• 締切済み


  「Style of Communication」 Compared with Western language,the typical style of communication in Japanese is intuitive and indirect.The basis of this style is a set of cultural values that emphasize empathy and are so widely shared that overt verbal communication often is not required.Thus,in Japan,the ideal interaction is not one in which speakers express their wishes or needs adequately and addressees understand and comply,but rather one in which each party understands and anticipates the needs of the other and fills them before any verbal communication becomes necessary.Silence is more highly valued in Japan than in the West;if all is going well,there should be no need for speech.A linguist points out that excessive verbalism has traditionally been looked down upon in Japan,especially for men.If verbal communication enters in,it will not be explicit;rather the speaker will rely upon the hearer's ability to realize what she or he means,often in spite of what is actually said.This style of communication can cause tremendous problems for Americans,who discover to their frustration that yes often means no,but cannot figure out when.The Japanese system of communication can work only in a homogeneous society in which people actually can anticipate each other's needs and wants.Universal expectation of empathy fosters amae,dependency or relying upon the indulgence and patronage of other's.Doi has analyzed how this concept pervades both individual and social psychology in Jaoan. 長いんですがお願いします。

  • 英語
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これって土居健郎さんの「甘えの構造」の内容ではないですか? であれば、翻訳の必要あるのかな?

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これは質問ではなくて、翻訳の依頼ですね。 ご自身で努力されないと自分のためにはなりません。テーマは違いますが、このエッセイに書かれている、 Universal expectation of empathy fosters AMAE,dependency or relying upon the indulgence and patronage of other's. の意味を考える必要があると思いますよ。 ご自身で和訳していて、どうしてもわからないところがあれば、どんどん質問してくださいね。 誰かがもしかしたら答えてくれるかもしれませんけど、それでは意味がないでしょう。


  • 和訳に困ってます><宜しくお願いします><

    和訳に困ってます><宜しくお願いします>< 英語の和訳をお願いします! 長文になりますが、宜しくお願いします! The mind is no less capable in women than in men of making this from resolve which constitutes virtue and of recognising the circumstances in which it should be practised. women can control their passions just as well as we can, and they are not more inclined to vice than to virtue. One could even tilt the balance in their favour on this issue because affecthion for children. which is incompara bly stronger in women than in men, is naturally linked with compassion which, in trun, could be called the virtue and tha bond of civil society. it is impossible to imagine that society is reasonably established for any other purpose apart from the mutual satisfaction of needs and common necessities. And if one looked closely at how passions arise in us, one would find that the way in which women treat us when we are in distress, almost like their own children, is like a natural development of their contribution to the birth and education of men. Thet the differences which can be observed in the conduct of men and women derive from their education It is all the more important to notice that the dispositions with which we are born are neither good nor evil, because otherwise one cannot avoid a rather common mistake of attributing to nature something which results only from custom

  • 和訳お願いします!

    With this information. we can see that the human body maintains a very delicate balance between cell creation and cell destruction, when this balance is disrupted the result can be a potentially fatal health condition, cancer is a disease in which too little apoptosis occurs, as cancerous cells often are corrupted in ways that make them resistant to the natural death process and can continue multiplying until destructive tumors are created. On the other hand, in a body that suffers from too much apoptosis, degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's can arise. With the process of apoptosis playing such a vital role in human health, it is no surprise that researchers are continuously studying it. If we can learn how to artificially control the apoptosis of cells in our bodies, it could lead to treatments for many life-threatening illnesses.

  • 和訳をお願い致します(哲学関係)

    いつも楽しく拝見させて頂いています。 英語の哲学関係の本を読んでいるのですが、どうしてもぴんとこない部分があるので、英訳をお願いできたらと思います。 Now we call that which is in itself worthy of pursuit more final than that which is worthy of pursuit for the sake of something else, and which is never desireble for the sake of something else more final than the things that are desirable both in themselves and for the sake of that other thing, and therefore we call final without qualification that which is always desirable in itself and never for the sake of something else. 内容にずれがなければ、意訳でも結構です。 どうぞよろしくお願い致します。

  • 和訳のお願いです。

    意味論についての論文だと思いますが、和訳お願いいたします。自分でも訳してみましたが、読み返して見て分かりづらいため、和訳が上手な方の文章を参考にしたいと思います。よろしくお願いいたします。 (1)Whereas smoke is a natural sign of fire, causally connected with what it signifies, the red flag is a conventional sign of danger: it is a culturally established symbol. These distinctions between the intentional and the nonintentional, on the one hand, and between what is natural and what is conventional, or symbolic, on the other, play a central part in the theoretical investigation of meaning. (2)That the verb 'mean' is being employed in different senses in the examples that I have used so far is evident from the fact that Mary means trouble is ambiguous: it can be taken like Mary means well or like Smoke means fire. Indeed, with a little imagination it is possible to devise a context, or scenario, in which the verb 'mean' in Mary means trouble can be plausibly interpreted in the way that it would normally be interpreted in That red flag means danger. Most language-utterances, we shall see, depend for their interpretation upon the context in which they are used. And the vast majority of them have a wider range of meanings than first come to mind. Utterances containing the word 'meaning' (or the verb 'mean') are no different from other English utterances in this respect.

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    The other point which has to be noted with regard to this criterion is as follows. I again quote from " Animal Intelligence :"— " Of course to the sceptic this criterion may appear un satisfactory, since it depends, not on direct knowledge, but on inference. Here, however, it seems enough to point out, as already observed, that it is the best criterion available ; and, further, that scepticism of this kind is logically bound to deny evidence of mind, not only in the case of the lower animals, but also in that of the higher, and even in that of men other than the sceptic himself. For all objections which could apply to the use of this criterion of mind in the animal kingdom, would apply with equal force to the evidence of any mind other than that of the individual objector. This is obvious, because, as I have already observed, the only evi dence we can have of objective mind is that which is furnished by objective activities ; and, as the subjective mind can never become assimilated with the objective so as to learn by direct feeling the mental processes which there accompany the objective activities, it is clearly impossible to satisfy any one who may choose to doubt the validity of inference, that in any case, other than his own, mental processes ever do accompany objective activities.

  • 構文分析よろしくお願い致します

    It is probable that we have all at some time or other had the experience of chancing upon a passage puoted without indication of authorship , and exclaiming ―“ So-and-so must have written that.” In such a case, it is often not the thought that strikes us as familiar so much as the way in which the thought is expressed. 構文分析よろしくお願い致しますm(_ _)m できるだけ丁寧に解説して頂けると嬉しいです。

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    It is obvious, then, to start with, that by Mind we may mean two very different things, according as we contemplate it in our own individual selves, or as manifested by other beings. For if I contemplate my own mind, I have an imme diate cognizance of a certain flow of thoughts and feelings, which are the most ultimate things — and, indeed, the only things— of which I am cognizant. But if I contemplate Mind in other persons or organisms, I can have no such immediate cognizance of their thoughts and feelings ; I can only infer the existence of such thoughts and feelings from the activities of the persons or organisms which appear to manifest them. Thus it is that by Mind we may mean either that which is subjective or that which is objective. Now throughout the present work we shall have to consider Mind as an object ; and therefore it is well to remember that our only instrument of analysis is the observation of activities which we infer to be prompted by, or associated with, mental antecedents or accompaniments analogous to those of which we are directly conscious in our own subjective experience. That is to say, starting from what I know subjectively of the operations of my own individual mind, and of the activi ties which in my own organism these operations seem to prompt, I proceed by analogy to infer from the observable activities displayed by other organisms, the fact that certain mental operations underlie or accompany these activities.

  • 和訳お願い致します。

    " Thus it is that philosophy can supply no demonstrative refutation of idealism, even of the most extravagant form. Common sense, however, universally feels that analogy is here a safer guide to truth than the sceptical demand for impossible evidence; so that if the objective existence of other organisms and their activities is granted — without which postulate comparative psychology, like all the other sciences, would be an unsubstantial dream— common sense will always and without question conclude that the activities of organisms other than our own, when analogous to those activities of our own which we know to be accompanied by certain mental states, are in them accompanied by analogous mental states."

  • 和訳お願いします

    この部分の和訳の自信がないので教えてください。 Could it be that only those things are considered worthy of being learned with which one can earn money or prestige, and that love, which ”only” profit s the soul, but is profitless in the modern sense, in a luxury we have no right to spend much energy on? Exactly the opposite holds true for that form of union which is by far the most frequent solution chosen by man in the past and in the present. よろしくお願いします。

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Before it fell into ruin Stonehenge must have had much of the grandeur of an Egyptian temple, which, despite its circu-iar shape, in some ways it resembles, and that it was temple there can be little doubt. Surrounded by a ditch and bank, it stood, as it were, upon a plinth, complete, classical in its iso-lation, and Neolithic worshippers on its perimeter would watch the procession of priests about the ambulatory, and the great trilithons. It would be not unlike watching the performance of a play, and perhaps Stonehenge is the prototype of the 'round' in which medieval miracle plays were presented, and ultimately of the ’wooden O' for which Shakespeare wrote.