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The Battle of the Crna Bend was a major military engagement fought between the forces of the Central Powers and the Entente in May 1917. It was part of the Allied Spring Offensive of the same year that was designed to break the stalemate on the Macedonian Front. Despite the considerable numerical and matériel advantage of the attackers over the defenders, the Bulgarian and German defense of the positions in the loop of the river Crna remained a very formidable obstacle, which the Allies were unable to defeat not only in 1917 but until the end of the war itself.With the onset of the winter of 1916 all military operations on the Macedonian Front came to an abrupt end. The three-month-long Monastir Offensive provided the Allies with only limited tactical successes but it failed to knockout Bulgaria out of the war by a combined attack of General Sarrail's forces and the Romanian Army. On strategic level the overall result of the offensive was that it managed to keep over half of the Bulgarian Army and few German units on the Macedonian Front. On tactical level the front line was moved in favor of the Allies by only about 50 kilometers in the Sector of General Winkler's 11th German-Bulgarian Army. By the end of November however the Bulgarians and Germans were able to firmly establish themselves on the Chervena Stena - height 1248 - Hill 1050 - Dabica - Gradešnica defensive line and subsequently repel all Allied attempts to dislodge them of their positions.

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>The Battle of the Crna Bend was a major military engagement fought between the forces of the Central Powers and the Entente in May 1917. It was part of the Allied Spring Offensive of the same year that was designed to break the stalemate on the Macedonian Front. Despite the considerable numerical and matériel advantage of the attackers over the defenders, the Bulgarian and German defense of the positions in the loop of the river Crna remained a very formidable obstacle, which the Allies were unable to defeat not only in 1917 but until the end of the war itself. ⇒「クルナ・ベンドの戦い」は、1917年5月に中央同盟国と協商国の軍隊間で行われた大きな交戦であった。それは、マケドニアの前線における手詰まり状態を打破すべく練られた、同年の「連合国の春の攻撃」の一環であった。守備軍に対する攻撃軍の持つかなりの数的・物的優勢にもかかわらず、クルナ川ループの陣地のブルガリア軍・ドイツ軍の防衛施設は非常に恐るべき障害であり続けていて、連合国軍にとってそれは、1917年中はおろか戦争終結まで打ち負かすことができなかった。 >With the onset of the winter of 1916 all military operations on the Macedonian Front came to an abrupt end. The three-month-long Monastir Offensive provided the Allies with only limited tactical successes but it failed to knockout Bulgaria out of the war by a combined attack of General Sarrail's forces and the Romanian Army. On strategic level the overall result of the offensive was that it managed to keep over half of the Bulgarian Army and few German units on the Macedonian Front. ⇒1916年冬の始まりをもって、マケドニア前線上のすべての作戦行動は突然に終わった。期間3ヵ月に及ぶモナスチル攻撃では、連合国軍にとって極めて限られた戦術的な成功はあったが、サライユ将軍の軍団とルーマニア方面軍の合同攻撃によってブルガリアを戦場から締め出すことには失敗した。戦術レベルに関わる全体的な攻撃の成果としては、半分以上のブルガリア方面軍と若干のドイツ軍部隊をマケドニアの前線に縛りつけることが、何とかできたということ(だけ)であった。 >On tactical level the front line was moved in favor of the Allies by only about 50 kilometers in the Sector of General Winkler's 11th German-Bulgarian Army. By the end of November however the Bulgarians and Germans were able to firmly establish themselves on the Chervena Stena - height 1248 - Hill 1050 - Dabica - Gradešnica defensive line and subsequently repel all Allied attempts to dislodge them of their positions. ⇒戦術レベルに関連して、ウィンクラー将軍の第11ドイツ‐ブルガリア方面軍の地区では、前線が連合国に幸いする方に50キロほどだけ動いた。しかし、ブルガリア軍とドイツ軍は、11月末までにシェルヴェナ・シュテナ―1248番高地―1050番ヒル―ダビカ―グラデズニカに防御戦線をしっかり設定し、続いてその陣地からすべての連合国軍を追い払うべく、彼らを撃退することができた。

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  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Entente continued with their attempts for a breakthrough against the Bulgarians in the area of the River Crna in the next year again without any success. The allied offensive in spring 1917 was a failure. The Bulgarian-German army continued to hold the Macedonian Front against French, British, Serbian and Greek troops until the Franco-Serbian breakthrough at Dobro Pole on 15 September 1918.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    The sector was divided into two 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) defensive areas, protected by the Mountain Division and the 9th Infantry Division respectively. Bulgaria established combat security outposts at a distance of 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the enemy trenches, while also reinforcing the defenses of the dominant Dub and Kala Tepe mountains. Similarly to Dobro Pole the defenses consisted of a series of mutually supporting trenches, with built in observation posts, machine gun positions and artillery pieces. D'Espèrey expected to march the Allied Army of the Orient through the towns of Demir Hisar, Rupel, Petrici, Blagusa, Gradec, Štip and Belessa finally seizing Skopje. Units stationed at Katsania and Tetovo would prevent a Bulgarian flanking maneuver, while the main body of the force would widen the breach both in Štip and Prilep. In case of a collapse of the front between Dobro Pole and Tzena, the Bulgarian 1st Army and the German 11th Army. Armies would either be annihilated or, in less favorable circumstances, perform an organised retreat to a new defensive line on river Crna. The prevention of such a retreat was to be achieved by a rapid, penetrating attack on Gradsko, Dren Planina (mk) and Visoka. Subsequent operations On 20 September, the 17th and 122nd French Colonial Divisions along with the 1st Serbian Army crossed river Crna. News of a breakthrough at Dobro Pole prompted the defenders of Doiran to abandon their positions and rush to the defense of their homeland, in order to prevent a future occupation by the Entente. On 21 September, the Allies became aware of the Bulgarian withdrawal after observing a series of fires and munition dump explosions on the Bulgarian positions, a pursuit by the British XII Corps was launched immediately. The Serbian advanced guard approached Krivolak, thus creating a wedge between the 1st Bulgarian and 11th German Armies in an effort to force the latter to retire towards Albania. The 2nd Bulgarian Army headed towards the Kosturino Pass avoiding direct engagement with the Allies. At 17:30 p.m. on 22 September, the Italian 35th Division under General Ernesto Mombelli joined the offensive, seizing Hill 1050 stronghold from the 302nd German Division and taking 150 prisoners. Fighting took place in Kanatlarci and along the Monastir–Prilep road, in Cepik, Kalabak and Topolčani as the Allies continued to advance towards Prilep. At 14:00 p.m. on 23 September, General Louis Franchet d'Espèrey announced that the initial plan of the operation was to be modified.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Monastir Offensive was an Allied military operation against the forces of the Central Powers during World War I, intended to break the deadlock on the Macedonian Front by forcing the capitulation of Bulgaria and relieving the pressure on Romania. The offensive took the shape of a large battle and lasted for three months and ended with the capture of the town of Monastir. On an average depth of 50 kilometers the Bulgarian First Army (from the end of September German Eleventh Army) gave battle on six occasions and was forced to retreat five times.

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    The Battle of Lake Naroch, an offensive on the Eastern Front by the Russian army during World War I, ends on this day in 1916 after achieving little success against German positions near Lake Naroch and the Russian town of Vilna (in modern-day Lithuania). With French forces under heavy attack at the fortress town of Verdun, French Commander in Chief Joseph Joffre called on his allies in early 1916 to launch offensive operations of their own in order to divert German resources and ease pressure on Verdun. Britain’s answer to this entreaty would come only months later, at the Somme in June. Czar Nicholas II and the Russian chief of staff, General Mikhail Alekseyev, responded more quickly, with a planned offensive drive in the Vilna-Naroch region, where 1.5 million Russian soldiers would face just 1 million combined German and Austro-Hungarian troops. In their haste to come to France’s aid, however, the Russian command seemed to overestimate the capability and preparedness of their own troops, especially against the well-trained, well-organized German army machine.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    This was a noteworthy achievement and reflected well on the increasingly efficient staffwork of the British armies. A detachment from the Corps of two infantry battalions, a wireless unit and a casualty clearing station had been sent to the front near Ypres to bluff the Germans that the entire Corps was moving north to Flanders. The Canadian Corps was not fully in position until 7 August. To maintain secrecy, the Allied commanders pasted the notice "Keep Your Mouth Shut" into orders issued to the men, and referred to the action as a "raid" rather than an "offensive".[Although the Germans were still on the offensive in late July 1918, the Allied armies were growing in strength, as more American units arrived in France, and British reinforcements were transferred from the Home Army in Britain and the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. The German commanders realised in early August that their forces might be forced onto the defensive, though Amiens was not considered to be a likely front. The Germans believed the French would probably attack the Saint-Mihiel front east of Rheims, or in Flanders near Mount Kemmel, while they believed the British would attack along either the Lys or near Albert. The Allies had indeed mounted a number of local counter-offensives in these sectors, both to gain local objectives to improve their defensive positions and to distract attention from the Amiens sector. German forces began to withdraw from the Lys and other fronts in response to these theories. The Allies maintained equal artillery and air fire along their various fronts, moving troops only at night, and feigning movements during the day to mask their actual intent. The German front east of Amiens was held by their Second Army under General Georg von der Marwitz, with six divisions in line (and two facing the French 1st Army). There were only two divisions in immediate reserve. There was some concern among the Allies on 6 August when the German 27th Division actually attacked north of the Somme on part of the front on which the Allies planned to attack two days later. The German division (a specially selected and trained Stosstruppen formation) penetrated roughly 800 yards (730 m) into the one-and-a-half mile front.. This attack was made in retaliation for a trench raid by the 5th Australian Division north of the Somme on the night of 31 July, which had gained many prisoners, before the Australian Corps was concentrated south of the river.

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    Joffre issued instructions on 18 August but held back the Third and Fourth armies because air and cavalry reconnaissance found few German troops opposite the two armies, only a large force moving north-west 40–50 kilometres (25–31 mi) away. On 19 August the Fourth army of General Fernand de Langle de Cary was ordered to occupy the bridges over the Semois but not to advance into Belgium until the German offensive began. A premature attack would advance into a trap rather than give time for the Germans to empty Luxembourg of troops before the French advanced. On 20 August the German armies in the south attacked the French First and Second armies and next day the Third and Fourth armies began their offensive. The Fourth Army crossed the Semois and advanced towards Neufchâteau and the Third Army of General Pierre Ruffey attacked towards Arlon, as a right flank guard for the Fourth army. South of Verdun, the Third army was renamed Army of Lorraine and was to watch for a German offensive from Metz, which left the remainder of the Third Army free to concentrate on the offensive into Belgium. The French armies invaded Belgium with nine infantry corps but ten German corps and six reserve brigades of the 4th and 5th armies lay between Metz and the north of Luxembourg.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Vardar Offensive (Bulgarian: Офанзива при Вардар) was a World War I military operation, fought between 15 and 29 September 1918. The operation took place during the final stage of the Balkans Campaign. On September 15, a combined force of Serbian, French and Greek troops attacked the Bulgarian-held trenches in Dobro Pole ("Good Field"), at the time part of the Kingdom of Serbia (present day Republic of Macedonia). The assault and the preceding artillery preparation had devastating effects on Bulgarian morale, eventually leading to mass desertions. On September 18, a second Entente formation assaulted the Bulgarian positions in the vicinity of Lake Doiran. Effectively employing machine gun and artillery fire the Bulgarians managed to stall the Allied advance on the Doiran sector. However the collapse of the front at Dobro Pole forced the Bulgarians to withdraw from Doiran. The Allies pursued the German 11th Army and the Bulgarian 1st Army, while pushing deeper into Vardar Macedonia. By 29 September, the Allies had captured the former HQ of Uskub, thus endangering the remnants of the 11th Army. The parallel development of the anti-monarchist Radomir Rebellion forced Bulgaria to sign the Armistice of Salonica and withdraw from the war. The treaty included the full capitulation of the 11th Army, bringing the final tally of German and Bulgarian prisoners to 77,000 and granting the Allies 500 artillery pieces. The Bulgarian downfall turned the strategic and operational balance of the war against the Central Powers. The Macedonian Front was brought to an end at noon on 30 September, when the ceasefire came into effect. The 28 June 1914, assassination of Austro-Hungarian heir presumptive Archduke Franz Ferdinand precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. The conflict quickly attracted the involvement of all major European countries, pitting the Central Powers against the Entente coalition and starting World War I. Serbia was defeated during the autumn 1915 phase of the Serbian Campaign, prompting France and Britain to transfer troops from the Gallipoli Campaign to Greek Macedonia. The Macedonian Front was thus established in an effort to support the remnants of the Serbian army to conquer Vardar Macedonia. On 17 August 1916, in the Struma Offensive Bulgaria invaded Greece, easily conquering all Greek territory east of the Struma, since the Greek Army was ordered not to resist by the pro-German King Constantine. The surrender of territory recently won with difficulty in the Second Balkan War of 1913 was the last straw for many supporters of Liberal Party politician Eleftherios Venizelos.

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