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There were increasing conflicts over diminishing resources resulting in a state of almost permanent warfare. Slavery became common and as amount of protein available fell the population turned to cannibalism. One of the main aims of warfare was to destroy the "ahu" of opposing clans. A few survived as burial places but most were abondoned. ahuは祭壇のことらしいです。


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  • bakansky
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 減少していく食料資源をめぐっての戦いが拡大し、結果的にいつも戦闘をしているという状態に陥った。奴隷の存在が当たり前のこととなり、蛋白源が入手しにくくなると住民は食肉に走った。戦闘をする主な目的は、対立する部族の 「アフ (祭壇)」 を破壊することで、いくつかは埋葬地として残ったが、ほとんどは廃棄された。





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    Many Americans believe that disputes should be settled by the disputing parties without outside help. Parents often send their children back to the playroom or playground with instructions to settle fights for themselves. Relatives and friends can be heard to say,”It’s between the two of you. I’m not getting in the middle .” Even psychologists tend to regard it as a sign of maturity when someone settles disputes without third parties,whose participation may be regarded as unhealthy. Yet many peoples of the world except conflicts to be resolved by third parties. This reflects an emphasis on harmony and interdependence: the tendency to see individuals as located in a social network,in contrast to the American tendency to over-emphasize independence and see the individual as the fundamental human unit. To manage disputes ranging from quarrels between family members to conflicts between villages, cultures develop informal rules and formal proceedings, just as Americans have assumptions about fair fights as well as legal trials. In contrast to the American way of settling disputes,however, the participation of the community is an important part of the proceedings. Americans cannot simply adopt the rituals of another culture,but thinking about these rituals can give them ideas for devising their own new ways to manage conflicts. できるだけ正確にお願いします。

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    The Russians tried to launch three counterattacks, but all of them failed. In one of those counterattacks Latvian riflemen were forced to attack across an open field against German machine guns and thus suffered heavy losses (especially the 3rd Kurzeme regiment). The temperature dropped to -38°C making it impossible for either side to continue active warfare. The Germans managed to conquer back 4/5 of their lost positions, although 'Machine-gun hill' stayed in Russian hands.The Christmas battles won the Latvian riflemen a reputation as capable warriors, but also huge losses as the Latvian Riflemen suffered casualties of more than a third (Latvian riflemen lost about 9000 soldiers).

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    お願いします。  The richer the country, the more powerful its leader―and Egypt was becoming very rich indeed. The king became as distance and as "imperishable" as the stars―a god-king on earth, and in death truly divine. He was responsible for the stability, the order, the balance―ma'at. The simple tombs lined with brick and topped with a flat rectangular stone that had buried royalty in the past were no longer grand enough. What would the people think?  King Djoser wanted something that showed Egypt and the world just how powerful he was―showed this world and the next. He was fortunate enough to have a true genius for an architect―an architect capable of envisioning (and building) a tomb worthy of a god-king's passageway to the afterlife: a stairway to heaven. The architect's name was Imhotep and he built the first pyramid.  King Djoser must have traveled from the capital city of Memphis to the burial grounds at Saqqara now and again to inspect Imhotep's progress. King Djoser and Imhotep would have entered through a narrow passage positioned to capture the sun's first rays at daybreak. There were many false entrances along the nearly 20-foot-high wall surrounding the burial grounds, but only one way inside. They would have passed under the stone roof at the entrance carved to look like split logs and then through two giant doors permanently flung open. What did King Djoser think the first time he inspected the work site? How did he feel when he walked between the two parallel lines of stone columns carved to look like reeds bound in bunches? At the far end, the columns were placed closer and closer together to give the illusion of an even longer passageway. It must have seemed to him to stretch forever. This was no brick-lined hole in the ground. The burial complex was as big as 24 soccer fields.

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    Total British losses from January to March 1917 in France were given as 67,217, French losses given were 108,000 and German losses were 65,381. The first attack of the Nivelle Offensive by the British First and Third armies came at Arras, north of the Hindenburg Line on 9 April and inflicted a substantial defeat on the German 6th Army, which occupied obsolete defences on forward slopes. Vimy Ridge was captured and further south, the greatest depth of advance since trench-warfare began was achieved, surpassing the success of the French Sixth Army on 1 July 1916. German reinforcements were able to stabilise the front line, using both of the defensive methods endorsed in the new German training manual and the British continued the offensive, despite the difficulties of ground and German defensive tactics, in support of the French offensives further south and then to keep German troops in the area while the Messines Ridge attack was being prepared. German casualties were c. 85,000, against British losses of 117,066 for the Third and First armies.

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    Michael Mulford's father Mark survived the battle as a teenager aboard the HMS Malaya, which was hit eight times with the loss of more than 60 men. Mr Mulford said his father, then 19, had watched as the bodies were sewn into hammocks and released over the side. He told the BBC: "I can't really imagine it because what he ever said about it was absolutely nothing - which speaks volumes for the horror of raw naval warfare. "This was duty, this was service, but whatever else, it was nothing you could talk about at the dinner table. It was not something to regale the grandchildren with. It was long ago, it was dreadful but it had to be done and was done." Mr Mulford added: "Today is a day for peace and reconciliation."

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    Just after the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September 1914), Entente and German forces repeatedly attempted manoeuvring to the north in an effort to outflank each other: this series of manoeuvres became known as the "Race to the Sea". When these outflanking efforts failed, the opposing forces soon found themselves facing an uninterrupted line of entrenched positions from Lorraine to Belgium's coast. Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended the occupied territories. Consequently, German trenches were much better constructed than those of their enemy; Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be "temporary" before their forces broke through the German defences. Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. On 22 April 1915, at the Second Battle of Ypres, the Germans (violating the Hague Convention) used chlorine gas for the first time on the Western Front. Several types of gas soon became widely used by both sides, and though it never proved a decisive, battle-winning weapon, poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war. Tanks were developed by Britain and France, and were first used in combat by the British during the Battle of Flers–Courcelette (part of the Battle of the Somme) on 15 September 1916, with only partial success. However, their effectiveness would grow as the war progressed; the Allies built tanks in large numbers, whilst the Germans employed only a few of their own design, supplemented by captured Allied tanks.