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Differences in cultural values, logic, and thought patterns are often reflected in the very different ways Americans and Japanese organize and present information, ideas, and opinions.These differences lie at the root of many communication problems and exert a powerful influence on the process of of persuation negotiation and conflict resolution. The rules of logic established by the Greeks and Romans are widely accepted in Western cultures, but this Western logic is by no means universal.Logic is a product of culture, and many Asian cultures such as the Japanese operate under different logical assumptions. When Americans get confused and frustrated listening toJapanese, they often complainthat the Japanese "just are't logical" and seem incapable or unwilling to use traditional Western logic. This impression is largely due to cultural differences in reasorning and thought patterns. From an early age, Americans are thought to be orderly in outlining their facts and in summarizing their main points according to framework that reflects Western logical structures.The logical way of presenting ideas in the West could be called linear or "straight-line"logic, which emphasizes direct and explicit communication.The most important aspects of straight-line logic are organizing your presentation in outline form and "getting straight to the point."In general, more low-context mainstream American patterns of thought and presentation are analogous to lines because all parts of the message must be explicity connected clearly and directly. But the Japanese do not learn to order their facts or present information and ideas in the same way.They consider the practice of ordering facts for others comparable to tying a child's shoelaces for him after the child has already learned the skill.American linear, one-step-at-a-time arguments and logic can seem immature to the Japanese, and Western logic is often perceived as instrusive - an attempt to get inside the heads of other people and try to do their thinking for them. But if Americans think in a linear way, then how do Japanese think?A natural response would be that since the circle is the opposite of line, then the Japanese probably think in circles.It is said that the more high-context Japanese prefer to use the logic patterns that emphasize talking "around " the subject rather than on it.The Japanese start at the edges with a wealth of background information and explanations and the n gradually "circle in" on the thesis and main points. However, in some respects, Jappanese patterns of thought and presentation are not like lines at all, but like a series of "dots." Parts of the message are contained in the individual dots, it is up to the audience to link the dots in their heads.In low-context cultures the meaning of communication is stated to the audience directly and all the steps and links are clearly put forth by the speaker verbally.But in high-context cultures the meaning of communication is elicited by the audience indirectly and intuitively - all the steps and links do not have to be clearly put forth verbally.

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以下のとおりお答えします。誤植や脱落と思しきところは推測で補いましたので、一部誤訳があるかも知れません。(内容はとても面白かったです。) 文化的価値観、論理および思考様式の違いは、アメリカ人と日本人の情報、概念および意見の構成・提示において、しばしば大きく異なる仕方で反映されます。この違いは、多くのコミュニケーション問題の根底に横たわっており、説得交渉や衝突解消の過程で強力な影響を及ぼします。 ギリシャ人とローマ人によって確立された論理の規則は、西欧文化の中で広く受理されていますが、この西欧的論理は決して普遍的なものではありません。論理は文化から醸成されるもので、日本人など多くのアジア文化はまた異なる論理的仮定の下で作動します。 アメリカ人が日本人の話を聞いて当惑し、イラつくとき、日本人は「まったく論理的でない」し、伝統の西欧的論理を使う能力も意志もなさそうだ、と不満をこぼします。この印象は、大部分が論理的判断や思考様式に関する文化的位相差に起因します。 アメリカ人は、若年齢のころから、当該事実を概説することや西欧の論理構造を反映する枠組みに従ってその中心点を要約することにおいて、よくわきまえていると考えられます。西欧では考えを表わす論理方法は、線形、もしくは「一直線状の」論理、と呼ぶことができるかも知れません。それは、直接的で明示的なコミュニケーションを強調します。一直線状の論理の最も重要な形相は、プレゼンテーションを概説形式で構成することと、「一直線に要点を捕えること」にあります。一般的に言って、文脈依存度のより低い思考とプレゼンテーションのアメリカ的様式の主流は、メッセージの諸部分の全体がはっきり直接に結合して明示的なはずなので、それは線条に類比されます。 しかし日本人は、事実を整理したり、情報や概念を提示したりする仕方を、同じように学ぶのではありません。彼らは、他人のために事実をわきまえる行為を斟酌しますが、それは、子どもがすでに技術を学習した後なのに靴ひもを結んでやろうとすることになぞらえることができます。アメリカ人の線的な「一回に一段階」説とその論理は、日本人にとっては子どもっぽいと見えるのかも知れません。そして、西欧の論理はしばしば教化的なもの ― 他人の頭の内部に入り込み、彼らの考えていることを彼らに代って行おうとする試み ― として知覚されるのです。 けれどもアメリカ人が線的な方法で考えるとするならば、日本人は一体どのように考えるでしょうか。自然な反応としては、線の反対は円ですから、きっと日本人は円で考える、というようなことかも知れません。文脈依存度のより高い日本人は、主題に関してというより、「その周辺」を語ることを強調するような論理様式の使用を好むと言われています。日本人は、豊富な背景的情報や説明をもって、端っこからスタートし、徐々に本題と要点に関する「円の中」へ移動していきます。(このあたり原文の脱落があるようで、推測で訳しました。) しかしながら、幾つかの面で日本人の思考やプレゼンテーションの様式はまったく線的でなく、むしろ一続きの「点」に似ています。メッセージの部分は、個々の点に含まれ、頭の中で点と点を連結することは聞き手側の責任に任されます。文脈依存度のより低い文化では、コミュニケーションの意味は、聞き手に直接述べられ、中間段階とその連結はすべて話者によって口頭から明白に表出されます。しかし、文脈依存度のより高い文化では、コミュニケーションの意味は、聞き手によって間接的・直観的に引き出されるのです。― 必ずしもすべての中間段階とその連結が口頭で明白に表出される必要はない、ということです。

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