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言い換えですか?

"Talk therapy," which a patient with a psychological disorder discusses it with a trained therapist, produces chemical changes in the brain. Those changes seem to correspond to improvements in certain aspects of the patient's behavior. Thus, physicians will eventually be able to treat such patients as effectively through pharmacological intervention in the brain's neurochemistry as through the lengthy intermediary of "talk" methods. 上のargumentの前提がImprovements in a patient's behavior produced by "talk" therapy occur only through chemical changes in the brain's neurochemistry. というものなので、"pharmacological intervention in the brain's neurochemistry" と"chemical changes in the brain"が言い換えだと思ったんですが違うんでしょうか? でなければなぜ上の前提が成り立つのでしょうか?

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  • 英語
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  • 回答No.2
noname#223065
noname#223065

> "Talk therapy," which a patient with a psychological disorder discusses it with a trained therapist, produces chemical changes in the brain. 「トークセラピー(※ 心理療法)とは精神的な障害を持つ患者が訓練されたセラピストと話し合いをして、(患者の)脳内に化学的な変化を起こさせるものである。」 > Those changes seem to correspond to improvements in certain aspects of the patient's behavior. 「そういった変化は、患者のふるまいのある種の面で改善に結びつくように見える。」 > Thus, physicians will eventually be able to treat such patients as effectively through pharmacological intervention in the brain's neurochemistry as through the lengthy intermediary of "talk" methods. 「このように、精神科医はついにはそのような患者(=トークセラピーで改善できる患者)を、脳の神経化学(=脳内物質の作用)に薬理学的な介入(=治療薬の投与)をすることによって、(トークセラピーと)同じくらい有効に治療することができるようになるだろう。」 > Improvements in a patient's behavior produced by "talk" therapy occur only through chemical changes in the brain's neurochemistry. 「『トーク』セラピーによって患者のふるまいが改善することは、患者の脳内の神経化学(的機序)によってのみ起こる。」 > "pharmacological intervention in the brain's neurochemistry" と"chemical changes in the brain"が言い換えだと思ったんですが違うんでしょうか? 「薬理学的な介入」(治療薬の投与)と「化学的変化」ですから、言い換えにはなっておらず、「薬理学的な介入」によって「化学的変化」が起こるということです。 > でなければなぜ上の前提が成り立つのでしょうか?  お示しの英文(と最近の精神科治療の傾向)から考えて、以下のようなことだと思われます。 1.心理面の問題は、正常な脳の働きが間違うといったことではなく、脳神経が機能するために働く脳内物質の異常である。 2.心理面の問題解決に効果のあるトークセラピーの効果は、とどのつまりは脳内物質の異常を改善することにある。 3.したがって、脳内物質の異常を治療する薬がトークセラピーの代替治療とできる。  言い換えれば、純粋の心因性という障害はなく、心因性と言われるものは全て器質性(物理的、化学的、生理的なもの)だから、薬物治療できるということを、この英文の著者は主張しています。その主張の背景には、トークセラピーが「薬では治せない心理障害を治療できる」という主張があるのでしょう。それに対する反論と思われます。  ですので、前提とお考えのものは、お示しの範囲では成り立つことを述べてはおらず、仮定といった感じになっています。(実際には、精神科治療の臨床での膨大なデータの裏付けがある。) P.S.  現代の精神科治療は精神疾患を器質性と考える薬物主義で、カウンセリングや認知行動療法といった心理主義は廃れています。しかし、最近は薬物主義ではなかなか効果をあげない症例に対して、心理主義の治療を援用することも行われています。  残念なことに、心理主義的治療を行う者の一部が効果を過大に言い立て、薬物主義治療を非難、誹謗することまであります(クスリなんか飲んだらかえって悪くなるよ、飲んじゃダメ、みたいな)。それに対する反論として、お示しの英文のようなことがよく言われているようです。

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質問者からのお礼

ありがとうございました!とても参考になりました!

その他の回答 (3)

  • 回答No.4

#1,3です。 わかった気がします。そもそも問題を取り違えていたように思います。この問題は、 1. 本文があって、結論が書かれている。この質問の引用の中では、 "physicians will eventually be able to treat such patients as effectively through pharmacological intervention in the brain's neurochemistry as through the lengthy intermediary of "talk" methods." 2. それに対して、いくつか選択肢が用意されていて、「下記の前提の中で、本文の結論を導き出すものはどれか?」あるいは、「下記の全体の中のどれが成り立っている時に、本文の結論になるか?」 といったような問では?だとしてたら、ここに書かれている「前提」" Improvements in a patient's behavior produced by "talk" therapy occur only through chemical changes in the brain's neurochemistry." は、正解です。 wanydccanyさんの質問が、「なぜ上の前提が成り立つのでしょうか?」とありますが、実際には問題で問われているのは、「この前提が成り立った時に、本文の結論が導き出されるか?」と言うことではないでしょうか? 本文は、 x.トークセラピーは患者の脳内に化学的な変化を起こす y. 化学的な変化は、患者の行動の改善に対応関係がある A. ...... C. 化学的な治療がトークセラピーと同じくらい効果的に使われるようになる 本文を読むと、x, でyだからCになると書かれているわけで、論理に飛躍があります。そうするともう一段説明なり前提が無いとCは行き過ぎ。じゃあAに何が来れば良いのかと言う問題では? で、質問に転記されている「前提」(これは英語でそのままAssumptionですか?どうもそのように感じますが)が、一般的にあるいは科学的に正しいかどうかは関係なく、この前提がAのところにあればCは成り立ちます。

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質問者からのお礼

ありがとうございます!

  • 回答No.3

ふと思ったのですが、「前提」ってもともとの設問ではなんと書いてありましたか? 前の回答ではなんとなく、 本文から導き出される、結論的な物を想像してしまって、必ずしも成り立たないと思ったのですが、設問が、いくつかの「前提」の中から本文と矛盾しない物を選べと言うことであれば、質問に書かれている「前提」は矛盾はしません。

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質問者からのお礼

そうです、前提を選ぶんです、、説明不足ですみません><

  • 回答No.1

pharmacological intervention in the brain's neurochemistry (薬理学的介入)は治療の手法のひとつで、chemical changes in the brain (脳内の化学的な変化)は現象なので、言い換えの関係にはなりません。 一度通しで訳しますね。ちなみに、一行目のdiscusses itとなっているのはdiscusses in ですか? 「”話しあい療法”、と言う精神的疾患のある患者が訓練されたセラピストと話し合うやり方は,脳内に化学的な変化をもたらす。これらの変化はその患者のある側面の改善に対応しているようだ。だから、医師たちは最終的にはこういった患者たちを治療するのに長ったらしい”話し合い”の方法と同じくらい効果的に脳の神経化学上の薬理学的介入を使うことができるようになるだろう。」 前提は、 「”話し合い”セラピーによる患者の行動の改善は脳の神経化学上の化学的変化と通してのみ起こる。」 wanydccanyさんの疑問がどこにあるのかわからないのですが、実はわたしはこの本文と前提を見た時に前提が成り立つように思いませんでした。 ・脳内の化学的な変化と、行動の改善の関係。本文では因果関係がはっきりしません。例えばここには書かれていない(発見されていない)"talk therapy"による影響があり、その影響により、行動の改善と、脳内の化学変化が引き起こされているかもしれません。 ・correspond to は化学変化と行動の改善が1:1で関係しているような強い表現と思いますが、前にseems とあり、100%言い切っていない。 科学的には、この前提が成り立つとしてしまうのはかなり不十分な印象を受けます。そうだとすると、他の前提を見て、その中でこれが一番もっともらしい時に正解になるような気がします。

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質問者からのお礼

ありがとうございました。言い換えじゃないんですね...言い換えだとしたら前提がそれだとすると上の議論の結論は導かれるかと思ったんですが。 Onlyというのも気になりますし、消去法でたどり着くしかないのかもしれないですね

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