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お願いします (4) The dwarf-god Bes was a welcome sight to woman in labor. Bes fought off evil spirits that might threaten her or her body. During the Middle Kingdom, Bes's likeness might be carved onto the boomerang-shaped magic wand women often placed on their stomachs while giving birth. During the New Kingdom, Bes's picture might be painted on the birth house wall. Childbirth was dangerous to both mother and baby, so divine help from any of the gods associated with newborns was sought out, particularly from the chief god of newborns―the pregnant hippo-goddess, Taweret. (5) Scholars believe one out of every two or three newborns died, but they can only estimate because many newborns did not have their own burial. If a mother and baby both died in childbirth, they would be buried together. Babies who died soon after birth might be placed in clay pots and buried under the home, and those who never lived long enough to be named might be thrown into the Nile to the crocodiles. Mothers anxiourly watched their babies for danger signs. With predictions such as, "If the child made a sound like the creaking of the pine trees, or turned his face downward, he would die," it's no wonder they were anxious. (6) Parents named their children quickly. A child without a name was doomed to the "second death"―complete erasure―no life after death. Mothers wasted no time announcing their newborn's mame. Some names were long―Hekamaatreemperkhons. And some names were short―Ti. Some names described the child―Nefertiti, the Beautiful Woman Has Come. Some names connected the child with one of the gods―Tutankhamen, the Living Image of Amun. And some names were what the mother cried out when she gave birth―Nefret, pretty.


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(4) 小人の神「ベス」は、分娩中の女性にとって好ましい眺めでした。 ベスは、彼女や彼女の身体を脅かすかもしれない悪魔を退けました。 中王国の頃には、女性が、しばしば、分娩中に彼女たちのお腹の上に置いたブーメラン形の魔法の杖に、ベスの肖像は彫刻されたかも知れません。新王国の頃には、ベスの絵は、産屋の壁に描かれたかもしれません。 出産は母親と赤ちゃん双方にとって危険だったので、新生児に関係のあるあらゆる神々の御加護が求められました、特に、新生児の主神 ― 妊娠したカバの女神「タウェレット」からの御加護が求められました。 (5) 新生児2,3人につき1人が死んだと、学者は考えています、しかし、多くの新生児は、埋葬されなかったので、彼らは推定することができるだけです。 母親と赤ちゃんが、出産で、両方とも死亡するならば、彼らは一緒に埋葬されました。生まれた後すぐに死んだ赤ちゃんは、粘土の壺に入れられ、その家の下に埋葬されたかもしれません、また、名前をつけられるまで生きなかった赤ちゃんは、ナイル川に投げ込まれ、ワニのえさにされたかも知れません。母親は、心配して危険な兆候がないかと彼らの赤ちゃんを調べました。 「子供が、松の木がきしむような音をたてたり、顔を下に向けるならば、その子は死にます。」と言った様な予言があったので、彼女たちが、心配したのも無理はありません。 (6) 両親は、急いで彼らの子供たちに名前を付けました。 名前のない子供は、完全な抹消である ― 「2回目の死」を迎える運命でした ― その子の来世は無くなったのです。 母親は、時をおかずに、彼らの新生児の名前を発表しました。 名前の中には「ヘカマートレエぺルコーンス」の様に長い名前もありました。また、「ティ」の様に短い名前もありました。 子供を「美しい女性が来ました」と言う意味の「ネフェルティティ」と表わす名前もありました。子供を、神々の1つ ― アメン神の現世での化身である「ツタンカーメン」に結びつける名前もありました。 さらに、出産したとき、母親が大声で叫んだ言葉 ― 「可愛い」と言う意味の「ネフレット」とした名前もありました。





  • 日本語訳を! 6-(4)

    お願いします。 (9) The Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, and the Book of the Dead all had the same purpose―turn the quiz into an open-book exam and guarantee that the spirits passed. Once safely though the labyrinth of portals, the spirits entered the hall of judgment. Before 42 gods, the spirits declared their innocence to everything the Egyptians could think of. The cheat sheet helped them remember all the sins they didn't commit. The spirits addressed the gods one by one. Some of the gods had creepy names: Bone Breaker and Blood Eater, for example. Some gods had rather unusual names: Fiery Eyes, Hot Foot, and Pale One. Others had names that would make good video game demons: Demolisher, Lord of Truth, and the Accuser. Still others sounded a bit goofy, as if they were one of the Seven Dwarfs―Nosey, for example. The spirits had to remember which sin they denied to which god (with the help of their cheat sheet). Apparently being noisy was considered sinful. One of the denial was "O Water-smiter who came forth from the Abyss, I have not been loud voiced."

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (5) The Roman historian Livy had also written down a different legend about two brothers who were sons of the king. Their names were Numitor and Amulius. When their father the king died, Amulius grabbed the throne and forced Numitor to leave the kingdom. But then Amulius worried that someone might try to overthrow him. What if Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, had children who might try to take the throne? Amulius wasn't taking any chances. He forced Rhea Silvia to join the Vestal Virgins―a group of women who served in the temple of the goddess Vesta. The Romans believed that Vesta wanted the complete attention of her priestesses, so the Vestal Virgins were not allowed to marry or have children. (6) Poor Rhea had no choice but to obey her uncle. But things didn't go according to Amulius's plan. Somehow, despite her protected life among the Vestal Virgins, Rhea became pregnant and gave birth to twins―two strong, handsome boys. She named her sons Romulus and Remus. Amulius was outraged when he heard the news. He ordered his servants to take the twins from their mother's arms nd drown them in the river. Rhea herself was bound and thrown into prison. (7) The servant couldn't bring himself to kill the babies, so he put them into a basket and set it afloat on the river. He was sure that the babies would be carried away and drowned as the king had commanded. But the river was kind and gently landed the basket on solid ground. (8) Although the twins didn't drown, they were still in great danger. If they didn't starve, wild animals might eat them. Miraculously, according to Livy, “a she-wolf, coming down from the... hill to quench her thirst, turned her steps towards the cry of the infants, and nursed them so gently that the keeper of the royal flock found her licking them with her tongue.”

  • 日本語訳を!c13-7

    お願いします!続き  The earlier Vedic religion was changing.Animal sacrifices were being replaced with butter and fruit offerings,new deities were emphasized instead of Agni and Brahma,and people couldn't move between the varnas at all.In time,these new practices became known as Hinduism.  But not everyone found meaning and comfort in sacrifices and strict social divisions.By the sixth century BCE,two young men were struggling to find gentler,more peaceable ways of finding the divine.Their names were Mahavira and Siddhartha Gautama,and their efforts would ghve birth to two of the world's great religions,Jainism and Buddhism.

  • 日本語訳を!(13)

    お願いします (1) Ancient Egyptians recognized the importance of the right name. It announced to the world who you were, where you came from, and what was expected of you. Almost all of the kings from the 18th dynasty had the birth names Amenhotep or Thutmose. Their names showed the world that they pleased the gods. Amenhotep links the king with the sun god Amun―it means, "Amen (or Amun, or Amon depending on how you choose to spell it) is satisfied." Thutmose links the king with the god of wisdom Thoth―it means "Thoth is born." By the Middle Kingdom, kings were adding four official names to their birth name, but they could add many, any more. If you could give yourself a few more names, what might you choose? Amenhotep III liked to call himself "The Dazzling Sun Disk." Historians have nicknamed him "Amenhotep the Magnificent." Not bad for a child-king who began his reign when he was only 10 or 12 yearr old. (2) If you were forced to pick one word to sum up the essence of a king's rule, you might pick "trade" for Hatshepsut's time in power, "conquest" for Thutmose III's reign, and for Amenhotep III the word might be "diplomacy." From the start Amenhotep III made sure the world knew about him. In a time without newspapers or television, getting the word out about your accomplishments wasn't easy. Amenhotep III used beetles. Not live beetles―fake beetles. These pocket-size, turquoise-glazed stones, carved in the shape of beetles called scarabs, bore testimony on their bellies. Details of Amenhotep III's big moments were inscribed on their undersides. Because dozens of these scarabs have been found in neighboring countries scholars call them imperial news bulletins.

  • 日本語訳を!(17)

    お願いします (1) No one in the ancient world loved their children more than the Egyptians. The Greeks, who sometimes left unwanted infants (most often girls) outdoors to die, were shocked to discover the Egyptians did not. The Greek geographer Strabo believed the fact "that they bring up all the children that are born" to be the Egyptians' most admirable quality. In Egypt, children (even girls) were considered a blessing. Pregnant women were fussed over, envied, and admired. And right behind them, the fathers stood all puffed up with their fatherhood. Egyptian men were loving fathers―and proud of it! (2) The medical document called the Berlin Papyrus, contains directions for the oldest-known pregnancy test. The test involves watering cereals with urine, and has a bonus feature of predicting the sex of the unborn child. "The woman must moisten it with urine every day.... If he barley grows it means a male child. If the wheat grows it will mean a female child. If neither grows, she will not give birth." (3) When it was time to deliver, women went to special birth houses. For the upper class, the birth house might be a luxurious room built next to the temple. For the less wealthy, the birth house might be a special room on the roof of the house where cool winds blew. Squatting with each foot on a large brick, or sitting in a special birthing chair with a hole in the seat, a woman gave birth assisted by female neighbors. The women in labor repeated prayers to Amun, "make the heart of the deliverer strong, and keep alive the one that is coming."

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The cavalry, always the most honored branch of the army in Austria, was top notch, and the commanders Auffenberg relegated command to were very capable of deploying them to full effectiveness. Three of the Five Generals under his command were General der Kavallerie. The Infantry were also dependable, led by the professional soldiers brought into the military before the outbreak of the war. It was a dependable army and would prove so in the course of the first months of the war. Von Plehve's forces were superior in numbers. In fact all along the front the Russians were in numerical superiority, this made the position on Auffenberg's flanks dangerous. Plehve had the trusty Russian Cossacks, recruited from loyal monarchist families in the Urals and well trained, they could hold their own easily against their counterparts across the front. The infantry, however, was a weak point. While the Austro-Hungarians were properly supplied and trained, even Russian peacetime formations had supply problems from the beginning of mobilization. The Russian strength was in their numbers. The Austro-Hungarians moved forward in good order on 26 August and smashed into the Russian lines. Von Plehve's right flank was already shaken by the defeat of the Russian Fourth Army at the Battle of Kraśnik a few days earlier, and despite his typical quick action, he could do nothing to oppose a superior enemy. By the 31st, the Austro-Hungarians had taken approximately 20,000 prisoners, a huge amount for the first month of the war. These prisoners were some of Russia's best soldiers, despite their inferior supply they were loyal. The conscripts that would fill the ranks of Russia's armed forces in the coming years of war would be lacking in proper training and far less willing to fight and by the time of the Kerensky Offensive in 1917 loyal soldiers were few and far between on the Russian line. The first two battles (Kraśnik and Komarow) of Conrad's invasion of Poland had been crushing successes, and it seemed as though the Russian might not be able to prevent a crisis in Poland and conduct their invasion of East Prussia simultaneously, particularly with the conclusion of the Battle of Tannenberg a few days later. Russia lost 20,000 of its better soldiers. The two Austro-Hungarian armies were poised to move farther into Poland, and the Austro-Hungarians received a huge boost to morale. Despite the remaining lack of security in the east the triple victory of Kraśnik-Komarow-Tannenberg and the successful advance in France gave the Germans and Austro-Hungarians their greatest hope of a victorious Schlieffen Plan. However, this would be proved false hope in a matter of days - not only due to the German defeat at the Battle of the Marne.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Despite swift medical attention, a large number of men had to be taken to hospital and one soldier died of exposure. The area was covered with trenches, many of which were derelict, damaged, half-built or obliterated by artillery-fire. Identifying the course of the front line or relating it to the map was impossible, as was the reconstruction of the front line, because trenches collapsed as soon as they were dug. Despite the conditions, raids were mounted by both sides and a party of about 100 Germans was repulsed from New Munich Trench on 25 November. Despite the conditions, New Munich Trench was extended by the British to the north and another 250 yards (230 m) was dug to the south, in preparation for an attack on Munich Trench, as soon as conditions allowed.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (14) Crassus was furious. He armed the men again. Then he divided 500 of the soldiers into 50 groups of 10. In each group, the men drew straws, and one man was chosen. Plutarch says that Crassus ordered the death of these fifty men, that they be executed“with a variety of appalling and terrible methods, performed before the eyes of the whole army, gathered to watch.”Crassus finally led Rome to victory, but only after a long, fierce struggle. Most of the rebels were killed. According to Plutarch, Spartacus refused to give up and fought savagely, even after the last of his men had deserted him. In the end, he died a soldier's death―with his sword in his hand. (15) The Romans crucified 6,000 rebels and left hanging on wooden crosses all along the Appian Way―a road that led to Rome. Their rotting bodies served as a horrible warning to rebellious slaves. (16) Although Rome was cruel to its slaves, not all of them suffered as terribly as the gladiators and mine workers did. Many captured people were skilled craftsmen who were allowed to continue their work as potters, artists, or metal workers. Those who worked in the homes of wealthy aristocrats were also treated fairly well―compared to less fortunate slaves. Household slaves were usually well fed and clothed. And their jobs were much safer and more pleasant. They worked as nannies, cooks, and seamstresses. Welleducated Greek slaves could become household secretaries or tutors for their masters' children. (17) Although slaves might become friendly with the master and his family, they still had to take orders. And if they committed crimes, they could be tortured, burned alive, crucified, or sent to fight wild beasts in the arena while the audience watched and cheered. The upper classes never suffered these violent punishments. Aristocratic criminals were killed with the sword―a quicker, less agonizing way to die.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-3

    お願いします!続き The crew filled some of the big storage jars with fresh water for the long trip,and packed the others with dried cheese,butter,honey,and beer.They stowed large sacks of wheat and barley toward the front end of the boat,where the sacks were less likely to get wet.Next to the grain,they stacked bales of cotton cloth,bleached white or dyed red or blue.The captain would have bought the cloth from traders who had floated down the shallow rivers that led to the center of the bountry on their flat-bottomed boats. As you might have guessed from Puabi's tomb,the boat's most valuable cargo was long carnelian beads.These beads were in great demand in Mesopotamia,and the captain wrapped them in soft cotton and packed them carefully in a basket so that they would not get broken during the trip. After he tied some branches from the sacred pipal tree to the mast to ward off evil spirits,the captain would have loaded his passengers:monkeys,peacocks,and sleek reddish brown gunting dogs to sell as pets,as well as a couple of traders who wanted passage to Mesopotamia. From Dholavira the captain sailed west across the delta,or the mouth,of the Indus River.With the delta behind him,he faced one of the most dangerous parts of his trip.The coast became very rocky and the crew had to watch for submerged islands as they sailed slowly through waters filled with fish and black-and-gold sea snakes.Once he had made it through that dangerous stretch,the captain could have sailed across the Arabian Sea for a quick stop along the coast of Oman,or chosen to sail directly to Mesopotamia,north through the Persian Gulf.Oman would have been a tempting side trip.The people there were willing to trade their copper,seashells,and pearls,all of which were in high demand in Mesopotamia,for the captain's wood and cotton cloth-but the first traders to arrive in Mesopotamia could charge the highest prices for their goods.