• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!

日本語訳を!(13)

お願いします (1) Ancient Egyptians recognized the importance of the right name. It announced to the world who you were, where you came from, and what was expected of you. Almost all of the kings from the 18th dynasty had the birth names Amenhotep or Thutmose. Their names showed the world that they pleased the gods. Amenhotep links the king with the sun god Amun―it means, "Amen (or Amun, or Amon depending on how you choose to spell it) is satisfied." Thutmose links the king with the god of wisdom Thoth―it means "Thoth is born." By the Middle Kingdom, kings were adding four official names to their birth name, but they could add many, any more. If you could give yourself a few more names, what might you choose? Amenhotep III liked to call himself "The Dazzling Sun Disk." Historians have nicknamed him "Amenhotep the Magnificent." Not bad for a child-king who began his reign when he was only 10 or 12 yearr old. (2) If you were forced to pick one word to sum up the essence of a king's rule, you might pick "trade" for Hatshepsut's time in power, "conquest" for Thutmose III's reign, and for Amenhotep III the word might be "diplomacy." From the start Amenhotep III made sure the world knew about him. In a time without newspapers or television, getting the word out about your accomplishments wasn't easy. Amenhotep III used beetles. Not live beetles―fake beetles. These pocket-size, turquoise-glazed stones, carved in the shape of beetles called scarabs, bore testimony on their bellies. Details of Amenhotep III's big moments were inscribed on their undersides. Because dozens of these scarabs have been found in neighboring countries scholars call them imperial news bulletins.

共感・応援の気持ちを伝えよう!

  • 回答数2
  • 閲覧数99
  • ありがとう数1

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

(1) 古代のエジプト人は、正しい名前の大切さを理解していました。 名前は、あなたが何者なのか、あなたの出身地がどこなのか、あなたに何が期待されているのかを世界に公表するからでした。 第18王朝出身の王のほとんど全員が、アメンホテップまたはトトメスと言う出生時の名前を持っていました。彼らの名前は、それらが神を喜ばせることを世界に示しました。 アメンホテプは、太陽神アメンとその王を結びつけます ― それは、「Amen(あるいは、AmunとかAmonとも綴られる)が、満足していると言う意味です。」 トトメスは、知恵の神トトとその王を結びつけます ― それは、「トトが生まれる」と言う意味です。中王国の頃までには、諸王は、彼らの出生時の名前に4つの公式の名前を加えていました、しかし、彼らは、さらに多く、いくつでも加えることもできたでしょう。 あなたがもう2、3の追加の名前を自分に付けることが出来るならば、あなたはどんな名前を選ぶでしょうか? アメンホテップ3世は、「まばゆき日輪」と名乗るのが好きでした。歴史家は彼に「壮麗なるアメンホテプ」と言うあだ名をつけました。 わずか10歳か12歳の時にその治世を開始した少年王にとっては悪くない名前です。 (2) 王の統治の本質を要約する1つの単語を選びなさいと言われたら、あなたは、ハトシェプストの治世には、「交易」を、トトメス3世の治世には、「征服」を、そして、アメンホテプ3世には、「外交」と言う単語を選ぶかもしれません。最初から、アメンホテップ3世は、確実に世界に彼について知らせました。 新聞やテレビのない時代に、あなたの業績について言葉を発するのは、簡単ではありませんでした。 アメンホテップ3世は、カブトムシを使いました。 生きているカブトムシではなく ― 偽のカブトムシです。これらのポケットサイズの、スカラベと呼ばれているカブトムシの形に彫刻が施されている、ターコイズ(トルコ石)のはめられた石は、それらの腹部に証言が付いていました。 アメンホテップ3世の晴れ舞台の詳細は、それらの下側に刻まれました。 これらのスカラベの多数が近隣諸国で見つかったので、学者はそれらを帝国のニュース速報掲示板と呼んでいます。 ☆chiyotomoさんへ 昨日より体調が悪く、寝ていたのですが、連絡を取るために、1つだけ回答しました。また、私のPCのファンの調子が悪く、明日夕方にメーカーが引き取りに来ます。修理に、1週間から10日見込んで下さいとのことです。その間、回答できませんので、申し訳ないですが、ご了承ください。そのまま放置しておかれたら、PCが戻り次第、順次回答するつもりですが、chiyotomoさんにもご都合があると思いますので、その際は、何度か同じ質問をアップすれば、ある程度納得のできる回答が付くと思います。

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

質問者からのお礼

毎度ありがとうございます。 わかりました。まだ時間はあるので待てる分待ちたいと思います。

関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (13) Throughout history, alliances have been made through marriage. Amenhotep III married several foreign princesses in the name of diplomacy. But the Amarna Letters show that Amenhotep III didn't consider these diplomatic unions a give-and-take situation. When the king of Babylon asked for an Egyptian princess, Amenhotep III flat out refused, even though he gad taken the king of Babylon's sister as a bride. The angry king of Babylon wrote, "When I wrote to you about marrying your daughter you wrote to me saying ‘From time immemorial no daughter of the king of Egypt has been given in marriage to anyone.’Why do you say this? You are the king and you may do as you please. If you were to give a daughter, who would say anything about it?" But Amenhotep III wasn't budging. Egypt did not give away princesses. (14) The marriages allied rulers, not countries. If either husband or father-in-law should die, negotiations started all over again. This letter from the King of Hatti to Amenhotep III's son, after Amenhotep III died, shows that things didn't always continue as they had in the past: "your father never neglected... the wishes I expressed, but granted me everything. Why have you... refused to send me... gifts of friendship, I wish good friendship to exist between you and md." (15) Some of the letters were sent to people close to the king and pleaded for help. This letter from the king of Mittani to Queen Tiy shows how influential she must have been, not only during her husband's reign, but also during her son's:  You are the one who knows that I have always felt friendship for... your husband... but you have not sent me yet the gift of homage... your husband, has ordered be sent to me. I have asked... your husband for massive gold statues.... But your son has goldplated statues of wood. As gold is like dust in the country of your son, why... [hasn't] your son... given them to me?

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The dwarf-god Bes was a welcome sight to woman in labor. Bes fought off evil spirits that might threaten her or her body. During the Middle Kingdom, Bes's likeness might be carved onto the boomerang-shaped magic wand women often placed on their stomachs while giving birth. During the New Kingdom, Bes's picture might be painted on the birth house wall. Childbirth was dangerous to both mother and baby, so divine help from any of the gods associated with newborns was sought out, particularly from the chief god of newborns―the pregnant hippo-goddess, Taweret. (5) Scholars believe one out of every two or three newborns died, but they can only estimate because many newborns did not have their own burial. If a mother and baby both died in childbirth, they would be buried together. Babies who died soon after birth might be placed in clay pots and buried under the home, and those who never lived long enough to be named might be thrown into the Nile to the crocodiles. Mothers anxiourly watched their babies for danger signs. With predictions such as, "If the child made a sound like the creaking of the pine trees, or turned his face downward, he would die," it's no wonder they were anxious. (6) Parents named their children quickly. A child without a name was doomed to the "second death"―complete erasure―no life after death. Mothers wasted no time announcing their newborn's mame. Some names were long―Hekamaatreemperkhons. And some names were short―Ti. Some names described the child―Nefertiti, the Beautiful Woman Has Come. Some names connected the child with one of the gods―Tutankhamen, the Living Image of Amun. And some names were what the mother cried out when she gave birth―Nefret, pretty.

その他の回答 (1)

  • 回答No.1

品質は無保証。 古代のエジプト人は、正当な名前の重要性を認めた。 それは、あなたが誰であったか、あなたがどこから来たか、そして、何があなたに期待されたか世界に発表した。 ほぼ第18の王朝からの王全員は、旧姓アメンホテップまたはトトメスを持っていた。 彼らの名前は、彼らが神を喜ばせることを世界に明らかにした。 アメンホテップは王を太陽神Amunに結ぶ-「アーメンと唱えること(またはAmunまたはあなたがどのようにそれをつづることにしたかについて次第になっているアモン)は、満たされる。」と、それは意味する。 トトメスは王を知恵トートの神に結ぶ-それは「トートは生まれる」ことを意味する。 中国によって、王は4つの公式名前を彼らの旧姓に加えていた、しかし、もはや、彼らは多くを加えることができた。 あなたがもう2、3の名前を得ることができるならば、あなたは何を選ぶかもしれないか? アメンホテップ3世は、「Dazzling Sun Disk」を名乗るのが好きだった。 歴史家は彼にあだ名をつけた。そして、「アメンホテップが、Magnificentである」。 彼がわずか10または12才であったとき、彼の支配を開始した幼児王のために悪くない。 王の規則の本質を要約しなさいという1つの命令を選ぶことを強制されるならば、あなたは権限(トトメスIIIの支配のための「征服」)でハトシェプストの時間のために「取引」を選択するかもしれない、そして、アメンホテップ3世にとって、語は「外交」であるかもしれない。 最初から、アメンホテップ3世は、世界が彼を知っていることを確認した。 新聞またはテレビのない時間には、あなたの成果について語を見つけることは、簡単でなかった。 アメンホテップ3世は、カブトムシを使った。 生きているカブトムシ偽のカブトムシでない。 これらのポケットサイズの、ターコイズでつや出した石(スカラベと呼ばれているカブトムシの形に彫刻が施されている)は、彼らの腹に証言を持って行った。 アメンホテップ3世の大きい瞬間の詳細は、彼らの下側に刻まれた。 これらのスカラベの多数が近隣諸国で見つかったので、学者は彼らを帝国のニュース放送と呼ぶ。

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (11) Some scholars believe that Amenhotep IV was a normal-looking young man. Their theory is that the distorted human forms artists began drawing at this time were the result of a new artists style. The bodies, neither male nor female, but a bit of both, were meant to show the king as "everything." Other scholars have a different theory. They believe that Amenhotep IV was deformed by disease. They believe the long spidery fingers nd toes, the head that looks like pulled taffy, and the stick arms, full breasts and sagging belly represent a true likeness. Amenhotep IV's mummy has never been found, but if one turns up with an unusual body shape, we'll know who it is. (12) Scholars aren't sure if Amenhotep IV ruled alongside his father for a short time or not. It would have been excellent on-the-job training for the inexperienced prince. It would also have made it crystal clear to anyone who might have designs on the throne that the job was filled. From Amenhotep III's mummy we know toward the end he was fat and in poor health. Two of his teeth on the right side were abscessed. He would have been in constant pain. With Amenhotep IV ruling beside latest painkiller from Cyprus―opium. If he had packed his teeth with opium, he would not have been able to make clear-headed decisions; a co-ruler would have been not only useful, but also necessary. (13) When Amenhotep III died, embalmers used a new method. They injected tree resin and salt under the skin to plump it up nd give the body a more life like look. This innovation was the first in increasingly drastic changes that marked the reign of the rebel Amenhotep IV―a short blip in Egypt's history we know as the Amarna Period.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(1)

    お願いします。  The king who followed Narmer was named Aha. Aha means "the fighter." That should give you a clue as to what life was like in Egypt after the "unification." Either no one had bothered to get the word out to the Egyptians that they were now unified, or not everyone bought into the deal, because for next several hundred years, from about 3100 to 2670 BCE, the kings of Egypt spent most of their time squelching turf wars that flared up like forest fires. Every town with muscle and a headsman with attitude challenged the king. Each province struggled to hang on to its power. It took several hundred years and a king with a name that meant "divine body" to truly unify Egypt. A king named Djoser.  Egypt's list of kings is a long one. What makes the list run even longer is that most of the kings had several names. Take this one king, for example:  Hor Ka-nakht tut-mesut, Nebti Nefer-hepu Segereh-tawy, Sehetep-netjeru Nebu, Hor Neb Wetjes-khau Sehetep-netjeru, Nesut Bit Nebkheperure, Sa re Tutankhamun Heqaiunushema. In English, this name means:  The Horus Strong Bull, Fitting from Created Forms, He of the Two Ladies, Dynamic of Laws, Who Propitiates all the Gods, the Golden Horus Who Displays the Regalia, Who Propitiates the Gods, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of Manifestations is Re, Son of Re, Living Image of Amun, Ruler of Upper Egyptian Iunu. Fortunately for us, we know him as King Tut.  You can imagine how unwieldy the list became with more than 170 kings. Most of their names would have been lost if it weren't for an Egyptian priest and historian named Manetho, who lived in the third century BCE. He sorted out the entire disaster by collecting the records from various temples and putting them in order. To organize the list into something manageable, Manetho grouped the kings into thirty ruling families that we call dynasties.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (3) The first commemorative scarab from Year 2, 1385 BCE (two years into his reign would make Amenhotep III at most 14) is known as the Marriage Scarab. The inscription begins with all five of Amenhotep III's names. It then names his wife, "The great royal-wife Tiy... she is the wife of the mighty king...." The second scaraa, also commissioned in Year 2, announces Amenhotep's second love―big-game hunting, a favorite royal pastime. When the young king heard that wild bulls had been spotted, he traveled by night alomg the Nile for the hunt. The wild-bull-hunt scarab claims: "a marvelous thing took place." Although Amenhotep III probably looked regal in his chariot pulled by the most magnificent horses in the country, marvelous might be a bit much. The animals were penned, so the "hunt" didn't require much hunting. Still, shooting arrows and throwing javelins from a chariot racing full tilt takes skill. And Amenhotep III would want to spread the word that he was indeed a skilled hunter. Egyptians believed that if their king was successful as a hunter, he would be successful on the battlefield. Hunting meant much more than killing a beast, it meant winning against the forces of chaos. That's tall order for such a young man. It's no wonder he sent beetles scurrying throughout the ancient world to tell of his triumphs.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The king of the Hyksos was like a pebble in the Egyptian king's sandal. He irritated him just by being there, but war didn't break out until the insult. The Hyksos king sent a message to the ruler of Egypt, King Seqenenre. The Hyksos king complained that King Seqenenre's hippos in the royal pools "were keeping him awake at night with their grunts." Do something, he demanded. Given that Avaris was hundreds of miles from Thebes, where the king and his hippos lived, this was nothing short of a slap in the face. King Seqenenre was furious. Although it is unknown what happened next, the damage to King Seqenenre's skull indicates it didn't turn out well for the Egyptian side. During that time kings commanded the armies and led the soldiers into battle. Archaeologists have identified King Seqenenre's head, and it's not pretty. He took a battle axe to the forehead and was stabbed in the neck after he fell to the ground. This attack was the beginning of a war that would last nearly 25 years, from about 1574 to 1550 BCE, and span the reign of three Egyptian kings. (5) The Egyptians were farmers, not warriors. They were peaceful people. They were not conquerors by nature. And nowhere was that more obvious than in their army. It was unorganized. The soldiers served part-time and their weapons were not much more than farm tools adapted for battle. The few full-time soldiers were trained as palace guards, border police, or trade-ship escorts―not warriors. For the occasional battle outside of Egypt, the king hired foreign mercenaries because Egyptians didn't want to die away from home. An improper burial meant wandering the desert for eternity―not a pleasant haunting.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (10) We now know that the tablets are indeed letters―letters addressed to the king of Egypt more than 3,300 years ago, and copies of the replies he sent back. Nimmuriya is none other than Amenhotep III. And those chicken scratches are inscriptions written in the diplomatic language of the time, the language of ancient Babylon. Scholars today call the tablets the Amarna Letters―a priceless collection of letters between Egypt and its neighbors in the Near East. The mud bricks the peasant woman used for fertilizer once formed walls to an ancient Egyptian foreign office at Amarna―the House of the Correspondence of Pharaoh. And the stash of tablets was a file full of records stored there. Fewer than 400 survived outof who knows how many. The letters cover a timespan of nearly 30 years, from late in Amenhotep III's reign into his son's reign. The letters reveal greed and grievances. They detail petty fights and political alliances―30 years of diplomatic correspondence bdtween heads of state. (11) Scholars have divided the letters into two groups according to the opening words that led Budge to believe the tablets were letters. Some of the letters were between the king of Egypt and independent foreign rulers who considered themselves the king's equal. They opened their letters by addressing he king as "brother." (12) The second group of tablets begins quite differently. These senders wouldn't have dared to assume that they were brothers of the king, but merely "your servant, the dust of your two feet." The groveling continued for many lines. These chiefs of foreign lands under the king's dominion, or vassals, were so fearful of offending they don't even address the king by name, but instead called him "my king, my sun."

  • 日本語訳を!(15)

    お願いします (1) Imagine your father owned the richest and most powerful country in the world. Not just rain it, owned it. It wasn't only the land that belonged to him, but also all the gold and grain in the treasury. He owned every brick in every building and every cow on every farm. The people and all that they owned were his as well. All of it one day would be passed down―but not to you, to your older brother. Since birth, he had been in training for the job while you watched from the sidelines. Tutors and generals and government overseers prepared your older brother for the day when he would take the reins. Your father, the king, and your mother, the queen, focused their attentions on your older brother, fussing over his every move, while you went unnoticed. That was life for Amenhotep IV, the second son of Amenhotep III. (2) Getting the lion's share of attention wasn't all good. You both learned to read and write, but when your brother was struggling with the language of diplomats, you could swish your damp brush in the ink cake and practice your penmanship on sayings like, "Report a thing observed, not heard." You both learned to drive a chariot, but while your brother had to practice looking regal, you could flush grouse out of the papyrus patch. The vizier grilled him on how each department in the government worked while you grilled the grouse. (3) When Amenhotep IV was a young boy, Egypt was...well, simply fabulous. The mid-1300s BCE was the golden age―literally. Gold flowed in from the Nubian mines so steadily that envious foreign leaders peevishly observed, "in my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dirt."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Although Egyptians kept their hair short, they were concerned about what hair they did have. The Ebers Papyrus has recipes for hair care. To strengthen hair, a mixture of crushed donkey teeth and honey is recommended. To prevent graying, it advises applying the blood of a black animal accompanied by a spell that transfers the black from the animal to the hair. For hair loss it says: "Recipe to make the hair of a bald person grow: fat of lion, fat of hippopotamus, fat of crocodile, fat of cat, fat of serpent, and fat of ibex are mixed together and the head of the bald person is anointed therewith." A more straightforward cure for baldness was the application of chopped lettuce o the bald spot. (10) You would think a place where people went out and about with chopped lettuce on their heads would have absolutely no "fashion don'ts," but there were definite no-nos. (11) Fashion don't: Wool or leather in temples or in front of the king. Remember, the gods were often part animal. It was not in good taste to be wearing animal parts to worship. Wool from sheep and goats was considered unclean, so it was never worn next to the skin. Although cloaks were made of wool, they were always worn over linen. (12) Fashhon don't: Wearing shoes outdoors. Always carry your shoes on a journey and put them on when you arrive at your destination. (13) Fashion don't: Facial hair. Beards were considered unclean (remember the fleas and lice) and the mark of a barbarian. The one exception to this fashion don't was the braided fake beard worn by the pharaoh―but then who is going to criticize the pharaoh's fashion sense?

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Originally the job of vizier was given to the sons of the king, but by the New Kingdom any official could rise to the position. It was possible for an ambitious commoner to become vizier, and it was possible for a vizier to become king. In times of turmoil, when weak kings ruled, it was the vizier particularly talented vizier might serve more than one kingship. This had the advantage of making the royal changeover a smooth one. (10) One of the vizier's primary jobs was to uphold justice. Ancient justice doesn't sound like justice at all to us. It sounds brutal. Because tomb images paint a picture of life the way Egyptians hoped it would be in the afterlife, popular impressions of ancient Egypt are rose colored. No one likes to commemorate their failures, especially on beetles and certainly not on their tomb walls. Not only that, Egyptians believed anything written came true. Believing that, one would surely be very careful what they wrote. Egyptian life was not the idyllic paradise so many would like to believe. It had a dark side. (11) In Amenhotep's time, the top 5 percent of the population controlled the wealth of Egypt. At the head of it all, of course, was the king. Ranked below him were the vizier and several hundred families who ran the country as priests and overseers. Just below these elite families was a growing upper-middle class of educated people. And below them was the bulk of the population―people who were tied to the land, illiterate and unskilled. As the middle class grew, it became more and more worried about protecting its wealth. Punishments for robbery became more severe.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

    お願いします!!続き As you wandered through the city,you would have seen one building that stood out from all the othes,the so-called Great Hall.Not only was it bigger than all of the other buildings,but it was also built of wood on a brick foundation.(Because the local trees were small,the builders probably bought the wood in the highlands,then floated it down the river to the city during the monroon.) Archaeologists don't know what the building was used for.At first,they guessedthat it was used to store grain,but there's no evidence of that.Today,they believe that Harappa's Great Hall,as well as a similar large building in Mohenjo Daro,was probably a government or public meeting place. Although the great cities of the Indus were very similar,they were not identical.If you were a pilgrim from Harappa arriving in Mohenjo Daro for a religious festival,you might have felt that the people in Mohenjo Daro were a little bit more formal than your friend at home.For one thing,Mohenjo Daro didn't have just a Great Hall,but many other large buildings as well.Each section of the city had several large complexes.Some of these buildings may have been religious buildings or mansions for wealthy merchants.One building had a circle of bricks in its courtyard,which might have been the site of a sacred tree.A double staircase led to an upper courtyard surrounded by several rooms.When archaeologists excavated it,they found that the house was littered with lots of seals and fragments of a stone sculpture depicting a seated man wearing a cloak over his left shoulder who might have been a political or religious leader of some kind.