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The treaty required determination of those responsible for the Armenian Genocide, describing it as "barbarous and illegitimate methods of warfare… [including] offenses against the laws and customs of war and the principles of humanity". Article 230 of the Treaty of Sèvres required that the Ottoman Empire "hand over to the Allied Powers the persons whose surrender may be required by the latter as being responsible for the massacres committed during the continuance of the state of war on territory which formed part of the Ottoman Empire on August 1, 1914." However, the inter-allied tribunal attempt to prosecute war criminals demanded by the Treaty of Sèvres was eventually suspended and the men who orchestrated the genocide escaped prosecution and traveled relatively freely throughout Europe and Central Asia. Foreign Zones of Influence in Turkey France (Zone of Influence) Within the territory retained by Turkey under the treaty, France received Syria and neighbouring parts of Southeastern Anatolia, including Antep, Urfa and Mardin. Cilicia including Adana, Diyarbakır and large portions of East-Central Anatolia all the way up north to Sivas and Tokat were declared a zone of French influence. The occupation of Smyrna established Greek administration on 21 May 1919. This was followed by the declaration of a protectorate on 30 July 1922. The treaty transferred "the exercise of her rights of sovereignty to a local parliament" but leaving the region under the Ottoman Empire. According to the provisions of the treaty, Smyrna was to be administered by a local parliament and it also gave the people of Smyrna the chance of a plebiscite after five years on whether they wished to join Greece or remain in the Ottoman Empire. This plebiscite would be overseen by the League of Nations. The treaty accepted Greek administration of the Smyrna enclave, but the area remained under Turkish sovereignty. Turkish nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal demanded that the Turks fight against the Greeks trying to take the land that had held by the Ottoman Empire and given to Greece in this treaty. This started the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) and resulted in a Turkish victory. Italy (Zone of Influence) Italy was confirmed in the possession of the Dodecanese Islands (already under Italian occupation since the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912, despite the Treaty of Ouchy according to which Italy should have been obliged to return the islands to the Ottoman Empire). Large portions of Southern and West-Central Anatolia (the Mediterranean coast of Turkey and the inlands), including the port city of Antalya and the historic Seljuk capital of Konya, were declared an Italian zone of influence. Antalya Province was promised by the Triple Entente to Italy in the Treaty of London, and the Italian colonial authorities wished the zone to become an Italian colony under the name of Lycia.

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>The treaty required ~ Europe and Central Asia. ⇒この条約は、アルメニア人虐殺が「戦争の法や慣習、それと人類の原則に対する犯罪〔を含んだ〕…野蛮で違法な武力行使の方法」であったとして、その責任者を決定することを要求した。「セーヴル条約」第230条は、「オスマン帝国の一部を構成する領土での戦争状態の継続中に犯された虐殺の責任を負うことになる可能性があるとして、連合国によって引き渡しが求められる人を1914年8月1日に手渡す」ことをオスマン帝国に要求した。しかし、セヴェル条約によって要求された戦犯を起訴しようとする「連合国間裁判所」の試みは、最終的に中断され、大量殺戮を画策した人たちは訴追を免れ、ヨーロッパと中央アジア全域で比較的自由に移動した。 >Foreign Zones of Influence in Turkey  France (Zone of Influence)  Within the territory ~ on 30 July 1922. ⇒トルコに影響する外国地帯  フランス(影響地帯)  この条約によって、フランスはトルコが保有する領土のうち、シリアと、アンペプ、ウルファ、マルディンを含む南東部アナトリアの近隣地域を受け取った。アディバ、ディアルバキル、東部中央アナトリアの大部分を含むキリキアは、ずっと北のシバスやトカトまでフランスの影響地帯であることが宣言された。スミルナの占領により、それは1919年5月21日にギリシャ政権の支配下に入ることが確立された。その後、1922年7月30日に保護領とすることが宣言された。 >The treaty transferred ~ under Turkish sovereignty. ⇒この条約は、「領主の支配執行権を地方議会に」移したが、地方管区はオスマン帝国の下に残した。条約の条項によれば、スミルナは地方議会によって運営されるものとし、スミルナの人々は5年後にギリシャに加わるかオスマン帝国に留まるのかを決めるために国民投票の機会を与えられた。この国民投票は国際連盟が監督することになった。条約はスミルナ領土のギリシャ政権管理を受け入れたが、その当該地域はトルコの主権の下に留まった。 >Turkish nationalist leader ~ in a Turkish victory. ⇒トルコ民族主義指導者のムスタファ・ケマルは、(それまで)オスマン帝国が所有していて、この条約でギリシャに与えてもらってその土地を奪取しようとするギリシャ人とのトルコ人の戦いを要求した。これによって「希土(ギリシャ‐トルコ)戦争」(1919‐1922年)が始まり、トルコの勝利に帰した。 >Italy (Zone of Influence) Italy was confirmed ~ under the name of Lycia. ⇒イタリア(影響地帯)  ドデカニサ諸島はイタリアの所有であることが確認されている(その諸島は、「オウキー条約」によってイタリアがオスマン帝国に返還する義務を負ったはずであったにもかかわらず、1911年から1912年の「伊土(イタリア‐トルコ)戦争」以来すでにイタリアの占領下にあった。アンタルヤの港町や歴史的なセルジュクの首都コンジャを含む南部・西部の中央アナトリアの大部分(トルコの地中海沿岸と内陸)は、イタリアの影響地帯と宣言された。アンタルヤ州は、「ロンドン条約」で「三国協商」(英仏露)によってイタリア所属が約束され、イタリアの植民地当局はその地域をリキアという名前でイタリア植民地にすることを望んだ。

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    The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the former Austrian Littoral in the upper Adriatic, and in Dalmatia. The treaty was signed on 12 November 1920 in Rapallo, near Genoa, Italy. Tension between Italy and Yugoslavia arose at the end of World War I, when the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved and Italy claimed the territories assigned to it by the secret London Pact of 1915. According to the pact, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the Kingdom of Italy and Triple Entente, in case of victory at the end of World War I, Italy was to obtain several territorial gains including former Austrian Littoral, Northern Dalmatia and notably Zadar (Zara), Šibenik (Sebenico), and most of the Dalmatian islands (except Krk and Rab). These territories had an ethnically mixed population, with Slovenes and Croats composing over the half of the population of the region. The pact was therefore nullified with the Treaty of Versailles under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson, making void Italian claims on Northern Dalmatia. The objective of the Treaty of Rapallo was to find a compromise following the void created by the non-application of the London pact of 1915. At the conclusions of the discussions, the following territories were annexed to Italy: the western parts of the former Duchy of Carniola: more than half of the region of Inner Carniola, with the municipalities of Idrija, Vipava, Šturje, Postojna, Št. Peter na Krasu and Ilirska Bistrica, and the Upper Carniolan municipality of Bela Peč/Weissenfels; the whole territory of former Austrian Littoral, except for the municipality of Kastav and the island of Krk, which were ceded to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; the former Dalmatian capital city of Zadar (known as Zara in Italian) and the small Dalmatian islands of Lastovo and Palagruža. According to the treaty, the city of Rijeka (known as Fiume in Italian) would become the independent Free State of Fiume, thus ending the military occupation of Gabriele d'Annunzio's troops, begun by the Impresa di Fiume and known as the Italian Regency of Carnaro. This part of the treaty was revoked in 1924, when Italy and Yugoslavia signed the Treaty of Rome, which gave Fiume to Italy and the adjacent port of Sušak to Yugoslavia. The treaty left a large number of Slovenes and Croats in Italy. According to author Paul N. Hehn, "the treaty left half a million Slavs inside Italy while only a few hundred Italians in the fledgling Yugoslav state". Indeed, according to the 1910 Austrian census 480,000 South Slavs (Slovenes and Croats) became citizens of the Kingdom of Italy, while around 15,000 Italians became citizens of the new Yugoslav state (around 13,000 in Dalmatia, and the rest in the island of Krk). According to the same census, around 25,000 ethnic Germans and 3,000 Hungarians also lived in the regions annexed to Italy with the Treaty, while the number of Italians living in the region was between 350,000 and 390,000. Treaty of Rapallo ラパッロ条約