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Nevertheless, 128 direct hits were recorded by the artillery and three guns destroyed, while German and Ottoman anti-aircraft artillery caused the death of three pilots and the loss of two aircraft. All the camels of the mounted field ambulances remained at Dier el Belah during the fighting except for a small proportion which moved forward, but ambulance men and transport remained at Deir el Belah during the fighting. As the attacks were made across open country without any cover, many casualties had to be collected in full view of the enemy. Evacuations from Desert Column were carried out by 36 Ford ambulance wagons, six from each division, with a convoy of 24 operating between divisional receiving stations at Tel el Jenimi and the 53rd British Casualty Clearing Station at Deir el Belah. Then they were transported back to the No. 2 Australian Stationary Hospital at El Arish on the railway before continuing their journey back to Kantara. Dobell and Murray discussed the advantages of a flank attack on Gaza from the east, instead of a frontal attack. However, the lack of water in the area towards Beersheba put it beyond the resources of the EEF in April 1917. Dobell therefore planned a direct frontal attack on the well-prepared Ottoman defences. He would employ all his available force to "crush" the main positions defending Gaza, while Desert Column advanced on the right flank, in preparation for a pursuit. The assault would be made in two stages. Firstly the 52nd (Lowland) and 54th (East Anglian) Divisions would attack and capture Sheikh Abbas and make a general advance of 2–3 miles (3.2–4.8 km) beyond the Wady Ghuzzee, to place the infantry in a position to launch the main attack on Gaza.

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>Nevertheless, 128 direct hits were recorded by the artillery and three guns destroyed, while German and Ottoman anti-aircraft artillery caused the death of three pilots and the loss of two aircraft. All the camels of the mounted field ambulances remained at Dier el Belah during the fighting except for a small proportion which moved forward, but ambulance men and transport remained at Deir el Belah during the fighting. ⇒それでも、128発の命中が砲兵隊によって記録され、3門の大砲を破壊したが、その一方ドイツ・オスマントルコ軍の反航空機砲撃によって3人の飛行士が死亡し、2機の航空機が喪失される損害を受けた。戦いの間、野戦救急ラクダ隊は、前線へ赴いた少数を除いて、それ以外のすべてがデイル・エル・ベラフに残った。前線へ出たもののうちでも、救急士と輸送隊はデイル・エル・ベラフに残った。 >As the attacks were made across open country without any cover, many casualties had to be collected in full view of the enemy. Evacuations from Desert Column were carried out by 36 Ford ambulance wagons, six from each division, with a convoy of 24 operating between divisional receiving stations at Tel el Jenimi and the 53rd British Casualty Clearing Station at Deir el Belah. Then they were transported back to the No. 2 Australian Stationary Hospital at El Arish on the railway before continuing their journey back to Kantara. ⇒攻撃がいかなる避難場所もない広々とした大地の全域でなされたので、多くの犠牲者が敵からまる見えの所で集められなければならなかった。砂漠縦隊からの退去は、各々の師団からの6台、計36台のフォード救急車ワゴンを使って、テル・エル・ジェニミにある師団受け入れ駅とデイル・エル・ベラフにある第53英国軍犠牲者治療所の間で24個輸送隊による輸送が行われた。それから彼らは、カンタラへ向けて旅を続ける前に、エル・アリシュのオーストラリア軍No. 2駐留域病院へ輸送された。 >Dobell and Murray discussed the advantages of a flank attack on Gaza from the east, instead of a frontal attack. However, the lack of water in the area towards Beersheba put it beyond the resources of the EEF in April 1917. Dobell therefore planned a direct frontal attack on the well-prepared Ottoman defences. He would employ all his available force to "crush" the main positions defending Gaza, while Desert Column advanced on the right flank, in preparation for a pursuit. ⇒ドーベルとマレイは、ガザへの正面攻撃の代わりに、東からの側面攻撃をすることの利点を検討した。しかし、ベールシェバ方面地域の水不足が、1917年4月時点のEEFの資源力を越えてしまった。したがって、ドーベルは(やむなく)準備の整っているオスマントルコ防衛隊に対する直接の正面攻撃を計画した。彼は、ガザを守っている主要陣地を「押しつぶす」ために、追跡に備えて砂漠縦隊が右側面へ向かって進む間、自軍の利用できる軍勢をすべて使うことにした。 >The assault would be made in two stages. Firstly the 52nd (Lowland) and 54th (East Anglian) Divisions would attack and capture Sheikh Abbas and make a general advance of 2–3 miles (3.2–4.8 km) beyond the Wady Ghuzzee, to place the infantry in a position to launch the main attack on Gaza. ⇒襲撃は、2つの段階に分けて行うことになった。まず最初に、第52(ローランド)、第54(東アングル)師団が攻撃にかかって、シャイフ・アッバスを攻略し、ワジ・グゼーを越えて2–3マイル(3.2–4.8キロ)の総進軍を敢行し、ガザへの主要攻撃を開始するための陣地に歩兵連隊を配置することとした。

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  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Other British estimates include 25,000 German and Ottoman troops in the area, with 8,500 at Gaza, 4,500 east of Gaza, 2,000 in the Atawineh redoubt, and 6,000 at Hareira and Tel el Sharia about halfway between Gaza and Beersheba. The official British historian notes there "were 18,000 rifles on the front" during this second battle, including the Beersheba detachment. The ration strength of the defending force was 48,845, including 18,185 armed with rifles, 86 armed with machine guns. Although they had a total of 101 artillery pieces, only 68 guns were in action during the battle, 12 of which were larger than field-gun calibre. The War Office thought there could be 30,000 Ottoman troops in southern Palestine with the Gaza–Beersheba line, defended by about 18,000 men. On 10 April, Dobell understood that Gaza was defended by three regiments, with two regiments east of the town, two regiments at Hareira, and one each at Tel esh Sheria and near Huj, with potential for mutual support. Just before the attack, it was understood that an Ottoman force of 21,000 held the ground between Tel esh Sheria and Gaza, including 8,500 at Gaza, 4,000 at Kh el Bir, and 2,000 at Atawineh. On 15 April 1917, the Ottoman forces were estimated at about 1,500 to 2,000 cavalry, 60 to 70 guns, and 20,000 to 25,000 infantry holding the Sheria, Hareira to Gaza line with a small reserve near Akra.[48]Murray ordered Dobell to attack Gaza with three infantry divisions.

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    By the afternoon all likely crossings had been carefully reconnoitred, and the chosen crossing near the Wadi Sharta, which was to be used the next day, marked. At 15:30 the Imperial Mounted Division, led by the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, marched out of camp at Marakeb, heading for Deir el Belah about six hours or 18 miles (29 km) away. The division's three brigades and their machine gun squadrons were accompanied by their mobile veterinary sections and the 3rd Light Horse Field Ambulance. The troopers carried their day's rations, while rations for 26 and 27 March were to be transported forward during the night of 25/26 March, by the first line transport of camels and wagons. As it had been expected the division would be away five days, additional rations were carried on improvised packs, which accompanied the division as far as Deir el Belah. On the day of battle, the 53rd (Welsh) Division, moved out from Deir el Belah at 01:00 in four columns towards El Breij, followed by the artillery.

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    A total of 12,000 of the available 16,000 Ottoman soldiers were moving west, to be in position to launch an attack by nightfall on the day of battle. The main Ottoman force of between two and a half and three divisions, estimated between 6,000 and 16,000 rifles, were deployed at Tel el Negile and Huj with detachments at Tel esh Sheria, Jemmameh, Hareira, Beersheba, and Gaza, to prevent the EEF from out-flanking Gaza. The rear of the EEF was to be attacked by the Ottoman 16th Division, at a point where the road from Khan Yunis to Gaza crossed the Wadi Ghuzze, and by the Beersheba Group which was to advance via Shellal, to attack Khan Yunis. The 22,000-strong attack force consisted of 12,000 infantry and 11,000 mounted troops, supported by between 36 and 96 field guns and 16 howitzers. The mounted units were to stop the Ottoman reinforcements from Tel el Sheria, Jemmameh, Hareira, Negile, Huj, and Beersheba, from reinforcing the Gaza garrison while the infantry captured the town.

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    Although Murray delegated the responsibility for the battle to Dobell, he set three objectives. These were to capture a line along the Wadi Ghuzzee in order to cover the laying of the railway line, to prevent the defenders withdrawing before they were attacked, and to "capture Gaza and its garrison by a coup de main." The plan of attack produced by Dobell and his staff, was similar to those successfully implemented at Magdhaba by Chauvel and at Rafa by Chetwode, except that the EEF infantry were to have a prominent role. On a larger scale than the previous battles, the garrison at Gaza, established in fortified entrenchments and redoubts, was to be surrounded and captured, before Ottoman reinforcements could arrive. The main attack on the town and Ali Muntar hill would come from the south, by the Desert Column's 53rd (Welsh) Division commanded by Dallas, supported by one infantry brigade of Eastern Force's 54th (East Anglian) Division, commanded by Hare.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    By the end of February 1917, 388 miles (624 km) of railway had been laid (at a rate of 1 kilometre a day), 203 miles (327 km) of metalled road, 86 miles (138 km) of wire and brushwood roads, and 300 miles (480 km) of water pipeline had been constructed. And the Royal Navy undertook to land stores on the beach at Deir el Belah as soon as required and until the railway approached the Wadi Ghazzee. By 1 March the railhead had reached Sheikh Zowaiid 30 miles (48 km) from Gaza, and by the middle of March the railway had reached Rafa, 12 miles (19 km) from Deir el Belah. Although the Rafa railway station opened on 21 March, it "was not ready for unloading supplies" until after the battle. The railhead was to eventually reached Khan Yunis. However, with the arrival of the railway at Rafa, Gaza came within range of an EEF attack by mounted troops and infantry. With firmer ground the pedrails came off the guns and their teams of eight and ten horses were reduced to six.

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    By 07:00 a patrol of the Wellington Mounted Rifles had cut the telegraph line running east from Rafa towards Shellal and Gaza, isolating the Rafa garrison, Chauvel had reconnoitred the El Magruntein defences and the British Empire horse artillery batteries had begun firing on the redoubts at El Magruntein. Just after 08:00 the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade circled northwards, moving into position for their attacks on the C4 and C5 groups of redoubts and trenches, while the 1st Light Horse Brigade moved into position to attack the C3, C2 and C1 groups. After these objectives were captured, the two brigades were to attack the central redoubt. Meanwhile, three battalions of the Imperial Camel Brigade were ordered to attack the D group of fortifications. The 3rd Light Horse Brigade formed the ANZAC Mounted Division's reserve.

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    The Imperial Mounted Division closed its headquarters at Deir el Belah and reopened at Tel el Jemmi. At 15:45 the 3rd Light Horse Brigade left Goz el Taire to take up an outpost line at Jemmi, while the 4th Light Horse, 5th and 6th Mounted Brigades were in the bivouac area by 22:00. The 5th Mounted Brigade moved out at 01:30 on 17 April with orders to capture Kh Erk. The Second Battle of Gaza began on April 17, 1917 and lasted three days. Operating as "Eastern Attack" commanded by W. E. B. Smith, the 52nd (Lowland) and 54th (East Anglian) Divisions were to capture a line from Sheikh Abbas, through Mansura to Kurd Hill on the Es Sire Ridge as quickly as possible, and entrench their new positions. These two divisions were deployed for the attack, the 54th (East Anglian) Division on the right and the 52nd (Lowland) Division on the left, while the 53rd (Welsh) Division advanced across the Wadi Ghuzzee, west of the Rafa-Gaza road to Tel el Ujul, to establish an outpost line in the sand dunes covering the 52nd (Lowland) Division's left flank, with the 74th (Yeomanry) Division in reserve. Two tanks attached to the 163rd (Norfolk & Suffolk) Brigade, 54th (East Anglian) Division, started their advance from Dumb-bell Hill at 04:30, but the leading tank was put out of action after being hit by three shells. The attack on Sheikh Abbas succeeded by 07:00 when the area was occupied and work began to fortify and entrench the position.

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    Following the success of the first phase of Dobell's plans, he decided not to attempt a flanking attack from Atawineh or Hareira on Gaza, but to return to his original plan and launch a series of attacks while Desert Column pinned the defenders to their positions on the right. The 53rd (Welsh) Division, Eastern Force, and Desert Column were to attack the 10–12 miles (16–19 km) of entrenched Ottoman defences, which were strongly supported by well-concealed and sighted guns. The Eastern Attack's two infantry divisions would make the main attacks stretching from Mansura and Sheikh Abbas, then swing to the left to capture Ali Muntar before moving into the town of Gaza. This attack would cover the route taken by the Anzac Mounted Division during the first battle, to Kh. el Bir and Kh Sihan where a gap would be made for units of Desert Column to ride through. The deployments shown on the maps do not indicate any available mounted units. While this attack took place on the eastern side of Gaza, on the western side the 53rd (Welsh) Division was to capture the coastal defences in the sand dunes. Five tanks were attached to "Eastern Force" and two tanks attached to the 53rd (Welsh) Division, while the 74th (Yeomanry) Division would remain in reserve. The Anzac Mounted Division would extend the line eastwards from the Imperial Mounted Division, in preparation for an attack on the Atawineh redoubt, leaving the 22nd Mounted Brigade to defend the Shellal ford.

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    Some infantry divisional commanders considered the artillery insufficient for the width of the proposed attack. They thought a more narrowly focused attack would make better use of the available artillery. Chetwode and Chauvel, "the two most experienced generals in the force", watched the extension of the Ottoman defences at Gaza with "some foreboding." They had seen the strength and determination of Ottoman defenders in entrenched positions at the Battle of Magdhaba and the Battle of Rafa. After receiving fresh information regarding Ottoman deployments on 10 April, Dobell modified his plan to incorporate a more flexible approach. While the first stage would remain unchanged, during the second stage of the battle he might attack directly by swinging his line slightly northeast, with only one division attacking Gaza to create a gap for Desert Column, depending on whether the hostile Atawineh defences were reinforced by units from the Hareira detachment. Or he might send most of his force to the coastal side of Gaza to make an attack there. By 16 April Murray had moved his advanced GHQ EEF in a railway train, from El Arish to Khan Yunis, and was in telephone communication with Dobell's Eastern Force battle headquarters at Deir el Belah, 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the Wadi Ghuzzee. Meanwhile, Chetwode moved his Desert Column headquarters from near In Seirat to Tel el Jemmi. Just after 19:00, the infantry divisions marched towards the Wadi Ghuzzee crossings, while the Anzac Mounted Division left Deir el Belah at 18:30 with the New Zealand Mounted Brigade leading the night march. At 04:30 on 17 April the Canterbury Mounted Rifles Regiment led the way across the Wadi Ghuzzee at the Shellal ford, followed by the remainder of the Anzac Mounted Division.

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    The First Battle of Gaza was fought on 26 March 1917, during the first attempt by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) to invade the south of Palestine in the Ottoman Empire during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. Fighting took place in and around the town of Gaza on the Mediterranean coast when infantry and mounted infantry from the Desert Column, a component of the Eastern Force, attacked the town. Late in the afternoon, on the verge of capturing Gaza, the Desert Column was withdrawn due to concerns about the approaching darkness and large Ottoman reinforcements. This British defeat was followed a few weeks later by the even more emphatic defeat of the Eastern Force at the Second Battle of Gaza in April 1917. In August 1916 the EEF victory at Romani ended the possibility of land-based attacks on the Suez Canal, first threatened in February 1915 by the Ottoman Raid on the Suez Canal. In December 1916, the newly created Desert Column's victory at the Battle of Magdhaba secured the Mediterranean port of El Arish and the supply route, water pipeline, and railway stretching eastwards across the Sinai Peninsula.