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Following a plebiscite in which nearly 99% of votes were cast in favor of his return, Constantine returned as king on 19 December 1920. This caused great dissatisfaction not only to the newly liberated populations in Asia Minor, but also to the Great Powers who opposed the return of Constantine. Within two years the king's new-found popularity was lost again. The inherited, ongoing Asia Minor Campaign against Turkey began with initial successes in western Anatolia against the Turks. The Greeks initially met with disorganized opposition. However, an ill-conceived plan to capture Kemal's new capital of Ankara, located deep in barren Anatolia where there was no significant Greek population, succeeded only in its initial stages. The overextended and ill-supplied Greek Army was routed and driven from Anatolia back to the coast. burning Smyrna. Following an army revolt, Constantine abdicated the throne again on 27 September 1922 and was succeeded by his eldest son, George II. He spent the last four months of his life in exile in Italy and died at 1:30 AM on January 11, 1923 at Palermo, Sicily of heart failure. His queen, Sophie of Prussia, was never allowed back in Greece. A life and reign that had started under the brightest of auspices ended in ruin.As Crown Prince of Greece, Constantine married Princess Sophia of Prussia, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria and sister of Kaiser Wilhelm II, on 27 October 1889 in Athens. They had six children. All three of their sons ascended the Greek throne. Their eldest daughter Helen married Crown Prince Carol of Romania; their second daughter married the 4th Duke of Aosta; whilst their youngest child Princess Katherine married a British commoner.King George II of Greece 20 July 1890 1 April 1947 married Princess Elisabeth of Romania King Alexander I of Greece 1 August 1893 25 October 1920 married Aspasia Manos aka Princess Alexander of Greece Helen, Queen Mother of Romania 2 May 1896 28 November 1982 married Prince Carol of Romania, later King of Romania King Paul I of Greece 14 December 1901 6 March 1964 married Princess Frederika of Hanover Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark 13 February 1904 15 April 1974 married Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta, nominally King Tomislav II of Croatia from 1941 to 1943 Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark 4 May 1913 2 October 2007 married Major Richard Brandram MC (5 August 1911 – 5 April 1994)

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>Following a plebiscite in which nearly 99% of votes were cast in favor of his return, Constantine returned as king on 19 December 1920. This caused great dissatisfaction not only to the newly liberated populations in Asia Minor, but also to the Great Powers who opposed the return of Constantine. Within two years the king's new-found popularity was lost again. ⇒コンスタンティンは、国民投票でほぼ99%が彼の復帰に賛成という票を得た後、1920年12月19日に王として復帰した。これは、小アジアの新自由民のみならず、コンスタンティンの復帰に反対した列強にも非常な不満を引き起こした。新規に構築された王の人気は、2年以内で再び失われた。 >The inherited, ongoing Asia Minor Campaign against Turkey began with initial successes in western Anatolia against the Turks. The Greeks initially met with disorganized opposition. However, an ill-conceived plan to capture Kemal's new capital of Ankara, located deep in barren Anatolia where there was no significant Greek population, succeeded only in its initial stages. The overextended and ill-supplied Greek Army was routed and driven from Anatolia back to the coast. burning Smyrna. ⇒その(王位)継承者は、トルコに対抗する「小アジア野戦」(希土戦争)を進めて、まずは西アナトリアのトルコ軍に対して成功から始まった。ギリシャ軍は、最初は無秩序な抵抗を受けた。しかし、ギリシャ人があまりいない不毛なアナトリア奥地にある、ケマル(アタチュルク)の新しい首都アンカラを攻略しようというまずい構想の計画は、その初期だけ成功した。拡大し過ぎて、供給がうまく行き届かないギリシャ軍は打ち破られて、アナトリアから海岸へ押し込められ、(拠点の)スミルナは炎上した。 >Following an army revolt, Constantine abdicated the throne again on 27 September 1922 and was succeeded by his eldest son, George II. He spent the last four months of his life in exile in Italy and died at 1:30 AM on January 11, 1923 at Palermo, Sicily of heart failure. His queen, Sophie of Prussia, was never allowed back in Greece. A life and reign that had started under the brightest of auspices ended in ruin. ⇒方面軍の反乱に続いて、コンスタンティンは1922年9月27日に再び王座を放棄し、彼の長男(ジョージII世)が後を継いだ。彼はイタリア亡命中に人生の最後の4ヵ月を過ごして、1923年1月11日の午前1時30分にシシリーのパレルモで心臓麻痺のために死去した。彼の女王、プロシアのソフィは、決してギリシャに戻ることを許されなかった。最も明るい前兆のもとに始まった生命と支配が、没落・破滅のうちに終ったのであった。 >As Crown Prince of Greece, Constantine married Princess Sophia of Prussia, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria and sister of Kaiser Wilhelm II, on 27 October 1889 in Athens. They had six children. All three of their sons ascended the Greek throne. Their eldest daughter Helen married Crown Prince Carol of Romania; their second daughter married the 4th Duke of Aosta; whilst their youngest child Princess Katherine married a British commoner. ⇒ギリシャの皇太子としてコンスタンティンは、1889年10月27日にアテネでプロシアの王女ソフィア、ビクトリア女王の孫娘にして皇帝ウィルヘルムII世の妹、と結婚した。彼らには、6人の子供がいた。息子3人は、全員ギリシアの王座に就いた。長女ヘレンは、ルーマニアのキャロル皇太子と結婚し、2人目の娘は、アオスタの第4代公爵と結婚した。一方、最も若いキャサリン王女は、英国の平民と結婚した。 >King George II of Greece 20 July 1890-1 April 1947 married Princess Elisabeth of Romania ⇒ギリシャのジョージII世 1890年7月20日-1947年4月1日 ルーマニアのエリザベス王女と結婚 >King Alexander I of Greece 1 August 1893-25 October 1920 married Aspasia Manos aka Princess Alexander of Greece ⇒ギリシャのアレクサンドルI世王 1893年8月1日-1920年10月25日 アスパシア・マノス、別名ギリシャのアレキサンダー王女と結婚 >Helen, Queen Mother of Romania 2 May 1896-28 November 1982 married Prince Carol of Romania, later King of Romania ⇒ルーマニアの皇太后ヘレン 1896年5月2日-1982年11月28日 ルーマニアのキャロル皇太子、後のルーマニア国王と結婚 >King Paul I of Greece 14 December 1901-6 March 1964 married Princess Frederika of Hanover 1941 to 1943 ⇒ギリシャのポールI世王 1901年12月14日-1964年3月6日 ハノーバーのフレデリーカ王女と結婚 >Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark 13 February 1904-15 April 1974 married Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta, nominally King Tomislav II of Croatia from 1941 to 1943 ⇒ギリシャとデンマークのアイリーン王女 1904年2月13日-1974年4月15日 アイモネ皇太子、アオスタの公爵、1941年から1943年まで名目上クロアチアのトミスラフII世王と結婚 >Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark 4 May 1913-2 October 2007 married Major Richard Brandram MC (5 August 1911 – 5 April 1994) ⇒ギリシャとデンマークのキャサリン王女 1913年5月4日-2007年10月2日 リチャード・ブランドラム少将MC*(1911年8月5日-1994年4月5日)と結婚 *MC:Military Cross「戦功十字勲章(受章者)」。

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  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    The widely held view of Constantine I as a "German sympathizer" though essentially accurate owes something to Allied and Venizelist war-time anger directed against the King. Constantine did rebuff Kaiser Wilhelm who in 1914 pressed him to bring Greece into the war on the side of Austria and Germany. Constantine then offended the British and French by blocking popular efforts by Prime Minister Venizelos to bring Greece into the war on the side of the Allies. Constantine's insistence on neutrality, however, was based more on his judgement that it was the best policy for Greece, rather than venal self-interest or his German dynastic connections. Admiral Mark Kerr, who was Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Hellenic Navy in the early part of World War I and later Commander-in-Chief of the British Adriatic Squadron supported the Allied cause, but was sympathetic to the King, personally. He wrote in 1920: "The persecution of King Constantine by the press of the Allied countries, with some few good exceptions, has been one of the most tragic affairs since the Dreyfus case." [Abbott, G.F. (1922) 'Greece and the Allies 1914–1922'] Although Venizelos, with Allied support, forced Constantine from the Greek throne in 1917 he remained popular with parts of the Greek people, as shown by the vote for his return in the December 1920 plebiscite.In the aftermath of the victorious Balkan Wars, Greece was in a state of euphoria. Her territory and population had doubled with the massive liberation of Greeks from Turkish rule and, under the dual leadership of Constantine and Venizelos, her future seemed bright. This state of affairs was not to last, however. When World War I broke out, Constantine was faced with the difficulty of determining where Greece's support lay. His first concern as King was for the welfare and security of Greece. He rejected the early appeal from Kaiser Wilhelm that Greece should march on the side of Germany and stated that Greece would remain neutral.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    "Constantine XII" redirects here. For the last Byzantine emperor, sometimes numbered this way, see Constantine XI Palaiologos.Constantine I (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Αʹ, Βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων, Konstantínos Αʹ, Vasiléfs ton Ellínon; 2 August [O.S. 21 July] 1868 – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He was commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Army during the unsuccessful Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and led the Greek forces during the successful Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, in which Greece expanded to include Thessaloniki, doubling in area and population. He succeeded to the throne of Greece on 18 March 1913, following his father's assassination. His disagreement with Eleftherios Venizelos over whether Greece should enter World War I led to the National Schism. Constantine forced Venizelos to resign twice, but in 1917 he left Greece, after threats of the Entente forces to bombard Athens; his second son, Alexander, became king. After Alexander's death, Venizelos' defeat in the 1920 legislative elections, and a plebiscite in favor of his return, Constantine was reinstated. He abdicated the throne for the second and last time in 1922, when Greece lost the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, and was succeeded by his eldest son, George II. Constantine died in exile four months later, in Sicily.Born on 2 August 1868 in Athens, Constantine was the eldest son of King George I and Queen Olga of Greece. His birth was met with an immense wave of enthusiasm: the new heir apparent to the throne was the first Greek-born member of the family. As the ceremonial cannon on Lycabettus Hill fired the royal salute, huge crowds gathered outside the Palace shouting what they thought should rightfully be the newborn prince's name: "Constantine". This was not only the name of his maternal grandfather, Grand Duke Konstantin Romanov of Russia, but also the name of the "King who would reconquer Constantinople", the future "Constantine XII, legitimate successor to the Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos", according to popular legend.

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    With the vital port firmly in Greek hands, all the other allies could hope for was a customs-free dock in the harbor. In the meantime, operations in the Epirus front had stalled: against the rough terrain and Ottoman fortifications at Bizani, the small Greek force could not make any headway. With operations in Macedonia complete, Constantine transferred the bulk of his forces to Epirus, and assumed command. After lengthy preparations, the Greeks broke through the Ottoman defences in the Battle of Bizani and captured Ioannina and most of Epirus up into what is today southern Albania (Northern Epirus). These victories dispelled the tarnish of the 1897 defeat, and raised Constantine to great popularity with the Greek people.George I was assassinated in Thessaloniki by an anarchist, Alexandros Schinas, on 18 March 1913, and Constantine succeeded to the throne. In the meantime, tensions between the Balkan allies grew, as Bulgaria claimed Greek and Serbian-occupied territory. In May, Greece and Serbia concluded a secret defensive pact aimed at Bulgaria. On 16 June, the Bulgarian army attacked their erstwhile allies, but were soon halted. King Constantine led the Greek Army in its counterattack in the battles of Kilkis-Lahanas and the Kresna Gorge. In the meantime the Bulgarian army had started to disintegrate: beset by defeat in the hands of Greeks and Serbs, they were suddenly faced by a Turkish counterattack with fresh Asian troops finally ready, while the Romanians advanced south, demanding Southern Dobrudja. Under attack on four fronts Bulgaria sued for peace, agreed to an armistice and entered into negotiations in Bucharest. On the initiative of Prime Minister Venizelos, Constantine was also awarded the rank and baton of a Field Marshal.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    He was inevitably christened "Constantine" (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, Kōnstantīnos) on 12 August, and his official style was the Diádochos (Διάδοχος, Crown Prince, literally: "Successor"). An additional nickname adopted mainly by the royalists for Constantine was "the son of the eagle" (ο γιός του αητού). The most prominent university professors of the time were handpicked to tutor the young Crown Prince: Ioannis Pantazidis taught him Greek literature; Vasileios Lakonas mathematics and physics; and Constantine Paparrigopoulos history, infusing the young prince with the principles of the Megali Idea. On 30 October 1882 he enrolled in the Hellenic Military Academy. After graduation he was sent to Berlin for further military education, and served in the German Imperial Guard. Constantine also studied political science and business in Heidelberg and Leipzig. In 1890 he became a Major General, and assumed command of the 3rd Army Headquarters (Γ' Αρχηγείον Στρατού) in Athens. In January 1895, Constantine caused political turmoil when he ordered army and gendarmerie forces to break up a street protest against tax policy. Constantine had previously addressed the crowd and advised them to submit their grievances to the government. Prime Minister Charilaos Trikoupis asked the King to recommend that his son avoid such interventions in politics without prior consultation with the government. King George responded that the Crown Prince was, in dispersing protesters, merely obeying military orders, and that his conduct lacked political significance. The incident caused a heated debate in Parliament, and Trikoupis finally resigned as a result. In the following elections Trikoupis was defeated, and the new Prime Minister, Theodoros Deligiannis, seeking to downplay hostility between government and the Palace, regarded the matter closed.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Sophie, Constantine's queen, was popularly thought to support her brother Kaiser Wilhelm, but it seems that she was actually pro-British; like her father the late Kaiser Frederick, Sophie was influenced by her mother, the British-born Victoria. Venizelos was fervently pro-Entente, having established excellent rapport with the British and French, and was convinced that German aggression had caused the war. Both Venizelos and Constantine were keenly aware that a maritime country like Greece could not, and should not, antagonise the Entente, the dominant naval powers in the Mediterranean. Constantine settled on a policy of neutrality because it seemed the path that best assured that Greece would emerge from the World War intact and with the substantial territorial gains it had won in the recent Balkan Wars. Constantine claimed his military judgement was borne out by the outcome of the Allies' failed gamble of landing on Gallipoli. Despite the popularity of Venizelos and his clear majority in Parliament for supporting the Allies, Constantine opposed Venizelos. When Bulgaria attacked Serbia, with whom Greece had a treaty of alliance, Venizelos again urged the King to allow Greece's entry into the war, and permitted Entente forces to disembark in Thessaloniki in preparation for a common campaign over the King's objections. After Constantine refused to honor the treaty, and refused again to support Greece's entry on the side of the Allies, however, Venizelos resigned, and Constantine appointed Alexandros Zaimis in his place, at the head of a short-lived coalition government. In July 1916, arsonists set fire to the forest surrounding the summer palace at Tatoi. Although injured in the escape, the king and his family managed to flee to safety. The flames spread quickly in the dry summer heat, and sixteen people were killed. In May and August 1916, Constantine and General Ioannis Metaxas (future dictator) allowed parts of eastern Macedonia to be occupied, without opposition, by the Central Powers. This caused popular anger.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The organization of the first modern Olympics in Athens was another issue which caused a Constantine-Trikoupis confrontation, with Trikoupis opposed to hosting the Games. After Deligiannis' electoral victory over Trikoupis in 1895, those who favored a revival of the Olympic Games, including the Crown Prince, prevailed. Subsequently, Constantine was instrumental in the organization of the 1896 Summer Olympics; according to Pierre de Coubertin, in 1894 "the Crown Prince learned with great pleasure that the Games will be inaugurated in Athens." Coubertin assured that "the King and the Crown Prince will confer their patronage on the holding of these Games." Constantine later conferred more than that; he eagerly assumed the presidency of the 1896 organizing committee. At the Crown Prince's request, wealthy businessman George Averoff agreed to pay approximately one million drachmas to fund the restoration of the Panathinaiko Stadium in white marble.Constantine was the commander-in-chief of the Army of Thessaly in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, which ended in a humiliating defeat. In its aftermath, the popularity of the monarchy fell, and calls were raised in the army for reforms and the dismissal of the royal princes, and especially Constantine, from their command posts in the armed forces. The simmering dissent culminated in the Goudi coup in August 1909. In its aftermath, Constantine and his brothers were dismissed from the armed forces, only to be reinstated a few months later by the new Prime Minister, Eleftherios Venizelos, who was keen on gaining the trust of King George. Venizelos was ingenious in his argumentation: "All Greeks are rightly proud to see their sons serve in the army, and so is the King". What was left unsaid was that the royal princes' commands were to be on a very tight leash.Ottoman planning anticipated a two-prong Greek attack east and west of the impassable Pindus mountain range.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    From their positions in Greece, Allied forces --(British, French Russian, Italian, and Serb) fought the war from Greek territory, engaging Bulgarian forces when they invaded Greece in August 1916 in the Battle of Struma.In August 1916, Venizelist officials staged a coup d'état that prompted Venizelos to leave Athens. He returned in October 1916 and set up a rival government in Thessaloniki, the so-called Provisional Government of National Defence. Entente and Venizelist efforts to persuade the "official" royal government in Athens to abandon its neutrality and join them failed, and relations irreparably broke down during the Noemvriana, when Entente and Venizelist troops clashed with royalists in the streets of the Greek capital. The royalist officers of the Greek Army were cashiered, and troops were conscripted to fight under Venizelist officers, as was the case with the Greek Navy. Still, King Constantine, who enjoyed the protection of the Russian Tsar as a relative and fellow monarch, could not be removed until after the February Revolution in Russia removed the Russian monarchy from the picture. In June 1917, King Constantine abdicated from the throne, and his second son, Alexander, assumed the throne as king (despite the wishes of most Venizelists to declare a Republic). Venizelos assumed control of the entire country, while royalists and other political opponents of Venizelos were exiled or imprisoned. Greece, by now united under a single government, officially declared war against the Central Powers on 30 June 1917 and would eventually raise ten divisions for the Entente effort, alongside the Royal Hellenic Navy.The Macedonian Front stayed mostly stable throughout the war. In May 1918, Greek forces attacked Bulgarian forces and defeated them at the Battle of Skra-di-Legen on 30 May 1918. Later in 1918, the Allied forces upped up their offensive from Greece into occupied Serbia.

  • 英語の和訳をお願いします

    Prince William and Kate Middleton got their first royal wedding from the queen: the titles Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. Buckingham Palace said Friday that William is now His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge, and that Miss Catherine Middleton is now Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge. Because Middleton was not born royalty, she will not officially become Princess Catherine - although the public may choose to call her that, or even "Princess Kate," in defiance of royal protocol. The second Duke of Cambridge, Prince Adolphus Frederick, was the seventh son of King George III. Defying the Royal Marriage Act, he married his mistress, Sarah Louisa Fairbrother, an actress and a commoner, in 1847. Since the marriage wasn't legal, his children were all illegitimate, and the dukedom became extinct on his death, in 1904.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the Kingdom of Greece remained a neutral nation. Nonetheless, Greek forces in October 1914 occupied Northern Epirus, a territory of southern Albania that it claimed for its own, at a time when the new Principality of Albania was in turmoil. At the same time, the Kingdom of Italy occupied Sazan Island, another Albanian possession, and later that December the Albanian port of Vlorë.Greece had signed a defense treaty with the Kingdom of Serbia in 1913 that obliged Greece to come to Serbia's aid if it were attacked from the Kingdom of Bulgaria. When Bulgaria began mobilization against Serbia in 1914, the Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos believed that he could get Greece to join the war on the side of the Allies if they landed 150,000 troops in Salonika. Venizelos failed to bring Greece into the war on the Allied side. His explanation that this was because King Constantine I was a "German sympathiser". The king and the anti-Venizelists (opponents of the prime minister) were opposed to joining the war and argued that the Serbo-Greek Treaty was void if one of the great powers fought alongside Bulgaria. However, British, Australian and New Zealand ships and troops were allowed to use the island of Lemnos as a base from which their attack on Gallipoli was mounted in 1915 (see Gallipoli Campaign). Venizelos was unconstitutionally removed from office by the king on 5 October 1915, only to return to the political scene in October 1916. Venizelos invited a joint Franco-British (and later also Russian) expeditionary force, formed in part by withdrawals from Gallipoli, transforming Salonika into an Allied military base. Forces began to arrive on 3 October 1915. In the early summer of 1916, the Athens government under King Constantine handed over Fort Rupel to the Germans, believing it a neutral act, though claimed as a betrayal by the Venizelists. Nonetheless, the Allies still tried to swing the official Athens government to their side.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Previously the Inspector General of the Army, Constantine was appointed commander-in-chief of the Greek "Army of Thessaly" when the First Balkan War broke out in October 1912. He led the Army of Thessaly to victory at Sarantaporos. At this point, his first clash with Venizelos occurred, as Constantine desired to press north, towards Monastir, where the bulk of the Ottoman army lay, and where the Greeks would rendezvous their Serb allies. Venizelos, on the other hand, demanded that the army capture the strategic port city of Thessaloniki, the capital of Macedonia, with extreme haste, so as to prevent its fall to the Bulgarians. The dispute resulted in a heated exchange of telegrams. Venizelos notified Constantine that "... political considerations of the utmost importance dictate that Thessaloniki be taken as soon as possible". After Constantine impudently cabled: "The army will not march on Thessaloniki. My duty calls me towards Monastir, unless you forbid me", Venizelos was forced to pull rank. As Prime Minister and War Minister, he outranked Constantine and his response was famously three-words-long, a crisp military order to be obeyed forthwith: "I forbid you". Constantine was left with no choice but to turn east, and after defeating the Ottoman army at Giannitsa, he accepted the surrender of the city of Thessaloniki and of its Ottoman garrison on 27 October (O.S.), less than 24 hours before the arrival of Bulgarian forces who hoped to capture the city first. The capture of Thessaloniki against Constantine's whim proved a crucial achievement: the pacts of the Balkan League had provided that in the forthcoming war against the Ottoman Empire, the four Balkan allies would provisionally hold any ground they took from the Turks, without contest from the other allies. Once an armistice was declared, then facts on the ground would be the starting point of negotiations for the final drawing of the new borders in a forthcoming peace treaty.