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The captured ground was hard to move over and difficult to defend, as much of it was of the shell-torn wilderness left by the 1916 Battle of the Somme. Elsewhere the transport infrastructure had been demolished and wells poisoned during the German retreat to the Hindenburg Line in March 1917. The initial German jubilation at the successful opening of the offensive soon turned to disappointment as it became clear that the attack had not been decisive. Marix Evans wrote in 2002, that the magnitude of the Allied defeat was not decisive, because reinforcements were arriving in large numbers, that by 6 April the BEF would have received 1,915 new guns, British machine-gun production was 10,000 per month and tank output 100 per month. The appointment of Foch as Generalissimo at the Doullens Conference had created formal unity of command in the Allied forces. In the British Official History (1935) Davies, Edmonds and Maxwell-Hyslop wrote that the Allies lost c. 255,000 men of which the British suffered 177,739 killed, wounded and missing, 90,882 of them in the Fifth Army and 78,860 in the Third Army, of whom c. 15,000 died, many with no known grave. The greatest losses were to 36th (Ulster) Division, with 7,310 casualties, the 16th (Irish) Division, with 7,149 casualties and 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Division, 7,023 casualties. All three formations were destroyed and had to be taken out of the order of battle to be rebuilt. Six divisions lost more than 5,000 men. German losses were 250,000 men, many of them irreplaceable élite troops. German casualties, from 21 March – 30 April, which includes the Battle of the Lys, are given as 348,300. A comparable Allied figure over this longer period, is French: 92,004 and British: 236,300, a total of c. 328,000. In 1978 Middlebrook wrote that casualties in the 31 German divisions engaged on 21 March were c. 39,929 men and that British casualties were c. 38,512. Middlebrook also recorded c. 160,000 British casualties up to 5 April, 22,000 killed, 75,000 prisoners and 65,000 wounded; French casualties were c. 80,000 and German casualties were c. 250,000 men. In 2002, Marix Evans recorded 239,000 men, many of whom were irreplaceable Stoßtruppen; 177,739 British casualties of whom 77,000 had been taken prisoner, 77 American casualties and 77,000 French losses, 17,000 of whom were captured. The Allies also lost 1,300 guns, 2,000 machine-guns and 200 tanks. In 2004, Zabecki gave 239,800 German, 177,739 British and 77,000 French casualties. R. C. Sherriff's play Journey's End (first produced 1928) is set in an officers' dugout in the British trenches facing Saint-Quentin from 18 to 21 March, before Operation Michael. There are frequent references to the anticipated "big German attack" and the play concludes with the launch of the German bombardment, in which one of the central characters is killed.

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以下のとおりお答えします。 制限文字数が超過しますので、原文は範囲のみ(段落冒頭と末尾の数語ずつ)を示します。 >The captured ground was hard ~ the attack had not been decisive. ⇒攻略した地面は、その多くが1916年の「ソンムの戦い」によって被弾し荒廃したままの荒野なので移動が難しく、防御は困難であった。1917年3月、ドイツ軍のヒンデンブルク戦線への退去中に輸送インフラが破壊され、井戸に毒が入れられた。攻撃が成功裏に終わったときのドイツ軍による当初のお祭り騒ぎは、やがて攻撃が決定的なものでなかったことが明らかになるにつれて失望に変った。 >Marix Evans wrote in 2002 ~ many with no known grave. ⇒マリックス・エバンスは、2002年に連合国軍の敗北の大きさは決定的なものではないと強調した。というのも、増援隊が大挙して到着するし、それに伴って4月6日までにBEFは1,915丁の新しい銃を受け取るはずであった。英国軍の機関銃の生産は月に10,000丁、戦車の出力は月100台となった。ドゥレン会議でフォッシュが総司令官として任命されたことで、連合軍の統一が実現した。英国の公報史(1935年)でデーヴィーズ、エドモンズおよびマックスウェル‐ヒースロップはこう書いた。曰く、連合国軍が第5方面軍で失った約255,000人の兵士のうち、死亡者が177,739人、負傷者と行方不明者が90,882人であり、第3方面軍で失った78,860人のうち、死亡者が約15,000人であったが、死亡者の多くは埋葬場所が分かっていない。 >The greatest losses were to ~ a total of c. 328,000. ⇒(師団単位で見ると)最大の損失は、それぞれ第36(アルスター)師団で7,139人、第16(アイルランド)師団で7,149人、および第66(第2東ランカシャー)師団で7,023人の犠牲者があったことである。3個の編成隊はすべて破壊され、再建の戦いから取り戻していかなければならなかった。6個師団が、それぞれ5,000人以上の兵士を失った。ドイツ軍の損失は250,000人で、その多くは、かけがえのないエリート層軍隊であった。「リスの戦い」を含む、3月21日から4月30日までのドイツ軍の死傷者は348,300人とされている。この長い期間に相応する連合国軍の数字は、フランス軍:92,004人、英国軍:236,300人、合計で約328,000人であった。 >In 1978 Middlebrook wrote ~ of whom were captured. ⇒1978年、ミドルブルックは、3月21日に交戦したドイツ軍の31個師団の犠牲者は約39,929人で、英国軍の犠牲者は約38,512人であった、と書いた。ミドルブルックはまた、4月5日までの英国軍の死傷者160,000人のうち、死亡者22,000人、捕縛囚人75,000人、それと負傷者65,000人で、フランス軍の犠牲者は約80,000人、ドイツ軍の死傷者は約250,000人であった、と記録した。2002年、マリックス・エバンスはこう記録した。239,000人の兵士(犠牲者)の多くは、交代ができなかったドイツ軍突撃班であった。英国軍の死傷者177,739人のうち、77,000人が囚人に捕らえられた。米国人犠牲者は77人、フランス軍の犠牲者77,000人のうち17,000人が捕縛された。 >The Allies also lost ~ the central characters is killed. ⇒連合国軍はまた、1,300丁の銃、2,000丁の機関銃、200台の戦車を失った。2004年、ザベッキは、ドイツ軍239,800人、英国軍177,739人、フランス軍77,000人の死傷者数を挙げた。R. C. シェリフの演劇Journey's End(「旅の終わり」、1928年初演)は、マイケル作戦行動の前に、3月18日から21日にかけてサン・ケンタンに面した英国軍塹壕の将校らの避難壕で演じられている。頻繁に予想される「大ドイツ軍の攻撃」について言及されており、演劇はドイツ軍の砲撃の開始で終了し、中心人物の1人が死亡する。

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