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お願いします。  At first,King Ambhi's plan seemed to have worked.Alexander marched on,leaving Taxila intact.When he got to the Jhelum River,the border between King Ambhi and Porus,Alexander demanded that Porus surrender at once.Porus,safe on the other side,refused.It was too hot to fight,and the river,rising from melting snow,was too dangerous to cross.At this time of the year,there was no grass for the army's horses and oxen,and villagers had no rice or wheat to spare for soldiers.Besides,the monsoon was expected soon,and no sensible person would try fighting during the huge rainstorms that were on their way.It was pointless.Once it started raining,everything was so muddy that horses and chariots got stuck and were useless.Only the elephants could get through,and even they wouldn't be much help.The archers the elephants carried would have ahard time shooting with wet,soggy bow strings.  But Alexander had not come as far as he had to be stopped by a river or a little rain.He sent small bands of men out at night to trick Porus into thinking he was crossing the river.According to one story,Porus sent his troops to meet them,only to find out that no one was there.When Alexander and his men finally did attack,during a heavy rainstorm,the battle lasted for more than eight hourr.Thousands of warriors(including both of Porus's sons)were kilked or wounded,along with their horses and elephants.Porus himself was badly wounded,too.But he was just as stubborn as Alexander and,wounded or not,he led a charge against the Greeks.  By the end of the day,both armies were exhausted,and Alexander called a truce.According to a Persian poem,Shah Nama,written by the poet Firdausi 1,600 years later,Alexander told Porus:


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 最初、アムビヒ王の計画は、うまくいったように思われました。 アレキサンダーは、タキシラを無傷のままにして、進撃しました。 彼が、アムビヒ王とポーラスの境界である、ジェラム川に到着したとき、アレキサンダーはポーラスにすぐに降伏するよう要求しました。 対岸の安全なところにいた、ポーラスは、拒絶しました。 戦うにはあまりに暑く、川は、雪解け水で増水しており、渡るにはあまりにも危険でした。一年のこの時期には、軍の馬や雄牛のための草がありませんでした、また、村人にも兵士に分け与える余分な米や小麦がありませんでした。 さらに、モンスーンが、間もなく予想されました、それで、分別のある人であれば、巨大な暴風雨が迫っている時期に戦を試みようとはしないでしょう。それは無意味でした。 ひとたび雨が降り始めたなら、何もかもが泥だらけになり、馬や二輪戦車は動けなくなって、役に立たなくなりました。 象だけは進むことができましたが、それでも、彼らさえあまり助けとはなりませんでした。 象が乗せている弓術兵は、雨で、ずぶぬれの弓の弦で撃つのに苦労するでしょう。  しかし、アレキサンダーは、彼が川や少しの雨で足止めされなければならない程にはなっていませんでした。 彼は、夜間に小集団の兵を出して、ポーラスに彼が川を横断していると思わせる罠をしかけました。 ある物語によれば、ポーラスは彼らを迎え撃つために彼の軍隊を差し向けましたが、誰もそこにいないとわかっただけでした。 激しい暴風雨の時に、アレキサンダーと彼の兵士が攻撃をようやくしたとき、戦いは8時間以上続きました。ポーラスの息子の2人を含め、何千もの兵士が、彼らの馬や象に加えて、死に、傷つきました。 ポーラス自身もまた重傷を負いました。 しかし、彼はアレキサンダーに負けないほど頑固でした、それで、傷ついていようがいまいが、彼はギリシア人に対して突撃を率いました。 その日の暮れるまでに、両軍は疲れ果てました、それで、アレキサンダーは休戦を呼びかけました。 1,600年後に詩人フィルダウシーによって書かれた、ペルシャの詩、シャー・ナーマによると、アレキサンダーはポーラスに次の様に言いました:





  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

  • 16-4日本語訳

    お願いします。  O!Noble Man:  Our two hosts have been shattered by the fight,  The wild beasts batten on the brains of men,  The horses' hoofs are trampling on their bones,  Now both of us are heroes,brave and young,  Both paladins of eloquence and brain,  Why the slaughter be the soldier's lot  Or bare survival after combating. Alexander's first messenger war poor unlucky King Ambhi,but Porus chased that traitor away with a spear,so Alexander sent someone else.This time,after Porus had dirmounted from his horse and had a drink of water,he agreed to meet with Alexander.Although Greek historian Arrian said that Alexander won,he also said that when Alexander asked Porus how he wanted to be treated,Porus answered,“as a King. Many historians today believe that the battle ended in a tie.Alexander granted Porus not only the land that was already his,but a good part of King Ambhi's land as well.  Although Alexander was ready to go farther,after the battle with Porus his Greek soldiers had had enough,and they refused.Their return was horrible.After fighting their way down through unfriendly India settlements along the Indus River to the sea,most of the army died while trying to make its way home along the treacherous and waterless Makran coast between India and Mesopotamia.Although Alexander himself got to Mesopotamia safely,he died there a few years later,when he was only 32 years old.  From an Indian point of view,the invasion of Alexander the Great was far less important than the adventures of one of King Porus's allies,a minor prince named Chandragupta.The story goes that Alexander thought that Chandragupta was not respectful enough to him and tried to have him killed,but Chandragupta ran away.By 317 BCE,the prince who ran in fear of his life would control half of the Indian subcontinent,everything from present-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh and Nepal to the central Deccan plateau-including all of the South Asian territory once held by Alexander,Porus,and Ambhi.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (10) It is not surprising that Rhodopis enjoyed music. Tombs and temple walls are covered with images of dancers and musicians. There were percussion instruments―drums, cymbals, and tambourines. There were wind instruments―flutes and trumpets. And there were stringed instruments―harps, lyres, and lutes. Everyone enjoyed music, from the pharaoh to the field worker. No one loved a festival more than the Egyptians. Crowds sang and clpped along with the musicians who paraded through the streets. Dancers performed for the revelers, moving with the grace of gymnasts―cartwheeling, twirling, flipping, and gyrating to the rhythm. Music and dance were integral to Egyptian daily life. Workers labored to the beat, priests praised the gods in music and motion. Musicians and dancers entertained at banquests and ushered the dead at funerals. So, for a young servant girl to sing to the animals at day's end is not surprising at all. (11) Rhodopis twirled so lightly her feet barely grazed the ground. Unknown to Rhodopis, she was dancing near the tree where the old man slept and her movement woke him. He was so taken by her grace that he decided right then and there that her feet should have the finest shoes in the kingdom. "He ordered her a special pair of slippers. The shoes were gilded with rose-red gold and the soles were leather. Now the servant girls really disliked her for they were jealous of her beautiful slippers." (12) News traveled to their village that the king was having a party. The entire kingdom was invited. On the day of the party the servant girls put on their finest clothes. They gave Rhodopis a long list of chores and handed her mounds of laundry to be washed in the river. They laughed at her washing the clothes as they poled down the river to the king's banquet.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    For most conspicuous bravery. Finding that, after being heavily attacked in an advanced and isolated position, the enemy were working round his flanks, Captain Bloomfield evacuated his wounded, and subsequently withdrew his command to a new position, he himself being amongst the last to retire. On arrival at the new position he found that one of the wounded—No. 2475 Corporal D. M. P. Bowker—had been left behind. Owing to very heavy fire he experienced difficulties in having the wounded Corporal brought in.

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    Going to the shore on the first morning of the vacation, Jerry stopped and looked at a wild and rocky bay, and then over to the crowded beach he knew so well from other years. His mother looked back at him. “Are you tired of the usual beach, Jerry?” “Oh, no!” he said quickly, but then said, “I’d like to look at those rocks down there.” “Of course, if you like.” Jerry watched his mother go, then ran straight into the water and began swimming. He was a good swimmer. He swam out over the gleaming sand and then he was in the real sea. He saw some older, local boys — men, to him — sitting on the rocks. One smiled and waved. It was enough to make him feel welcome. In a minute, he had swum over and was on the rocks beside them. Then, as he watched, the biggest of the boys dived into the water, and did not come up. Jerry gave a cry of alarm, but after a long time the boy came up on the other side of a big dark rock, letting out a shout of victory. Immediately the rest of them dived and Jerry was alone. He counted the seconds they were under water: one, two, three… fifty… one hundred. At one hundred and sixty, one, then another, of the boys came up on the far side of the rock and Jerry understood that they had swum through some gap or hole in it. He knew then that he wanted to be like them. He watched as they swam away and then swam to shore himself. Next day he swam back to the rocks. There was nobody else there. He looked at the great rock the boys had swum through. He could see no gap in it. He dived down to its base, again and again. It took a long time, but finally, while he was holding on to the base of the rock, he shot his feet out forward and they met no obstacle. He had found the hole. In the days that followed, Jerry hurried to the rocks every morning and exercised his lungs as if everything, the whole of his life, depended on it.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) The Romans planned to invade Spain and fight Hannibal there. But Hannibal didn't wait around. He decided to surprise them and invade Italy first. The journey toward Rome took five months, beginning with a long march across France. Then Hannibal led his soldiers through the Alps. He lost one-third of his men during the icy mountain crossing. But still he marched on, with men, horses, and war elephants. These African elephants were decorated for battle and painted in bright colors. (Their trunks were usually red.) Swords were attached to their tusks. Some carried towers on their backs─small fortresses that protected the soldiers riding inside as they shot arrows and hurled stones at their Roman enemies. (14) The Romans first faced Hannibal's elephants at the Battle of Lake Trebia in northern Italy in 218 BCE. When Hannibal gave the signal, the elephant handlers jabbed the beasts with iron pokers─whips are not enough for elephants─and drove the trumpeting animals forward. Most Italians had never seen an elephant. Their size alone must have been terrifying. The Roman horses─and many soldiers too─panicked at the sight and smell of these monstrous creatures. (15) Pressing deeper into Italy, Hannibal showed his cleverness at the Battle of Lake Trasimene, in central Italy, in 217 BCE. Pretending to march against Rome itself, he lured the Romans into a narrow pass and ambushed them from the hills. His troops demolished the Roman army. (16) A year later, Hannibal conquered the Roman troops again at the Battle of Cannae, in southern Italy, thanks to his powerful cavalry and a brilliant battle plan. Hannibal commanded the soldiers fighting in the center to pretend to retreat─to move back, as if they were losing. The Romans fell for Hannibal's trick and followed. Then the Carthaginians fighting on the flanks closed in on the Romans and surrounded them. The Romans were trapped!

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (17) Augustus Caesar, now the emperor of Rome, worked to reorganize the government and military. His greatest accomplishment was the creation of a system of government that lasted in Rome for five centuries: the Roman Empire. (18) Augustus created Rome's first police and fire brigade. He created a network of roads that connected the major cities of the empire, linking them all to Rome. He changed the way finance were handled and issued new gold and silver coins. He gave free food to the poor. He built the Forum of Augustus and decorated it with statues of his ancestors. He beautified the city and boasted of this accomplishment: “I found a city made of brick and left it a city of marble.” Augustus also sponsored artists and poets like Horace and Virgil, whose works glorified Rome─and, of course, himself. (19) Throughout his reign, Augustus never forgot that his great-uncle had been killed by jealous enemies who feared his power and popularity. Augustus pretended that his powers were all voluntarily given. He allowed freedom of speech and encouraged people to give him advice. But he was clever. He knew how to use power without seeming to seek or even treasure it. During his rule, magistrates were still elected to govern Rome. By sharing power with the magistrates, Augustus kept people from worrying that he was governing Rome alone. In fact, the soldiers were loyal to him and him alone─he paid their salaries and his treasury would pay their pensions. (20) The emperor's authority was so great that everyone left all the major decisions to him. But he was also very careful. Augustus kept a force of 4,500 soldiers to defend him. These soldiers, later called the Praetorian Guard, protected all of Italy. But some of them were always on hand to protect the emperor. To be on the safe side, the guards allowed only one senate at a time to approach the emperor, and they searched each man before he came close.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.