、(他の原因で)死んだと報告しました。」  彼の軍が去った後の廃墟をアショカが見つめた時、何かが変わりました。 彼は以前にも敗れた人々の苦しみを目にしていましたが、これは異なりました。 彼は変わりました。 彼は自然の法、アルサ、カーマ、解脱の教えを思い出し、この勝利には名誉なこと、創造的なこと、美しいこと、平穏なことが何もないと突然悟りました。  それで、アショカは自分自身を「神々の愛せし者」と名乗りましたが、彼はメッセージすなわち国王の命令を発布しました、そして、彼はそれをあらゆる村で宣言し、万人が目にするように岩の柱にそれを刻みました: 「カリンガの民が征服されしあと、神々の愛せし者は、自然の法、自然の法に対する愛情に強く惹かれ、自然の法の教えを求める気持ちになった。 今、神々の愛せし者は、カリンガの民を征服したことへの心からの後悔の念を感ずる。」  アショカは、新しい哲学、彼が「自然の法による征服」と言ったものを武器による(征服の)代わりに採用しました。 彼は宣言の1つにおいて次の様に説明しました:  余はこの命令を息子や曾孫が新しい征服を行うことを考えぬように、また、軍事的征服がなされるならば、それが寛容と軽い罰でなされ、さらによいことは、現世に、そして、来世に実を結ぶように、自然の法のみによって征服を行うことを考えるように書き記させた。 すべての彼らの強い献身が、現世と来世で結実するものに捧げられんことを祈る。

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  • 18-1日本語訳

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