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※ ChatGPTを利用し、要約された質問です(原文:日本語訳お願いします。)

Disputes Should Be Settled by the Disputing Parties

  • Many Americans believe that disputes should be settled by the disputing parties without outside help.
  • Yet many peoples of the world except conflicts to be resolved by third parties.
  • To manage disputes ranging from quarrels between family members to conflicts between villages, cultures develop informal rules and formal proceedings, just as Americans have assumptions about fair fights as well as legal trials.


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  • Nakay702
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以下のとおりお答えします。 (訳文)  多くのアメリカ人が、もめごとは外部の助けなしに当事者によって解決されるべきだと信じています。親はしばしば、自分自身の力で戦いを解決するための指示として子供を遊び部屋や遊び場に戻します。親戚や友人が、「それはあなた方2人の間のことです。私はその中にいません」と言うのが聞かれます。心理学者さえも、第三者の介入は不健全なので、誰かが第三者の介入なしにもめごとを解決するとき、それを成熟の兆候とみなす傾向があります。  しかし、世界の多くの人々が、紛争・衝突は第三者によって解決されるべきであると期待しています*。これは、調和と相互依存性の重視を反映しています。つまり、独立を過度に強調し、個人を基本的な人間単位とみなすアメリカの傾向とは対照的に、個人を社会のネットワーク(網状の組織・つながり)の中に位置づけられている、と見る傾向(があります)。  家族間の争いから村落間の紛争・衝突に至るまでのもめごとを管理するために、(例えば)アメリカ人が法的な裁判・審理同様、公正な論争に関する訴訟引受(機関)**を持っているように、諸文化が非公式の規則や正式な訴訟手続きを展開しています。しかし、アメリカの紛争解決方法とは対照的に、コミュニティ(共同体)の参加は訴訟手続の重要な部分です。アメリカ人は単純に他の文化の儀式を採用することはできませんが、これらの儀式を考えることは、紛争を管理する新しい方法を考案するためのアイデアを与えてくれるかも知れません。 *原文ではexceptとありますが、これをexpectの誤植と見なして訳しました。 Yet many peoples of the world except (→expect) conflicts to be resolved by third parties. (ついでながら、英文表記全体を通して、「コンマの後を1字分空ける」ことをお忘れなく。) **原文のassumptionsは、「訴訟引受(機関)」と訳しましたが、いまいち判然としません。誤訳というほどではないと思いますが、もっとよい適訳がありそうな気もします。



  • この英文を訳してください><

    Many Americans believe that disputes should be settled by the disputing parties without outside help. Parents often send their children back to the playroom or playground with instructions to settle fights for themselves. Relatives and friends can be heard to say, "It's between the two of you. I'm not getting in the middle." Even psychologists tend to regard it as a sign of maturity when someone settles disputes without third parties, Whose participation may be regarded as unhealthy. Yet many peoples of the world expect conflicts to be resolved by third parties. This reflects an emphasis on harmony and interdependence:the tendency to see individuals as located in a social network,in contrast to the American tendency to over-emphasize independence and see the individual as the fundamental human unit. To manage disputes ranging from quarrels between family members to conflicts between villages, cultures develop informalrules and formal proceedings,just as Americans have assumptions about fairfights as well as legal trials.In contrast to the American Why of settling disputes, however,the participation ofthe community is an important part of the proceedings. Americans cannot simply adopt the rituals of another culture, but thinking about these rituals can give them ideas for devising their own new ways to manage conflicts. In native Hawaiian culture,there is a word, ho'oponopono ("to setthings right"),for a ceremony in Which family members invite an older person or a respected member of the community to watch overthe resolution of a dispute. The leader invites the disputing parties to talk about their feelings and encourages them to apologize to and forgive each other. The leader calls on a higher power -God and Church - to offer forgiveness, too. On the island of Tanna in the South Pacific, conflicts among villagers or between villages are discussed publicly by groups of adult men at special meetings that last all day. These meetings are very different from the American idea of conflict resolution in thatthey are not designed to reconcile the individual accounts of disputing parties and draw from them the truth of what happened. These meetings are not competitions or battles among opposing interests;they are joint journeys in Which all travelers reach the same destination. All the people present, disputing parties as well as others, come to a public agreement about what happened and how the conflict should be settled Usually, one party is not blamed;instead it is shown that both parties are somewhat responsible. These meetings do not always settle disputes once and for all, but atleast they offer an opportunity for settlement.

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    There were increasing conflicts over diminishing resources resulting in a state of almost permanent warfare. Slavery became common and as amount of protein available fell the population turned to cannibalism. One of the main aims of warfare was to destroy the "ahu" of opposing clans. A few survived as burial places but most were abondoned. ahuは祭壇のことらしいです。