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お願いします。  Ashoka wanted Kalinga not only for its riches,but also because the highways that connected north and south India ran right through the middle of the state.And war elephants or no war elephants,what Ashoka wanted,he usually got.His attack was brutal and effective.By the time the war was over,one out of every four Kalingans was dead or wounded.Many more had been taken prisoner and were separated from what was left of their families.Those who survived faced lives as broken and barren as their wrecked houses and ruined fields.Ashoka reported that“150,000”were deported,100,000 were killed,and many more died(from other causes).”  As Ashoka stared out over the ruins left by his armies,something changed.He'd seen the agony of defeated people before,but this was different.He was different.He remembered the lessons of dharma,artha,kama,and moksha,and realized suddenly that there was nothing honorable,creative,beautiful,or peaceful about this victory.  So Ashoka,who called himself“Beloved of the Deities,”sent out a royal edict,a message,which he had proclaimed in every village and carved into rock pillars for all to see:“After the Kalingas had been conquered,Beloved of the Deities came to feel a strong inclination towards dharma,a love for dharma,and for instruction of dharma.Now Beloved of the Deities feels deep remorse for having comquered the Kalingas.”  Ashoka adopted a new philosophy,one he called“conquest by dharma,”instead of by arms.As he explained in one of his proclamations:  I have had this edict written so that sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests,or that if military conquests are made,that they be done with forbearance and light punishment,or better still that they consider making conquest by dharma only,for that bears fruit in this world and the next.May all their intense devotion be given to this which has result in this world and the next.


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  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
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 アショカがカリンガを望んだのは、その富のためだけではなく、南北インドをつないぐ幹線道路が同国の中央を通って走っていたからです。 それから、戦闘用の象あるいは非戦闘用の象が、アショカが望んだもので、たいてい彼はそれらを手に入れました。 彼の攻撃は残忍で、効果的でした。 戦争が終わる頃には、カリンガの人の4人に1人は、死ぬか負傷していました。さらに大勢が捕虜になって、残された彼らの家族から切り離されました。 生き残った人々も、壊された家や荒廃した田畑同様の荒れて不毛となった生活に直面しました。 アショカは「150,000人が追放され、100,000人が戦死し、さらに多くが、(他の原因で)死んだと報告しました。」  彼の軍が去った後の廃墟をアショカが見つめた時、何かが変わりました。 彼は以前にも敗れた人々の苦しみを目にしていましたが、これは異なりました。 彼は変わりました。 彼は自然の法、アルサ、カーマ、解脱の教えを思い出し、この勝利には名誉なこと、創造的なこと、美しいこと、平穏なことが何もないと突然悟りました。  それで、アショカは自分自身を「神々の愛せし者」と名乗りましたが、彼はメッセージすなわち国王の命令を発布しました、そして、彼はそれをあらゆる村で宣言し、万人が目にするように岩の柱にそれを刻みました: 「カリンガの民が征服されしあと、神々の愛せし者は、自然の法、自然の法に対する愛情に強く惹かれ、自然の法の教えを求める気持ちになった。 今、神々の愛せし者は、カリンガの民を征服したことへの心からの後悔の念を感ずる。」  アショカは、新しい哲学、彼が「自然の法による征服」と言ったものを武器による(征服の)代わりに採用しました。 彼は宣言の1つにおいて次の様に説明しました:




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  • 回答No.3
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

#1.です。最後の部分が抜け落ちました。申し訳ありません。以下を参考にして下さい。  アショカがカリンガを望んだのは、その富のためだけではなく、南北インドをつないぐ幹線道路が同国の中央を通って走っていたからです。 それから、戦闘用の象あるいは非戦闘用の象が、アショカが望んだもので、たいてい彼はそれらを手に入れました。 彼の攻撃は残忍で、効果的でした。 戦争が終わる頃には、カリンガの人の4人に1人は、死ぬか負傷していました。さらに大勢が捕虜になって、残された彼らの家族から切り離されました。 生き残った人々も、壊された家や荒廃した田畑同様の荒れて不毛となった生活に直面しました。 アショカは「150,000人が追放され、100,000人が戦死し、さらに多くが、(他の原因で)死んだと報告しました。」  彼の軍が去った後の廃墟をアショカが見つめた時、何かが変わりました。 彼は以前にも敗れた人々の苦しみを目にしていましたが、これは異なりました。 彼は変わりました。 彼は自然の法、アルサ、カーマ、解脱の教えを思い出し、この勝利には名誉なこと、創造的なこと、美しいこと、平穏なことが何もないと突然悟りました。  それで、アショカは自分自身を「神々の愛せし者」と名乗りましたが、彼はメッセージすなわち国王の命令を発布しました、そして、彼はそれをあらゆる村で宣言し、万人が目にするように岩の柱にそれを刻みました: 「カリンガの民が征服されしあと、神々の愛せし者は、自然の法、自然の法に対する愛情に強く惹かれ、自然の法の教えを求める気持ちになった。 今、神々の愛せし者は、カリンガの民を征服したことへの心からの後悔の念を感ずる。」  アショカは、新しい哲学、彼が「自然の法による征服」と言ったものを武器による(征服の)代わりに採用しました。 彼は宣言の1つにおいて次の様に説明しました:  余はこの命令を息子や曾孫が新しい征服を行うことを考えぬように、また、軍事的征服がなされるならば、それが寛容と軽い罰でなされ、さらによいことは、現世に、そして、来世に実を結ぶように、自然の法のみによって征服を行うことを考えるように書き記させた。 すべての彼らの強い献身が、現世と来世で結実するものに捧げられんことを祈る。



  • 18-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  Prince Ashoka Maurya had two kinds of heroes.The first were the deities of the Vedic scriptures and the prince and princesses who served them in sacred texts such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.These religious heroes taught him the satisfaction of living with honor and justice(dharma),the excitement of money and succesr(artha),and the contentment of enjoying the world's beauties and pleasures(kama).They taught him that if he filled his life with these qualities of honor,excellence,and beauty,he would reach moksha,when the cycle of life,death,and rebirth would end.   That all sounded good to Prince Ashoka.But so did the adventures of his second kind of hero-the warrior heroes like his father,King Bindusara,and his grandfather,Chandragupta.Ashoka loved fighting,and he was good at it.He may well have gone to a military academy like the one in Taxila.Brahmins and Kshatriya came there from all over the subcontinent to learn military science,including the use of the eight major eapoms.Brahmins shot bows,the Kshatriya were swordsmen,the Vaishya used the lance,and the Shudra wielded the mace-a heavy,spiked,hammerlike weapon.The teacher was skilled in all those weapons plus the disk(chakra),the spear,and fighting with his bare hands.Brahmin and Kshatriya students were also trained to command a war elephant.  Military academies like the one in Taxila show how important war was to the people of Ashoka's time.Each town had its own central armory,a strong building for storing weapons,run by a superintendet.The government kept such tight control over its weapons that all soldiers had to return their arms to the armory after they practiced each morning.No one could carry a weapon unless he had special permit.

  • 18-4日本語訳

    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.

  • 18-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  In about 269 BCE,Ashoka's father,King Bindusara,died.Ashoka was barely 30,but he had already proven himself a brilliant warrior.Ashoka's mother had not been his father's chief wife,so he had to compete with his half brothers for the throne.But by 265 BCE Ashoka had defeated all his rivals and was the unquestioned king of the dntire northern subcontinent.  He may have been king,but many of his people did not wish to be his subjects.They had lived in independent city-states for centuries and,and although a centralized state had its good points,like making the roads better and safer and increasing trade,they did not want to obey a king.Ashoka made royal visits to these regions to persuade his people to stay in the kingdom his father and grandfather had established.When persuasion didn't work,he sent his army.  Ashoka's grandfather,Chandragupta,ham united most of the northern subcontinent.His empire stretched“from the lord of the mountains[Himalayas],cooled by showers of the spray nf the divine steam[Ganga]playing about among its rocks.to the shores of the southern ocean marked by the brilliance of gems flashing with various colors.”Arhoka's father,Bindusara,had continued his father's tradition,earning himself the nickname“Slayer of Enemies.”But neither Chandragupta nor Bindusara had dared attack the territory of Kalinga in eastern India.  Kalinga was a particularly rich and powerful state.Its riches came from its trade with Southeast Asia.Merchants from Kalinga could be found as far away as Borneo,Bali,and Java.Although it had no king,Kalinga protected its riches with a huge and well-organized army,including an army of especially mighty war elephants.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (13) Octavian wanted everyone to know that he had brought peace to Rome after decades of civil war. He called it the Pax Romana, the Roman Peace, and built an elaborate Altar of Peace on the main road leading into Rome to celebrate his accomplishment. Octavian also demonstrated his victory by closing the doors of the temple of Janus─the god with two faces who guarded the doors of homes and cities. By tradition, these doors were kept open in times of war so that Janus would be free to help Rome against its enemies. In 500 years of almost-constant war, the temple doors had only been closed twice. (14) Rome was at peace, but its government was a mess. Enemies alo the frontiers had taken advantage of Rome's turmoil by rebelling against its control or refusing to pay its taxes. Octavian had to overcome these troublesome neighbors, but he also had to quiet the quarrels among the leaders of Rome. It was tricky to keep the senate on his side while attacking corruption within it. (15) Hundreds of senators had died in the civil wars. Octavian filled their place with men who had been loyal to him over the years. Many of these new Senate members were not from Rome, but from other Italian cities. Men like Octavian's best friend, his general Agrippa, formed the new ruling class. Octavian chose them not for their family ties, but for their ability and loyalty. (16) Although Octavian was wise enough to avoid the title of King, he accepted thename of Augustus in 27 BCE. After I had put out the fires of civil war,…I transferred the Republic from mw power to the control ofthe Senate and people of Rome. For this…I was named Augustus by the Senate…. From this time on, I topped everyone in influence.

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

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    お願いします (25) In spite of his poor health, Augustus lived to be 76 years old and reigned for 41 years as emperor. In the last years of his life, he realized that he must choose a successor. But whom? His beloved grandsons had both died young. With only one logical choice left, Augustus summoned his stepson Tiberius to Rome. He named this gloomy man as his co-ruler and successor. (26) In 14 CE, Augustus took a last journey by sea. He caught a chill in the night air and became quite ill. He called Tiberius to his bedside and spoke with him for a long time in private. Then, on August 19, knowing that the end was near, he called for a mirror and had his hair carefully combed. The biographer Suetonius tells the story: “he summoned a group of friends and asked ‘Have I played my part in the comedy of life believably enough?’” Then he added lines from a play: If I have pleased you, kindly show Appreciation with a warm goodbye. (27) Augustus Caesar had played many roles well: the dutiful heir of Julius Caesar; the victor over Antony; the reformer of Roman government; the generous sponsor of literature and art;and, in his final years, the kindly father figure of Rome─providing food, entertainment, and security to his people. Near the end of his life, he remembered: “When I was 60 years old, the senate, the equestrians, and the whole people of Rome gave me the title of Father of my Country and decreed that this should be inscribed in the porch of my house.” (28) When Augustus died, all Italy mourned, and the Senate proclaimed him a god. His rule marked a turning point in history. In his lifetime, the Roman Republic came to an end. but he rescued the Roman state by turning it into a system ruled by emperors─a form of government that survived for another 500 years. In an age in which many rules were called “saviors” and “gods,” Augustus Caesar truly deserved to be called the savior of the Roman people.

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.

  • 日本語訳を!!5

    お願いします (1) Cornelius Scipio Hispanus was not a modest man. He praised not only himself, but his whole family as well. When he died around 135 BCE, the epitaph written on his tomb listed his many elected offices, followed by four lines of poetry, bragging about his accomplishments:  By my good conduct, I heaped honor upon the honor of my family; I had children, and I tried to equal the deeds of my father; I won the praise of my ancestors and made them glad I was born; My own virtue has made noble my family tree. (2) For generations, the Scipio en had served in high offices. And by the second century BCE, the Scipios had become Rome's leading family. They decorated their family tomb with marble busts of important family members. The oldest sarcophagus contains the body of a Scipio who was a consul of Rome in 298 BCE. Its dedicatiom reads:“Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, son of Gnaeus, a brave and wise man, whose handsomeness matched his bravery. He was consul, censor, and aedile among you. He captured...many cities for Rome and brought home hostages.” (3) Like other patricians, Scipio Hispanus proudly claimed his ancestors as founding fathers of Rome. He was probably much like the Roman in this statue. Even though scholars cannot tell us this person's name, we can learn a lot just by looking at him. First: he's a Roman. We know because he's wearing a toga, the garment that was a sign of manhood. The Romans called it the toga virilis, and a boy wasn't allowed to wear it until he became a man, usually at 16. Second, because this unknown Roman is carrying makes of his ancestors, we know that his father or grandfather had served as one of Rome's top officials.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします。

    チャップリンの自伝の文章なのですが、日本語訳をお願いします。 I saw Frank Tinney again on the stage a few years later and was shocked, for the comic Muse had left him. He was so self-conscious that I could not believe it was the same man. It was this change in him that gave me the idea years later for my film Limelight. I wanted to know why he had lost his spirit and his assurance. In Limelight the case was age; Calvero grew old and introspective and acquired a feeling of dignity, and this divorced him from all intimacy with the audience.