「Style of Communication」 Compared with Western language,the typical style of communication in Japanese is intuitive and indirect.The basis of this style is a set of cultural values that emphasize empathy and are so widely shared that overt verbal communication often is not required.Thus,in Japan,the ideal interaction is not one in which speakers express their wishes or needs adequately and addressees understand and comply,but rather one in which each party understands and anticipates the needs of the other and fills them before any verbal communication becomes necessary.Silence is more highly valued in Japan than in the West;if all is going well,there should be no need for speech.A linguist points out that excessive verbalism has traditionally been looked down upon in Japan,especially for men.If verbal communication enters in,it will not be explicit;rather the speaker will rely upon the hearer's ability to realize what she or he means,often in spite of what is actually said.This style of communication can cause tremendous problems for Americans,who discover to their frustration that yes often means no,but cannot figure out when.The Japanese system of communication can work only in a homogeneous society in which people actually can anticipate each other's needs and wants.Universal expectation of empathy fosters amae,dependency or relying upon the indulgence and patronage of other's.Doi has analyzed how this concept pervades both individual and social psychology in Jaoan. 長いんですがお願いします。
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これは質問ではなくて、翻訳の依頼ですね。 ご自身で努力されないと自分のためにはなりません。テーマは違いますが、このエッセイに書かれている、 Universal expectation of empathy fosters AMAE,dependency or relying upon the indulgence and patronage of other's. の意味を考える必要があると思いますよ。 ご自身で和訳していて、どうしてもわからないところがあれば、どんどん質問してくださいね。 誰かがもしかしたら答えてくれるかもしれませんけど、それでは意味がないでしょう。
どなたか以下の文章を訳していただけませんか？ 自分は２文目の初めのitはthat以下をさすと思うのですがどうでしょうか？ Because its regime is one of the most loathsome in the world,there is a temptation to see every political development in North Korea as a precursor to the sort of instability that might one day lead to real change. So it has been with the announcement that Kim Jong Un,thought to be 27,a son of North Korean leader Kim Jong Il,had been promoted to general -a sign that he is likely to inherit his father's,and his grandfather's,mantle.
This illustrates the difference between American and Japanese attitudes towards verbal communication . In the United States, and in most Western countries in fact, it is important to say something, and say it as soon as possible. Silence is considered emptiness, a loss for wards, or worse, a loss of intellect. In most cases silence would not be interpreted as a time for reflection, agreement, understading or consent-or at times refusal-as is the case in Japan. 和訳 これは言葉による伝達に対するアメリカ人と日本人の違いを表しています。アメリカとほとんどの西洋諸国では実際のところ、何か言うこと、加えて、できるだけ早く言うことが大事なのです。沈黙は無意味、言葉がでないこと、もっと悪ければ知性の欠如とみなされます。ほとんどの場合、日本ではよくあることですが考察や同意、理解、承認（時には拒否）とは解釈されないでしょう。
Differences in cultural values, logic, and thought patterns are often reflected in the very different ways Americans and Japanese organize and present information, ideas, and opinions.These differences lie at the root of many communication problems and exert a powerful influence on the process of of persuation negotiation and conflict resolution. The rules of logic established by the Greeks and Romans are widely accepted in Western cultures, but this Western logic is by no means universal.Logic is a product of culture, and many Asian cultures such as the Japanese operate under different logical assumptions. When Americans get confused and frustrated listening toJapanese, they often complainthat the Japanese "just are't logical" and seem incapable or unwilling to use traditional Western logic. This impression is largely due to cultural differences in reasorning and thought patterns. From an early age, Americans are thought to be orderly in outlining their facts and in summarizing their main points according to framework that reflects Western logical structures.The logical way of presenting ideas in the West could be called linear or "straight-line"logic, which emphasizes direct and explicit communication.The most important aspects of straight-line logic are organizing your presentation in outline form and "getting straight to the point."In general, more low-context mainstream American patterns of thought and presentation are analogous to lines because all parts of the message must be explicity connected clearly and directly. But the Japanese do not learn to order their facts or present information and ideas in the same way.They consider the practice of ordering facts for others comparable to tying a child's shoelaces for him after the child has already learned the skill.American linear, one-step-at-a-time arguments and logic can seem immature to the Japanese, and Western logic is often perceived as instrusive - an attempt to get inside the heads of other people and try to do their thinking for them. But if Americans think in a linear way, then how do Japanese think?A natural response would be that since the circle is the opposite of line, then the Japanese probably think in circles.It is said that the more high-context Japanese prefer to use the logic patterns that emphasize talking "around " the subject rather than on it.The Japanese start at the edges with a wealth of background information and explanations and the n gradually "circle in" on the thesis and main points. However, in some respects, Jappanese patterns of thought and presentation are not like lines at all, but like a series of "dots." Parts of the message are contained in the individual dots, it is up to the audience to link the dots in their heads.In low-context cultures the meaning of communication is stated to the audience directly and all the steps and links are clearly put forth by the speaker verbally.But in high-context cultures the meaning of communication is elicited by the audience indirectly and intuitively - all the steps and links do not have to be clearly put forth verbally.
英文の和訳をお願いします。 途中、並び替えがあります。 スペルには気をつけましたが、ミスがあったら指摘していただいて結構です。お願いします。 It is often said that the Japanese are shy or mysterious and that it is impossible to guess what they are thinking. In many cases, however, they may simply be trying to behave politely according to their own custums. Japanese people do have their own opinions, but they tend to wait their turn to speak out. If they completely disagree with somebody, they will usually listen with an air of acceptance at first, then disagree in a rather vague and roundabout way. This is considered the polite way to do things in Japan. On the other hand, because Western people consider directness and the honest expression of one's opinions more important, they tend to express their ideas more crearly. Even though quarrels sometimes take place, they do not usually affect people's relationships, except in extreme cases. In Japan, however, if you go against someone and create a bad atmosphere, your relations may break off completely. People tend to react emotionally, and most (afraid,are,being,excluded,from,of,the group). Silence can be also be concidered a kind of ambiguity. Between the Japanese and Westerners, there is a different understanding of silence. For the Japanese, silence indicates deep thinking or consideration, but too much silence often makes non-Japanese uncomfortable. Whereas the Japanese consider silence as rather good and people generally feel sympathetic toward it, non-Japanese sometimes feel that it is an indication of indifference. Too many words, however, are a kind of pressure for many Japanese and make them nervous and ill-at-ease. Aimai can result in misunderstandings, and people from other countries sometimes become irritated because the Japanese seem unable to answer “yes” or “no” directly. For example, if asked, “Which will you have, tea or coffee？” a Japanese person will often reply, “Either is OK.” This is a reserved and polite answer, but it often causes the host or hostess trouble. In fact, the word that Japanese most often have difficulty in using is“no” and their use of vague denials may lead to a great deal of friction and misunderstanding. To solve this problem, the Japanese need to become aware of their sense of ambiguity because many of them simply do not realize that it causes problems. With this awareness, they can try to express their opinions more clearly. On the other hand, non-Japanese should try to understand the Japanese mentality and the importance of the role that ambiguity plays in Japanese life. 以上になります。 あまり難しくないように思えましたが、長い文になると、意外と見落としている語があったり、訳していて、おそらく訳す順が変で、しっくり来ない部分があり、少し自信が無かったです。
和訳例をお願い致します。 According to the WHO, they can expect to live longer, on average, than any other group of people on earth. This long (A) expectancy has often been attributed to the Japanese diet and eating habits. However, the Japanese diet and eating habits have been changing and effects of these changes are causing alarm. Traditionally, the Japanese cuisine is widely regarded as one of the healthiest in the world. Quite often, Japanese food is served raw of cooked lightly. These days, however, the traditional Japanese diet has been giving way to a more varied cuisine. Non-traditional Japanese food, such as pasta and hamburgers, is becoming as common for the average Japanese person as soba and sushi. In addition to greater variety, Japanese people today are eating more fatty foods. The Japanese also have begun to change their diet away from fresh and raw food towards highly processed meals. It is not uncommon for Japanese children to eat hamburgers, deep-fried chicken and pizza. The popularity of such foods is evident in the increasing number of fast food restaurants that have opened in Japan, many of which are attracting not only teenagers also families. The changing eating habits are also cause for concern. In the past, a number of the family used to spend considerable time shopping for fresh ingredients and preparing daily meals for the family. Today, more people live alone in comparison to previous decades. The practice of shopping for food and preparing fresh meals, which was formerly performed by one person in a household, often proves to be too difficult a daily task for the individual person. Many of today's busy working couples do not have enough time to prepare decent meals for themselves or their children. (B), ready-made meals and fast food restaurants are becoming more common. The changes in the Japanese diet and eating habits have begun to affect the health of the people. Indeed, the Japanese are getting fatter; statistics currently show that there are 24 percent of Japanese over 15 years of age who are believed to be overweight. leading experts beleve that the life expectancy in Japan is going to become shorter on account of this shift in diet and eating habits. 【設問】 (A)に入る最も適切な語 (B)1As a consequence 2In addition 3In the same way 4On the other hand 以上です。
- with tears slowly buildi
it is more emotional for the japanese to play out the scene without words, with tears slowly building in the eyes and then trickling down the cheeks as the train leaves. with tears slowly building in the eyes 涙をこらえて と訳されているのですがどうしてかがよく分かりません。解説していただけると嬉しいです。 it is this communication style that brought about the japanese value of jo-. In other word , it is the beauty of nonverbal human emotions that brings true life to this value. it is the beautyのitはjo- 情 をさしているのでしょうか？強調構文ではないですよね？ brings true life to this value はどのような訳が適切でしょうか？