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Other British estimates include 25,000 German and Ottoman troops in the area, with 8,500 at Gaza, 4,500 east of Gaza, 2,000 in the Atawineh redoubt, and 6,000 at Hareira and Tel el Sharia about halfway between Gaza and Beersheba. The official British historian notes there "were 18,000 rifles on the front" during this second battle, including the Beersheba detachment. The ration strength of the defending force was 48,845, including 18,185 armed with rifles, 86 armed with machine guns. Although they had a total of 101 artillery pieces, only 68 guns were in action during the battle, 12 of which were larger than field-gun calibre. The War Office thought there could be 30,000 Ottoman troops in southern Palestine with the Gaza–Beersheba line, defended by about 18,000 men. On 10 April, Dobell understood that Gaza was defended by three regiments, with two regiments east of the town, two regiments at Hareira, and one each at Tel esh Sheria and near Huj, with potential for mutual support. Just before the attack, it was understood that an Ottoman force of 21,000 held the ground between Tel esh Sheria and Gaza, including 8,500 at Gaza, 4,000 at Kh el Bir, and 2,000 at Atawineh. On 15 April 1917, the Ottoman forces were estimated at about 1,500 to 2,000 cavalry, 60 to 70 guns, and 20,000 to 25,000 infantry holding the Sheria, Hareira to Gaza line with a small reserve near Akra.[48]Murray ordered Dobell to attack Gaza with three infantry divisions.

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>Other British estimates include 25,000 German and Ottoman troops in the area, with 8,500 at Gaza, 4,500 east of Gaza, 2,000 in the Atawineh redoubt, and 6,000 at Hareira and Tel el Sharia about halfway between Gaza and Beersheba. The official British historian notes there "were 18,000 rifles on the front" during this second battle, including the Beersheba detachment. ⇒英国軍の別の推定値は、25,000人のドイツ・オスマントルコ軍隊をこの地域に含めている。すなわち、ガザの8,500人、ガザ東部の4,500人、アタウィネフ砦の2,000人、それと、ガザとベールシェバのほぼ中間にあるハレイラとテル・エッシュ・シャリアの6,000人などである。公式英国の歴史家は、この2回目の戦いの間、ベールシェバ派遣隊を含めて、「前線に18,000丁のライフルがあった」点に注目している。 >The ration strength of the defending force was 48,845, including 18,185 armed with rifles, 86 armed with machine guns. Although they had a total of 101 artillery pieces, only 68 guns were in action during the battle, 12 of which were larger than field-gun calibre. The War Office thought there could be 30,000 Ottoman troops in southern Palestine with the Gaza–Beersheba line, defended by about 18,000 men. ⇒防衛軍団の割当て軍勢は、ライフルで武装した18,185人、および機関銃で武装した86人を含め、(総勢)48,845人であった。彼らは、合計101門の大砲を持っていたが、戦いの間に作動した大砲は68門だけで、そのうち12門は野戦砲より口径が大きかった。陸軍省は、30,000人のオスマントルコ軍隊が南パレスチナにいる可能性があり、その地域内のガザ‐ベールシェバ戦線は、およそ18,000人の兵員によって守られている、と考えた。 >On 10 April, Dobell understood that Gaza was defended by three regiments, with two regiments east of the town, two regiments at Hareira, and one each at Tel esh Sheria and near Huj, with potential for mutual support. Just before the attack, it was understood that an Ottoman force of 21,000 held the ground between Tel esh Sheria and Gaza, including 8,500 at Gaza, 4,000 at Kh el Bir, and 2,000 at Atawineh. ⇒4月10日、ドーベルは、ガザが3個連隊によって、町の東が2個連隊によって、ハレイラが2個連隊によって、テル・エッシュ・シャリアとフージ付近がそれぞれ1個連隊によって守られていることと、それらが相互に支援し合う可能性があることを把握した。攻撃の直前には、21,000人のオスマントルコ軍がテル・エッシュ・シャリアとガザ間の地面を守っていること、そしてそれにガザの8,500人、ハーン・エル・ビルの4,000人、およびアタウィネフの2,000人が含まれることを把握した。 >On 15 April 1917, the Ottoman forces were estimated at about 1,500 to 2,000 cavalry, 60 to 70 guns, and 20,000 to 25,000 infantry holding the Sheria, Hareira to Gaza line with a small reserve near Akra.[48]Murray ordered Dobell to attack Gaza with three infantry divisions. ⇒1917年4月15日、オスマントルコ人軍隊は、およそ1,500人~2,000人の騎兵隊、60~70門の銃砲、20,000人~25,000人の歩兵連隊がシャリア、ハレイラからガザへ至る戦線を守り、アクラの近くに小さな予備隊が控えていると推定された。マレイは、ドーベルに3個歩兵師団をもってガザを攻撃するよう命じた。

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  • 和訳をお願いします。

    A total of 12,000 of the available 16,000 Ottoman soldiers were moving west, to be in position to launch an attack by nightfall on the day of battle. The main Ottoman force of between two and a half and three divisions, estimated between 6,000 and 16,000 rifles, were deployed at Tel el Negile and Huj with detachments at Tel esh Sheria, Jemmameh, Hareira, Beersheba, and Gaza, to prevent the EEF from out-flanking Gaza. The rear of the EEF was to be attacked by the Ottoman 16th Division, at a point where the road from Khan Yunis to Gaza crossed the Wadi Ghuzze, and by the Beersheba Group which was to advance via Shellal, to attack Khan Yunis. The 22,000-strong attack force consisted of 12,000 infantry and 11,000 mounted troops, supported by between 36 and 96 field guns and 16 howitzers. The mounted units were to stop the Ottoman reinforcements from Tel el Sheria, Jemmameh, Hareira, Negile, Huj, and Beersheba, from reinforcing the Gaza garrison while the infantry captured the town.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    . Major Tiller, commanding the Gaza garrison, reported later being attacked from the south, east, and northeast "in great strength." He was ordered to hold Gaza "to the last man." Soon after 09:00 the 2nd Light Horse Brigade reached Beit Durdis, closely followed by the remainder of their Anzac Mounted Division. At 09:30 four "Officers Patrols" were sent forward towards Huj, Najd 3 miles (4.8 km) north northeast of Huj, Hareira, Tel el Sheria and towards the Ottoman railway line. The headquarters of the Anzac Mounted Divisional was established at Beit Durdis, and by 10:10 communications by cable with Desert Column, the Imperial Mounted Division, and the 2nd Light Horse Brigade were established. Heliograph stations were also set up and wireless communications established, but the wireless was blocked by a more powerful Ottoman transmitter at Gaza. By 10:30, the 2nd Light Horse Brigade had taken up a position (known as Australia Hill) overlooking Gaza from the northeast, and had occupied the village of Jebaliye 2 miles (3.2 km) northeast of Gaza.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    31st Infantry Regiment (two battalions including machine guns) 32nd Infantry Regiment (two battalions including machine guns) Two machine gun companies Four batteries of field artillery Austrian mountain howitzer batteries One 15-centimetre (5.9 in) howitzer battery One regiment of the 16th Infantry Division Group Tiller, a total of seven infantry battalions 79th Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 81st Infantry Regiment 125th Infantry Regiment One squadron of cavalry One company of camelry 12 heavy mountain howitzers in two Austrian howitzer batteries Two long guns in the German 10-cm battery from Pasha I Two Ottoman field artillery batteries. At Hareira One regiment of the 16th Infantry Division At Tel esh Sheria (Force Headquarters) 16th Infantry Division and one regiment, either of the 47th Infantry Regiment or the 48th Infantry Regiment 3rd Cavalry Division's 1,500 swords At Kh Sihan 53rd Division Two battalions of the 79th Regiment (16th Infantry Division) Four batteries Some cavalry At Beersheba Two battalions of the 79th Regiment (16th Infantry Division) One artillery battery They were supported by the 7th and 54th Infantry Divisions of the XX Corps and 3,000 reinforcements from the 23rd and 24th Infantry Divisions of the XII Corps. The British estimated 21,000 Ottoman defenders at Gaza and Tel esh Sheria, 4,500 at Kh. Sihan, with a further 2,000 at Atawineh.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    Over the next week, attacks by the 53rd (Welsh) Division, the Anzac Mounted Division, and the 5th Mounted Brigade (Australian Mounted Division) attempted to capture the Khuweilfe position. Attacks were launched by the British infantry and Yeomanry cavalry, and Australian and New Zealand mounted brigades. Despite their failure to dislodge the Ottoman defenders, the continuing pressure drew in Ottoman reserves, which could have made the EEF attacks at Gaza during the night of 1/2 November, and at Hareira and Sheria on 6–7 November, more strongly contested. On 6 November, in coordination with the attacks on Hareira and Sheria, the 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division, with the Imperial Camel Brigade covering their flanks, made another inconclusive assault with artillery support. This fighting continued the following day, until the Ottoman defenders began to withdraw, as a consequence of the loss of Hareira, the evacuation of Gaza, and the weakening of the Sheria position, all of which threatened to outflank the Tel el Khuweilfe position. The Charge at Sheria took place on 7 November 1917 during the Battle of Hareira and Sheria when the 11th and 12th Light Horse Regiments (4th Light Horse Brigade) charged a Yildirim Army Group rearguard in support of an attack by the 60th (London) Division during the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I. Following the victory at the Battle of Beersheba on 31 October, Ottoman Army forces continued to hold most of their front line stretching from Gaza on the Mediterranean coast to the mound of Tel el Sheria and Tel el Khuweilfe, in the Judean Hills to the north of Beersheba. A major offensive launched by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) on 6 November could not dislodge the Ottoman defenders at Gaza, Hareira and Tel el Khuweilfe. Although Sheria and Tel el Khuweilfe continued to be strongly defended, the heavy EEF bombardment by the XXI Corps against Gaza, resulted in the Ottoman garrison withdrawing from Gaza during the night. During 7 November the attack by the XX Corps, led by the 60th (London) Division and supported by the 10th (Irish) Division on the left and the 74th (Yeomanry) Division on the right, gained some ground in the morning but was held up by a strong position at Sheria, when the Australian Mounted Division was ordered to attack mounted. The 11th and 12th Light Horse Regiments charged into the face of heavy artillery, machine gun and rifle fire, was forced to stop and dismount as the fire was too fierce. One troop missed the signal and was annihilated, after they charged up and over the Ottoman trenches.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    In early March, Gaza was garrisoned by two battalions, supported by two batteries of Ottoman field artillery. The "Group Tiller" garrison from the Ottoman Fourth Army was later increased to seven battalions. The Group consisted of the Ottoman 79th and 125th Infantry Regiments, the 2nd Battalion of the 81st Infantry Regiment, one squadron of cavalry and one company of camelry. Further reinforcements of between 10,000 and 12,000 soldiers were ordered by Kress von Kressenstein as a result of the 300th Flight Detachment's reports of the EEF's advances towards Gaza. Arriving before Eastern Force made its attack, these reinforcements consisted of the 3rd Infantry Division (31st and 32nd Infantry Regiments) from Jemmame, and the 16th Infantry Division (47th and 48th Infantry Regiments) from Tel esh Sheria.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    4 February The defending force were surprised to find at dawn on 4 February the Ottoman force had, apart from some snipers, disappeared. Two companies of the 92nd Punjabis advanced north along the east bank to clear the area from Serapeum Post to Tussum. A strong rearguard was encountered at 08:40 when a company from each of the 27th, 62nd Punjabis and 128th Pioneers reinforced their attack when 298 prisoners including 52 wounded were captured along with three machine guns. A further 59 were found dead. At noon on 4 February the Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade, two infantry battalions and an Indian Mountain Battery marched out from Ismailia Ferry Post. The force saw three to four regiments 7 miles (11 km) north east of Tussum and further to the north another column of infantry were moving eastwards. They returned to the bridgehead having captured 25 prisoners and 70 camels. By the morning of the next day aircraft observed a concentration of forces east of Bir Habeita which was bombed while in the north a column was seen withdrawing through Qatiya. By 10 February the only Ottoman force in the area of the Suez Canal was 400 soldiers at Rigum. British Headquarters estimated German and Ottoman casualties at more than 2,000, while British losses amounted to 32 killed and 130 wounded. The Ottoman Suez Expeditionary Force suffered the loss of some 1,500 men including 716 prisoners. It had been at the end of its supply lines by the time it reached the Suez Canal. This "forcible reconnaissance" showed the Staff of Fourth Army the difficulties that would await further expeditions. The opportunity for a British counterattack on the Ottoman force could not be taken advantage of although there were 70,000 troops in Egypt at the time only the Indian infantry brigades were highly trained and the infrastructure necessary to get a large force quickly across the Suez Canal did not exist. The only mounted force available was the Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade and the eight companies of the Bikanir Camel Corps but these were distributed along the Suez Canal defences and unable to concentrate a larger force to attack and capture three divisions of Ottoman infantry. The Ottoman Army maintained advance troops and outposts on the Sinai peninsula on a line between El Arish and Nekhl, with forces at Gaza and Beersheba. Kress von Kressenstein, Djemal Pasha's German Chief-of Staff, commanded mobile units to launch a series of raids and attacks to disrupt traffic on the Suez Canal. By 21 September 30,000 troops were in the vicinity of Beersheba. Early in March Maxwell was asked to prepare a force of about 30,000 Australian and New Zealanders for operations in the Dardanelles in the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. The landings at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915 began the Gallipoli Campaign during which Egypt supported the fighting as the closest major base.

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    Although Murray delegated the responsibility for the battle to Dobell, he set three objectives. These were to capture a line along the Wadi Ghuzzee in order to cover the laying of the railway line, to prevent the defenders withdrawing before they were attacked, and to "capture Gaza and its garrison by a coup de main." The plan of attack produced by Dobell and his staff, was similar to those successfully implemented at Magdhaba by Chauvel and at Rafa by Chetwode, except that the EEF infantry were to have a prominent role. On a larger scale than the previous battles, the garrison at Gaza, established in fortified entrenchments and redoubts, was to be surrounded and captured, before Ottoman reinforcements could arrive. The main attack on the town and Ali Muntar hill would come from the south, by the Desert Column's 53rd (Welsh) Division commanded by Dallas, supported by one infantry brigade of Eastern Force's 54th (East Anglian) Division, commanded by Hare.

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    British casualties amounted to 4,000; 523 killed, 2932 wounded and over 512 missing, including five officers and 241 other ranks known to be prisoners. These were mainly from the 53rd (Welsh) Division and the 161st (Essex) Brigade of the 54th (East Anglian) Division. The Ottoman Army forces suffered a total of 2,447 casualties. Of these, 16 Germans and Austrians were killed or wounded, 41 being reported missing, and 1,370 Ottoman soldiers were killed or wounded with 1,020 missing. According to Cemal Pasha, Ottoman losses amounted to less than 300 men killed, 750 wounded, and 600 missing. The Anzac Mounted Division suffered six killed, 43 or 46 wounded, and two missing, while the Imperial Mounted Division suffered 37 casualties. Both Murray and Dobell portrayed the battle as a success, Murray sending the following message to the War Office on 28 March: "We have advanced our troops a distance of fifteen miles from Rafa to the Wadi Ghuzzee, five miles west of Gaza, to cover the construction of the railway. On the 26th and 27th we were heavily engaged east of Gaza with a force of about 20,000 of the enemy. We inflicted very heavy losses upon him ... All troops behaved splendidly."

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    They were supported by 12 heavy mountain howitzers in two Austrian batteries, two 10-cm long guns in a German battery (from Pasha I) and two Ottoman field artillery batteries. Further, the Ottoman 53rd Infantry Division, which had been garrisoned at Jaffa, was ordered to march south to Gaza, but was not expected before the morning of 27 March. Kress von Kressenstein, the commander of the Ottoman defences, moved his headquarters from Beersheba to Tel esh Sheria where it remained until June. However, by 20 March the British considered the Ottoman Army defending Gaza and dominating the coastal route from Egypt to Jaffa, to be "steadily deteriorating." Indeed it had been reported that Kress von Kressenstein complained of "heavy losses" caused by deserters, and between the EEF victory at Rafa in early January and the end of February, 70 deserters had arrived in the EEF lines.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Following the success of the first phase of Dobell's plans, he decided not to attempt a flanking attack from Atawineh or Hareira on Gaza, but to return to his original plan and launch a series of attacks while Desert Column pinned the defenders to their positions on the right. The 53rd (Welsh) Division, Eastern Force, and Desert Column were to attack the 10–12 miles (16–19 km) of entrenched Ottoman defences, which were strongly supported by well-concealed and sighted guns. The Eastern Attack's two infantry divisions would make the main attacks stretching from Mansura and Sheikh Abbas, then swing to the left to capture Ali Muntar before moving into the town of Gaza. This attack would cover the route taken by the Anzac Mounted Division during the first battle, to Kh. el Bir and Kh Sihan where a gap would be made for units of Desert Column to ride through. The deployments shown on the maps do not indicate any available mounted units. While this attack took place on the eastern side of Gaza, on the western side the 53rd (Welsh) Division was to capture the coastal defences in the sand dunes. Five tanks were attached to "Eastern Force" and two tanks attached to the 53rd (Welsh) Division, while the 74th (Yeomanry) Division would remain in reserve. The Anzac Mounted Division would extend the line eastwards from the Imperial Mounted Division, in preparation for an attack on the Atawineh redoubt, leaving the 22nd Mounted Brigade to defend the Shellal ford.