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構文分析よろしくお願い致しますm(_ _)m

So intimate is the relation between a language and the people who speak it that the two can scarcely be thought of apart. A language lives only so long as there are peo- ple who speak it and use it as their native tongue, and its greatness is only that given to it by these people. A language is important because the people who speak it are important-politically, economically, commercialally, social-ly, culturally. English, French, and German are great and important languages ​​because they are the languages ​​of great and important peoples; for this reason they are widely studied outside the country of their use. -A. C. BAUGH, A History of the English Language 構文分析よろしくお願い致します。 できるだけ丁寧に解説して頂けると嬉しいです🙇‍♀️

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  • Nakay702
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いつもの方法で、以下のとおりお答えします。 >So intimate is the relation between a language and the people who speak it that the two can scarcely be thought of apart.「言語とそれを話す人々との関係は非常に密接であり、この二つを切り離して考えることはほとんどできない。」 ⇒Adv.M【C [M(So) intimate] V(is) S(the relation) Adj.M{between a language and the people Adj.M[Rel./S(who) V(speak) O(it)]}】 Conj.(that) S(the two) V/M(can scarcely be thought) M(of apart). *全体構造としては、いわゆる相関語句接続詞so ~ that …構文「あまり~なので…する」ですが、修飾・被修飾関係で見ると、so ~ を含む副詞節が、that以下の主節全体を修飾するという格好になっています。Adv.M【C [M(So) intimate] V(is) S(the relation) Adj.M{between a language and the people Adj.M[Rel./S(who) V(speak) O(it)]}】「言語とそれを話す人々との関係は非常に密接なので」は、補語を文頭に出した強調構文です。そして、この部分全体が上述のとおり副詞節としてConj.(that) 以下の主節にかかります。Conj.(that) S(the two) V/M(can scarcely be thought) M(of apart)「この二つを切り離して考えることはほとんどできない」のConj.(that) は、冒頭のSoと組んで結果を表す主節を導きます:「(関係が密接)なので、(切り離して考えることはほとんど)できない」。Adj.M{between a language and the people }は、形容詞句として先行のS(the relation)を修飾しており、Adj.M[Rel./S(who) V(speak) O(it)] という関係節は、先行詞the peopleにかかります:「言語とそれを話す人々との間の関係」。 >A language lives only so long as there are peo- ple who speak it and use it as their native tongue, and its greatness is only that given to it by these people.「言語は、それを話し、母国語として使う人々がいる限り生き続けるが、その偉大さは、もっぱらこれらの人々によって与えられるものである。」 ⇒S(A language) V(lives) Adv.M{only so long as there are people [who speak it and use it as their native tongue]}, Conj.(and) S(its greatness) V/M(is only) C(that) Adj.M[given to it by these people]. *S(A language) V(lives) Adv.M{only so long as there are peopleの訳は「言語は、人々がいる限り生き続ける」となり、そのpeopleに [who speak it and use it as their native tongue]} がかかります:「それを話し、母国語として使う(人々)」。Conj.(and) は、この語の前と後の2つの節をつなぐ重文ですが、それぞれの節が単文でなく複文です。このような重文を「混文」(Mixed sentence)ということがあります。S(its greatness) V/M(is only) C(that) Adj.M[given to it by these people]「その偉大さは、もっぱらこれらの人々によって与えられるものである」のthatは指示代名詞でits greatness を受けており、それにAdj.M[given to it by these people]という過去分詞形容詞句が後置修飾という形でかかっています:「これらの人々によってそれ(言語)に与えられるもの(偉大さ)である」。 >A language is important because the people who speak it are important-politically, economically, commercially, social-ly, culturally.「言語が重要なのは、それを話す人々が重要だから ― 政治的、経済的、商業的、社会的、文化的に重要だからである」。 ⇒S(A language) V(is) C(important) Adv.M{Conj.(because) S(the people) Adj.M [Rel./S(who) V(speak) O(it)] are important- M[politically, economically, commercially, socially, culturally]}. *S(A language) V(is) C(important) Adv.M{Conj.(because) ~「言語は、~だから重要です」と言ってから、「―」によって、M[politically, economically, commercially, socially, culturally]「政治的、経済的、商業的、社会的、文化的に(重要だ)」と付け足しています。 >English, French, and German are great and important languages because they are the languages of great and important peoples; for this reason they are widely studied outside the country of their use.「英語、フランス語、ドイツ語が偉大で重要な言語であるのは、それらが偉大で重要な民族の言語であるからであり、このため、それらが使用されている国の外でも広く研究されている。」 ⇒S(English, French, and German) V(are) C(great and important languages) Adv.M{Conj.(because) S(they) V(are) C(the languages of great and important peoples; M(for this reason) S(they) V/M(are widely studied) M(outside the country of their use). *簡単な構文ですので説明は省略させていただきます。なお、S(they)が2回でてきますが、もちろん、いずれもEnglish, French, and Germanを指しています。

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