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Despite the strategic predicament of the German army, it survived the battle, withstood the pressure of the Brusilov Offensive, and conducted an invasion of Romania. In 1917, the German army in the west survived the large British and French offensives of the Nivelle Offensive and the Third Battle of Ypres, though at great cost. Falkenhayn was sacked and replaced by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at the end of August 1916. At a conference at Cambrai on 5 September, a decision was taken to build a new defensive line well behind the Somme front. The Siegfriedstellung was to be built from Arras to St. Quentin, La Fère and Condé, with another new line between Verdun and Pont-à-Mousson. These lines were intended to limit any Allied breakthrough and to allow the German army to withdraw if attacked; work began on the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) at the end of September.

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>Despite the strategic predicament of the German army, it survived the battle, withstood the pressure of the Brusilov Offensive, and conducted an invasion of Romania. In 1917, the German army in the west survived the large British and French offensives of the Nivelle Offensive and the Third Battle of Ypres, though at great cost. ⇒ドイツ方面軍は戦略的苦境にもかかわらず、戦いを生き残って、ブルシーロフ攻撃の圧力に耐え、ルーマニアへの侵入を実行した。1917年、西部戦線のドイツ方面軍は大きな戦費を費やしたけれども、「ニヴェルの攻撃」と第3回目の「イープルの戦い」の英仏軍の大攻撃を生き残った。 >Falkenhayn was sacked and replaced by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at the end of August 1916. At a conference at Cambrai on 5 September, a decision was taken to build a new defensive line well behind the Somme front. ⇒1916年8月末に、ファルケンハインが首(解任)になって、ヒンデンブルクおよびルーデンドルフと交代した。9月5日のキャンブレの会議で、ソンム前線のかなり後方に新しい防御戦線を造ることが決定された。 >The Siegfriedstellung* was to be built from Arras to St. Quentin, La Fère and Condé, with another new line between Verdun and Pont-à-Mousson. These lines were intended to limit any Allied breakthrough and to allow the German army to withdraw if attacked; work began on the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) at the end of September. ⇒「ズィークフリート陣地」*は、アラースからサン・カンタン、ラ・フェーおよびコンデにかけて、また別の新しい戦線をヴェルダンとポンタ‐ムースとの間に造ることになった。これらの戦線は、攻撃を受けた場合に、どんな連合国軍の突破も制限して、ドイツ軍の撤退を可能にすることを目的とした。その工事は、9月末にズィークフリート陣地(ヒンデンブルク戦線)から始まった。 *Siegfriedstellung〔ズィークフリートシュテルンク〕「ズィークフリート陣地」:Sieg「勝利」+fried「平和」+stellung「陣地」。

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    The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne. In 1916, the German offensive at the Battle of Verdun had been a costly failure. The Anglo-French offensive at the Battle of the Somme had forced a defensive battle on the Germans, leaving the western armies (Westheer) exhausted. On the Eastern Front, the Brusilov Offensive had inflicted huge losses on the Austro-Hungarian armies in Russia and forced the Germans to take over more of the front. The declaration of war by Romania had placed additional strain on the German army and war economy. Construction of the Hindenburg Line in France was begun by the Germans in September 1916, to make a retirement from the Somme front possible, to counter an anticipated increase in the power of Anglo-French attacks in 1917.

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    The unanticipated duration of the offensive made Verdun a matter of German prestige as much as it was for the French and Falkenhayn became dependent on a British relief offensive and a German counter-offensive to end the stalemate. When it came, the collapse of the southern front in Russia and the power of the Anglo-French attack on the Somme reduced the German armies to holding their positions as best they could. On 29 August, Falkenhayn was sacked and replaced by Hindenburg and Ludendorff, who ended the German offensive at Verdun on 2 September. In 1980, Terraine gave c. 750,000 Franco-German casualties in 299 days of battle; Dupuy and Dupuy gave 542,000 French casualties in 1993. Heer and Naumann calculated 377,231 French and 337,000 German casualties, a monthly average of 70,000 casualties in 2000.

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