• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!

16-4日本語訳

お願いします。  O!Noble Man:  Our two hosts have been shattered by the fight,  The wild beasts batten on the brains of men,  The horses' hoofs are trampling on their bones,  Now both of us are heroes,brave and young,  Both paladins of eloquence and brain,  Why the slaughter be the soldier's lot  Or bare survival after combating. Alexander's first messenger war poor unlucky King Ambhi,but Porus chased that traitor away with a spear,so Alexander sent someone else.This time,after Porus had dirmounted from his horse and had a drink of water,he agreed to meet with Alexander.Although Greek historian Arrian said that Alexander won,he also said that when Alexander asked Porus how he wanted to be treated,Porus answered,“as a King. Many historians today believe that the battle ended in a tie.Alexander granted Porus not only the land that was already his,but a good part of King Ambhi's land as well.  Although Alexander was ready to go farther,after the battle with Porus his Greek soldiers had had enough,and they refused.Their return was horrible.After fighting their way down through unfriendly India settlements along the Indus River to the sea,most of the army died while trying to make its way home along the treacherous and waterless Makran coast between India and Mesopotamia.Although Alexander himself got to Mesopotamia safely,he died there a few years later,when he was only 32 years old.  From an Indian point of view,the invasion of Alexander the Great was far less important than the adventures of one of King Porus's allies,a minor prince named Chandragupta.The story goes that Alexander thought that Chandragupta was not respectful enough to him and tried to have him killed,but Chandragupta ran away.By 317 BCE,the prince who ran in fear of his life would control half of the Indian subcontinent,everything from present-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh and Nepal to the central Deccan plateau-including all of the South Asian territory once held by Alexander,Porus,and Ambhi.

共感・応援の気持ちを伝えよう!

  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数58
  • ありがとう数1

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

 ああ! 高貴なる男:  我々の2つの軍隊は、戦いに傷つきたり、  野獣が兵士の頭をつぶし、  馬の蹄が、彼らの骨を踏みつけている、  今や、我々双方は雄々しく、若い勇者なり。  雄弁さ頭脳を備えた英雄なり、  何故、虐殺が兵士の定めなりしか  さもなくば、戦いの後の九死に一生が定めなるか。  アレキサンダーの最初の使者は哀れで不運なアムビヒ王でした、しかし、ポーラスは槍でその裏切り者を追い払ったので、アレキサンダーは他の者を送りました。 今度は、ポーラスは彼の馬から降りて、水を飲んだあと、彼はアレキサンダーに会うことに同意しました。 ギリシアの歴史家アリアヌスは、アレキサンダーが勝ったと言いましたが、アレキサンダーがポーラスにどのように扱われたいか尋ねたとき、ポーラスが「王として」と答えたと、アリアヌスは、また、述べています。今日、多くの歴史家は、戦いが引き分けに終わったと思っています。 アレキサンダーは、ポーラスにすでに彼のものであった土地ばかりでなく、アムビヒ王の土地のかなりの部分も与えました。  アレキサンダーは、さらに遠くに遠征する準備ができていたけれど、ポーラスとの交戦の後、彼のギリシアの兵士たちはもうたくさんだと言う気持ちになっていたので、彼らは拒絶しました。彼らの帰還はひどいものでした。海に至るインダス川に沿った敵対的なインドの入植地を闘いながら進んだ後、インドとメソポタミアの間の危険で水の無いマクラーン海岸に沿ってその帰国の道をたどろうとしていた時、軍の大部分が死にました。 アレキサンダー自身は、無事にメソポタミアに到着しましたが、彼は数年後にそこで死にました、当時彼はまだ32歳でした。  インド人の見方からすると、アレキサンダー大王の遠征は、ポーラス王の同盟者の一人であるチャンドラグプタという名の未成年の王子の冒険と比べて、はるかに重要ではありませんでした。 物語によると、アレキサンダーは、チャンドラグプタがアレキサンダーに十分に敬意を払わないと思い、チャンドラグプタを殺させようとしたのですが、チャンドラグプタは逃れたそうです。紀元前317年までに、命が危ういと恐れて逃げた王子が、インド亜大陸の半分、すなわち、現代のアフガニスタンからバングラデシュ、ネパール、さらに、デカン高原の中央に及ぶ ― かつて、アレキサンダー、ポーラス、アムビヒによって所有された南アジアの全地域を含むすべての地域を支配することになるのです。

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

質問者からのお礼

ありがとうございます

関連するQ&A

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

  • 日本語訳を!!12

    お願いします (1) Ptolemy XII was pharaoh of Egypt, the wealthiest country in the Mediterranean world. Ptolemy loved to party─he was called “The Flute Player” because he was so fond of music. But Ptolemy was not just a playful fellow. He was also a troublesome one, so troublesome that his own people wanted him out. They booted him from power in 58 BCE and put his eldest daughter, Berenice, on the throne instead. (2) Ptolemy fought back. He traveled to Rome and bribed the general Ptolemy to support him against Berenice. Ptolemy took troops to Egypt, defeated Berenice's supporters, and returned the playboy king to his throne. In gratitude, Ptolemy named Ptolemy as legal guardian to his eldest son. Ptolemy then gave orders for Berenice to be beheaded. (3) Who was this man who ordered his own daughter's death? (4) Ptolemy XII was actually a Greek. His long-ago ancestor, the first Ptolemy, had served as a general under Alexander the Great, who, in 331 BCE, had conquered a huge empire─including Egypt. When Alexander died, his three top generals divided the empire among themselves. The one who chose Egypt made himself its king and called himself Ptolemy I. By the time Ptolemy XII came to the throne, his family had ruled Egypt for almost 250 years. But they still spoke Greek and considered themselves part of the Greek world. (5) Although Ptolemy had executed his eldest daughter, there was another whom he especially loved─a bright, lively girl named Cleopatra VII. The king seems to have found her the most interesting of all his children. He proclaimed her a goddess when she was about four years old.

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

  • 16-3日本語訳

    お願いします。  At first,King Ambhi's plan seemed to have worked.Alexander marched on,leaving Taxila intact.When he got to the Jhelum River,the border between King Ambhi and Porus,Alexander demanded that Porus surrender at once.Porus,safe on the other side,refused.It was too hot to fight,and the river,rising from melting snow,was too dangerous to cross.At this time of the year,there was no grass for the army's horses and oxen,and villagers had no rice or wheat to spare for soldiers.Besides,the monsoon was expected soon,and no sensible person would try fighting during the huge rainstorms that were on their way.It was pointless.Once it started raining,everything was so muddy that horses and chariots got stuck and were useless.Only the elephants could get through,and even they wouldn't be much help.The archers the elephants carried would have ahard time shooting with wet,soggy bow strings.  But Alexander had not come as far as he had to be stopped by a river or a little rain.He sent small bands of men out at night to trick Porus into thinking he was crossing the river.According to one story,Porus sent his troops to meet them,only to find out that no one was there.When Alexander and his men finally did attack,during a heavy rainstorm,the battle lasted for more than eight hourr.Thousands of warriors(including both of Porus's sons)were kilked or wounded,along with their horses and elephants.Porus himself was badly wounded,too.But he was just as stubborn as Alexander and,wounded or not,he led a charge against the Greeks.  By the end of the day,both armies were exhausted,and Alexander called a truce.According to a Persian poem,Shah Nama,written by the poet Firdausi 1,600 years later,Alexander told Porus:

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) Octavian wanted everyone to know that he had brought peace to Rome after decades of civil war. He called it the Pax Romana, the Roman Peace, and built an elaborate Altar of Peace on the main road leading into Rome to celebrate his accomplishment. Octavian also demonstrated his victory by closing the doors of the temple of Janus─the god with two faces who guarded the doors of homes and cities. By tradition, these doors were kept open in times of war so that Janus would be free to help Rome against its enemies. In 500 years of almost-constant war, the temple doors had only been closed twice. (14) Rome was at peace, but its government was a mess. Enemies alo the frontiers had taken advantage of Rome's turmoil by rebelling against its control or refusing to pay its taxes. Octavian had to overcome these troublesome neighbors, but he also had to quiet the quarrels among the leaders of Rome. It was tricky to keep the senate on his side while attacking corruption within it. (15) Hundreds of senators had died in the civil wars. Octavian filled their place with men who had been loyal to him over the years. Many of these new Senate members were not from Rome, but from other Italian cities. Men like Octavian's best friend, his general Agrippa, formed the new ruling class. Octavian chose them not for their family ties, but for their ability and loyalty. (16) Although Octavian was wise enough to avoid the title of King, he accepted thename of Augustus in 27 BCE. After I had put out the fires of civil war,…I transferred the Republic from mw power to the control ofthe Senate and people of Rome. For this…I was named Augustus by the Senate…. From this time on, I topped everyone in influence.

  • 18-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  In about 269 BCE,Ashoka's father,King Bindusara,died.Ashoka was barely 30,but he had already proven himself a brilliant warrior.Ashoka's mother had not been his father's chief wife,so he had to compete with his half brothers for the throne.But by 265 BCE Ashoka had defeated all his rivals and was the unquestioned king of the dntire northern subcontinent.  He may have been king,but many of his people did not wish to be his subjects.They had lived in independent city-states for centuries and,and although a centralized state had its good points,like making the roads better and safer and increasing trade,they did not want to obey a king.Ashoka made royal visits to these regions to persuade his people to stay in the kingdom his father and grandfather had established.When persuasion didn't work,he sent his army.  Ashoka's grandfather,Chandragupta,ham united most of the northern subcontinent.His empire stretched“from the lord of the mountains[Himalayas],cooled by showers of the spray nf the divine steam[Ganga]playing about among its rocks.to the shores of the southern ocean marked by the brilliance of gems flashing with various colors.”Arhoka's father,Bindusara,had continued his father's tradition,earning himself the nickname“Slayer of Enemies.”But neither Chandragupta nor Bindusara had dared attack the territory of Kalinga in eastern India.  Kalinga was a particularly rich and powerful state.Its riches came from its trade with Southeast Asia.Merchants from Kalinga could be found as far away as Borneo,Bali,and Java.Although it had no king,Kalinga protected its riches with a huge and well-organized army,including an army of especially mighty war elephants.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (21) Augustus was a hard-working emperor. He traveled to many of the provinces under his care, but he was sickly and didn't expect to live very long. After his military campaign in Spain, Augustus returned to Rome and, in 23 BCE, became quite illand began thinking about a successor to follow him as Rome's ruler. His first choice had been his nephew Marcellus, but Marcellus had died young─not long after he had married Julia, the emperor's only daughter. (22) Julia played the key role in her father's search for a successor. After Marcellus died, she had to marry again, to a man of her father's choice. For her next husband, Augustus chose his general Agrippa, his closet friend and advisor. Although Julia was much younger than Agrippa, she dutifully married him, and the couple had five children. Then Agrippa died. (23) Although Augustus adopted his young grandsons as his heirs, he still needed a husband for Julia to protect the boys in the event of his own death. So he forced his stepson Tiberius to divorce his wife, even though Tiberius loved her very deeply. (He used to follow his former wife on the streets, weeping.) The marriage between Julia and Tiberius was a disaster: Julia was unfaithful, and Tiberius went into exile on the Greek island of Rhodes. Augustus was forced to banish his own daughter from Rome for her crime of adultery. (24) Julia must have spilled many tears over her father's marriage choices for her─especially the last one. She hated Tiberius, and he felt the same way about her. Even so, she would never have questioned her father's right to select her husbands. This was a parent's duty, especially if dad happened to rule the Roman Empire.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (21) During his own lifetime, Cicero was known as a great statesman, orator, and man of action. But he died a bitterly disappointed man. He had failed to do what he most wanted to accomplish: to save the Roman Republic. Not even Cicero's enemies, though, could doubt his love for Rome. Plutarch, writing many years after Cicero's death, tells a story about Octavian─after he had risen to great power as the emperor Augustus Caesar. The emperor found his grandson reading a book written by Cicero. Knowing that his grandfather had agreed to let Mark Antony's soldiers murder Cicero, “The boy was afraid and tried to hide it under his gown. Augustus...took the book from him, and began to read it.... When he gave it back to his grandson, he said,‘My child, this was a learned man, and a lover of his country.’”

  • 日本語訳を!(16)

    お願いします (1) Today when the body of a dead boy turns up, a team of specialists is sent to the scene. By examining the body, scientists can learn a great deal about that person's life, and often the cause of death. But in 1922, when archaeologist Howard Carter found Tutankhamen, no one thought a dead body had much to tell. In fact, people had so little regard for mummies that locals used them for firewood. Archaeologists sipped their afternoon tea by the fire with human bones―even skulls―at their feet. For scientists then, it was all about the tomb. (2) When Carter uncovered the first step to an ancient sunken stairway, he knew he had discovered the entrance to a tomb. But whose? On Sunday, November 5, 1922, Carter wrote in his diary, "The seal-impressions suggested that it belonged to somebody of high standing but at that time I had not found any indications as to whom." (3) When the workmen finished clearing the stairway on Friday, November 24, Carter wrote, "reached as far as the first doorway. There proved to be sixteen steps." After examining the first doorway, Carter found "various seal impressions bearing the cartouche of Tut-ankh-Amen." He had discovered King Tut's tomb. (4) Not much is known about Tutankhamen. He had taken the throne when he was only ten years old, and guided by his advisers, had set out to restore Egypt. But his father was probably the despised Akhenaten, the king who had robbed Egypt of its gods, and so Tutankhamen was guilty by association. The kings who followed him tried to erase the whole family from history.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.