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With the vital port firmly in Greek hands, all the other allies could hope for was a customs-free dock in the harbor. In the meantime, operations in the Epirus front had stalled: against the rough terrain and Ottoman fortifications at Bizani, the small Greek force could not make any headway. With operations in Macedonia complete, Constantine transferred the bulk of his forces to Epirus, and assumed command. After lengthy preparations, the Greeks broke through the Ottoman defences in the Battle of Bizani and captured Ioannina and most of Epirus up into what is today southern Albania (Northern Epirus). These victories dispelled the tarnish of the 1897 defeat, and raised Constantine to great popularity with the Greek people.George I was assassinated in Thessaloniki by an anarchist, Alexandros Schinas, on 18 March 1913, and Constantine succeeded to the throne. In the meantime, tensions between the Balkan allies grew, as Bulgaria claimed Greek and Serbian-occupied territory. In May, Greece and Serbia concluded a secret defensive pact aimed at Bulgaria. On 16 June, the Bulgarian army attacked their erstwhile allies, but were soon halted. King Constantine led the Greek Army in its counterattack in the battles of Kilkis-Lahanas and the Kresna Gorge. In the meantime the Bulgarian army had started to disintegrate: beset by defeat in the hands of Greeks and Serbs, they were suddenly faced by a Turkish counterattack with fresh Asian troops finally ready, while the Romanians advanced south, demanding Southern Dobrudja. Under attack on four fronts Bulgaria sued for peace, agreed to an armistice and entered into negotiations in Bucharest. On the initiative of Prime Minister Venizelos, Constantine was also awarded the rank and baton of a Field Marshal.

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>With the vital port firmly in Greek hands, all the other allies could hope for was a customs-free dock in the harbor. In the meantime, operations in the Epirus front had stalled: against the rough terrain and Ottoman fortifications at Bizani, the small Greek force could not make any headway. With operations in Macedonia complete, Constantine transferred the bulk of his forces to Epirus, and assumed command. ⇒この重要不可欠な港が、ギリシア軍の完全掌握するところとなって、同盟国がそれ以外に望めたことは、港の関税免除のドック(船荷取扱場)であった。一方、エピルス前線での作戦行動は、先延ばしになっていた。すなわち、ビザーニの起伏の多い地形とオスマントルコ軍防備に対して、小さなギリシア軍団は、いかなる前進も敵わなかったのである。コンスタンティンは、完璧だったマケドニアでの作戦行動をもって、彼の軍隊の大半をエピルスへ動かして、指揮をとった。 >After lengthy preparations, the Greeks broke through the Ottoman defences in the Battle of Bizani and captured Ioannina and most of Epirus up into what is today southern Albania (Northern Epirus). These victories dispelled the tarnish of the 1897 defeat, and raised Constantine to great popularity with the Greek people. ⇒長い準備の後、ギリシア軍は「ビザーニの戦い」でオスマントルコ軍の防衛施設を突破して、今日南アルバニア(北エピルス)となっているイオアニナと大部分のエピルスを攻略し切った。これらの勝利は1897の敗北の汚名を払拭し、コンスタンティンの一大人気がギリシア人民の間に広まった。 >George I was assassinated in Thessaloniki by an anarchist, Alexandros Schinas, on 18 March 1913, and Constantine succeeded to the throne. In the meantime, tensions between the Balkan allies grew, as Bulgaria claimed Greek and Serbian-occupied territory. In May, Greece and Serbia concluded a secret defensive pact aimed at Bulgaria. On 16 June, the Bulgarian army attacked their erstwhile allies, but were soon halted. King Constantine led the Greek Army in its counterattack in the battles of Kilkis-Lahanas and the Kresna Gorge. ⇒ジョージI世が、1913年3月18日に無政府主義者アレクサンドロス・スキナスによってテッサロニキで暗殺されたので、コンスタンティンが王座を継承した。一方、ブルガリアがギリシアとセルビアの占有する領域を要求したので、バルカン同盟国の間の緊張が高まった。5月に、ギリシャとセルビアは、ブルガリアを狙って、秘密の防御協定を締結した。6月16日に、ブルガリア軍はそのかつての同盟国を攻撃したが、すぐに停止した。コンスタンティン王は、キルキス‐ラハナスとクレスナ峡谷の闘争での反撃に際して、ギリシア方面軍を指揮した。 >In the meantime the Bulgarian army had started to disintegrate: beset by defeat in the hands of Greeks and Serbs, they were suddenly faced by a Turkish counterattack with fresh Asian troops finally ready, while the Romanians advanced south, demanding Southern Dobrudja. Under attack on four fronts Bulgaria sued for peace, agreed to an armistice and entered into negotiations in Bucharest. On the initiative of Prime Minister Venizelos, Constantine was also awarded the rank and baton of a Field Marshal. ⇒一方、ブルガリア軍は崩壊し始めていた。すなわち、ギリシア軍とセルビア軍の手で敗北に追い込まれ、また一方ではルーマニア軍が南部ドブルージャを要求して南へ進軍する間、ようやく準備のできた新しいアジアの軍隊をもって攻めるトルコ軍への反撃に突然直面したのであった。4つ前線への攻撃に晒されて、ブルガリアは和平を求めて、休戦に同意し、ブカレストで交渉を始めた。ベニゼロス首相の提唱によって、コンスタンティンは陸軍元帥の職位と指揮権をも与えられた。

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  • 和訳をお願いします。

    On 30 September general Joffre informed general Sarrail of the impending great offensive of the Romanian and Russian forces under general Averescu against the Bulgarian Third Army in Dobrudja and their expected crossing of the Danube between Ruse and Tutrakan. The commander of the Allied Army of the East now planned to use this by coordinating it with a renewed push against the Eleventh Army's Kenali line and eventually knock out Bulgaria out of the war. On 4 of October the Allies attacked with the French and Russians in the direction of Monastir - Kenali, the Serbian First and Third Army in along the Kenali - Cherna Loop line, the Serbian Second Army against the Third Balkan Division - in the direction of Dobro Pole. The allies had 103 battalion and 80 batteries against the 65 battalions and 57 batteries of the Central Powers in the area.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Battle of the Crna Bend was a major military engagement fought between the forces of the Central Powers and the Entente in May 1917. It was part of the Allied Spring Offensive of the same year that was designed to break the stalemate on the Macedonian Front. Despite the considerable numerical and matériel advantage of the attackers over the defenders, the Bulgarian and German defense of the positions in the loop of the river Crna remained a very formidable obstacle, which the Allies were unable to defeat not only in 1917 but until the end of the war itself.With the onset of the winter of 1916 all military operations on the Macedonian Front came to an abrupt end. The three-month-long Monastir Offensive provided the Allies with only limited tactical successes but it failed to knockout Bulgaria out of the war by a combined attack of General Sarrail's forces and the Romanian Army. On strategic level the overall result of the offensive was that it managed to keep over half of the Bulgarian Army and few German units on the Macedonian Front. On tactical level the front line was moved in favor of the Allies by only about 50 kilometers in the Sector of General Winkler's 11th German-Bulgarian Army. By the end of November however the Bulgarians and Germans were able to firmly establish themselves on the Chervena Stena - height 1248 - Hill 1050 - Dabica - Gradešnica defensive line and subsequently repel all Allied attempts to dislodge them of their positions.

  • 英文の和訳をお願い致します。

    The Austro-Hungarians and Germans began their attack on 7 October, with their troops crossing the Drina and Sava rivers, covered by heavy artillery fire. Once they crossed the Danube, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians moved on Belgrade itself. Vicious street fighting ensued and the Serbs' resistance in the city was finally crushed on 9 October. Then, on 14 October, the Bulgarian Army attacked from two directions, from the north of Bulgaria towards Niš and from the south towards Skopje . The Bulgarian First Army defeated the Serbian Second Army at the Battle of Morava, while the Bulgarian Second Army defeated the Serbians at the Battle of Ovche Pole. With the Bulgarian breakthrough, the Serbian position became untenable; the main army in the north (around Belgrade) could either retreat, or be surrounded and forced to surrender. In the Battle of Kosovo the Serbs made a last and desperate attempt to join the two incomplete Allied divisions that made a limited advance from the south, but were unable to gather enough forces, due to the pressure from the north and east and were halted by the Bulgarians under General Georgi Todorov and had to pull back.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Previously the Inspector General of the Army, Constantine was appointed commander-in-chief of the Greek "Army of Thessaly" when the First Balkan War broke out in October 1912. He led the Army of Thessaly to victory at Sarantaporos. At this point, his first clash with Venizelos occurred, as Constantine desired to press north, towards Monastir, where the bulk of the Ottoman army lay, and where the Greeks would rendezvous their Serb allies. Venizelos, on the other hand, demanded that the army capture the strategic port city of Thessaloniki, the capital of Macedonia, with extreme haste, so as to prevent its fall to the Bulgarians. The dispute resulted in a heated exchange of telegrams. Venizelos notified Constantine that "... political considerations of the utmost importance dictate that Thessaloniki be taken as soon as possible". After Constantine impudently cabled: "The army will not march on Thessaloniki. My duty calls me towards Monastir, unless you forbid me", Venizelos was forced to pull rank. As Prime Minister and War Minister, he outranked Constantine and his response was famously three-words-long, a crisp military order to be obeyed forthwith: "I forbid you". Constantine was left with no choice but to turn east, and after defeating the Ottoman army at Giannitsa, he accepted the surrender of the city of Thessaloniki and of its Ottoman garrison on 27 October (O.S.), less than 24 hours before the arrival of Bulgarian forces who hoped to capture the city first. The capture of Thessaloniki against Constantine's whim proved a crucial achievement: the pacts of the Balkan League had provided that in the forthcoming war against the Ottoman Empire, the four Balkan allies would provisionally hold any ground they took from the Turks, without contest from the other allies. Once an armistice was declared, then facts on the ground would be the starting point of negotiations for the final drawing of the new borders in a forthcoming peace treaty.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

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