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Soon after, Lalor's company had been forced back to The Nek and the Turks were threatening to recapture Russell's Top, and at 10:15 Maclagen reported to Bridges his doubts over being able to hold out. In response Bridges sent part of his reserve, two companies from the 2nd Battalion (Gordon's and Richardson's), to reinforce the 3rd Brigade. At 11:00 Swannell's company arrived at the foot of Baby 700, joining the seventy survivors of Robertson's and Lalor's companies. They immediately charged and chased the Turks back over the summit of Baby 700, then stopped and dug in. The two 2nd Battalion companies arrived alongside them, but all the companies had taken casualties, among the dead being Swannell and Robertson. By this time most of the 3rd Brigade men had been killed or wounded, and the line was held by the five depleted companies from the 1st Brigade. On the left, Gordon's company 2nd Battalion, with the 11th and 12th Battalion's survivors, charged five times and captured the summit of Baby 700, but were driven back by Turkish counter-attacks; Gordon was among the casualties. For the second time Maclagen requested reinforcements for Baby 700, but the only reserves Bridges had available were two 2nd Battalion companies and the 4th Battalion. It was now 10:45 and the advance companies of the 1st New Zealand Brigade were disembarking, so it was decided they would go to Baby 700.[90]The New Zealand Brigade commander had been taken ill, so Birdwood appointed Brigadier-General Harold Walker, a staff officer already ashore, as commander. The Auckland Battalion had landed by 12:00, and were being sent north along the beach to Walker's Ridge on their way to Russell's Top. Seeing that the only way along the ridge was in single file along a goat track, Walker ordered them to take the route over Plugge's Plateau. As each New Zealand unit landed they were directed the same way to Baby 700. However, in trying to avoid Turkish fire, they became split up in Monash Valley and Rest Gully, and it was after midday that two of the Auckland companies reached Baby 700. At 12:30 two companies of the Canterbury Battalion landed and were sent to support the Aucklands, who had now been ordered back to Plugge's Plateau, and were forming on the left of the 3rd Brigade. The Canterbury companies moved into the line on the Aucklands' left, waiting for the rest of their brigade to land.

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>Soon after, Lalor's company had been forced back to The Nek and the Turks were threatening to recapture Russell's Top, and at 10:15 Maclagen reported to Bridges his doubts over being able to hold out. In response Bridges sent part of his reserve, two companies from the 2nd Battalion (Gordon's and Richardson's), to reinforce the 3rd Brigade. At 11:00 Swannell's company arrived at the foot of Baby 700, joining the seventy survivors of Robertson's and Lalor's companies. They immediately charged and chased the Turks back over the summit of Baby 700, then stopped and dug in. The two 2nd Battalion companies arrived alongside them, but all the companies had taken casualties, among the dead being Swannell and Robertson. ⇒(オーウェンによる3個中隊派遣の)すぐ後で、ラロルの中隊はザ・ネク(山の背)に押し戻され、トルコ軍がラッセル頂上の奪還を迫っているので、10時15分マクラーゲンはこれに持ちこたえられるかどうか疑問であることをブリッジスに報告した。これに応えてブリッジスは予備隊の一部、第2大隊(ゴードン隊とリチャードソン隊)の2個中隊を派遣して第3旅団を強化した。11時にスワンネルの中隊はベービー700のふもとに到着し、ロバートソン中隊とラロル中隊の生存者70人と合流した。彼らはトルコ軍に突撃をかけてベービー700の頂上から追い出し、そこに留まって塹壕を掘った。第2大隊の2個中隊が一緒に到着したが、どちらの中隊も死傷者を出し、死亡者の中にスワネルとロバートソンがいた。 >By this time most of the 3rd Brigade men had been killed or wounded, and the line was held by the five depleted companies from the 1st Brigade. On the left, Gordon's company 2nd Battalion, with the 11th and 12th Battalion's survivors, charged five times and captured the summit of Baby 700, but were driven back by Turkish counter-attacks; Gordon was among the casualties. For the second time Maclagen requested reinforcements for Baby 700, but the only reserves Bridges had available were two 2nd Battalion companies and the 4th Battalion. ⇒この時までに、第3旅団の大部分は殺害され、あるいは負傷し、戦線は第1旅団から展開した5個中隊によって保持されていた。左側面では、ゴードンの第2大隊が第11大隊と第12大隊の生存者とともに5回突撃し、ベービー700の頂上を占領したが、トルコの反撃で追い返された。死傷者の一人にゴードンがいた。マクラーゲンがベービー700の増援を要求したのは2回目だったが、ブリッジスが利用できた予備軍は第2大隊と第4大隊の2個中隊だけであった。 >It was now 10:45 and the advance companies of the 1st New Zealand Brigade were disembarking, so it was decided they would go to Baby 700.[90]The New Zealand Brigade commander had been taken ill, so Birdwood appointed Brigadier-General Harold Walker, a staff officer already ashore, as commander. The Auckland Battalion had landed by 12:00, and were being sent north along the beach to Walker's Ridge on their way to Russell's Top. Seeing that the only way along the ridge was in single file along a goat track, Walker ordered them to take the route over Plugge's Plateau. ⇒10時45分の時刻、第1ニュージーランド旅団の前衛部隊は下船していたため、ベービー700に行くことに決定された。バードウッドは、ニュージーランド旅団の司令官が病気にかかっていたので、すでに浜に上がっている陸軍将校ハロルド・ウォーカー准将を指揮官に任命した。オークランド大隊は12時までに上陸し、ラッセルの頂上に向かう途中で北のビーチ沿いのウォーカー尾根に送られた。尾根に沿った唯一の進軍方法がヤギ道に沿った一本線であるのを見て、ウォーカーはプラッジの高原を越えるルートを取るよう彼らに命じた。 >As each New Zealand unit landed they were directed the same way to Baby 700. However, in trying to avoid Turkish fire, they became split up in Monash Valley and Rest Gully, and it was after midday that two of the Auckland companies reached Baby 700. At 12:30 two companies of the Canterbury Battalion landed and were sent to support the Aucklands, who had now been ordered back to Plugge's Plateau, and were forming on the left of the 3rd Brigade. The Canterbury companies moved into the line on the Aucklands' left, waiting for the rest of their brigade to land. ⇒ニュージーランドの各部隊が上陸すると、同じ方法でベービー700に誘導された。しかし、トルコ軍の砲火を避けるためにモナッシュ渓谷とレスト小渓谷に分かれ、オークランド2個中隊がベービー700に到着した。オークランド隊は今やプラッジの高原に押し戻され、第3旅団の左側隊に編成されていたので、12時30分カンタベリー大隊の2個中隊が上陸し、オークランド隊を支援するために派遣された。カンタベリー中隊はオークランド隊の左側面戦線に移動し、残りの旅団が上陸するのを待った。

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  • 和訳をお願いします。

    The Australians on 400 Plateau had for some time been subjected to sniping and artillery fire and could see Turkish troops digging in on Gun Ridge. Around 13:00 a column of Turkish reinforcements from the 27th Infantry Regiment, in at least battalion strength, were observed moving along the ridge-line from the south. The Turks then turned towards 400 Plateau and advanced in extended order. The Turkish counter-attack soon forced the advanced Australian troops to withdraw, and their machine-gun fire caused them heavy casualties. It was not long before the attack had forced a wedge between the Australians on Baby 700 and those on 400 Plateau. The heavy Turkish fire onto Lone Pine forced the survivors to withdraw back to the western slope of 400 Plateau. At 14:25 Turkish artillery and small arms fire was so heavy that the Indian artillerymen were forced to push their guns back off the plateau by hand, and they reformed on the beach. Although in places there was a mixture of different companies and platoons dug in together, the Australians were deployed with the 8th Battalion in the south still centred on Bolton's Ridge. North of them, covering the southern sector of 400 Plateau, were the mixed together 6th and 7th Battalions, both now commanded by Colonel Walter McNicoll of the 6th. North of them was the 5th Battalion, and the 10th Battalion covered the northern sector of 400 Plateau at Johnston's Jolly. But by now they were battalions in name only, having all taken heavy casualties; the commanders had little accurate knowledge of where their men were located. At 15:30 the two battalions of the Turkish 77th Infantry Regiment were in position, and with the 27th Infantry they counter-attacked again. At 15:30 and at 16:45 McCay, now under severe pressure, requested reinforcements. The second time he was informed there was only one uninvolved battalion left, the 4th, and Bridges was keeping them in reserve until more troops from the New Zealand and Australian Division had been landed. McCay then spoke to Bridges direct and informed him the situation was desperate and if not reinforced the Turks would get behind him. At 17:00 Bridges released the 4th Battalion to McCay who sent them to the south forming on the left of the 8th Battalion along Bolton's Ridge. They arrived just in time to help counter Turkish probing attacks, by the 27th Infantry Regiment, from the south.

  • 英文を和訳して下さい。

    As a result of the operations of 21–23 August, the frontline had been established to the east of the Albert-Arras railway line with all but one of the ridges to the south and west of Bapaume held by IV Corps. However, the 5th Division had been unsuccessful in its attacks which left the ridge running from Loupart Wood to Grévillers and then onto Biefvillers still in the hands of the Germans. Although over 2,000 prisoners of war had been taken during this period along with 25 field guns, the 5th Division had suffered 1,600 casualties by this stage of the battle. The New Zealand Division was tasked to capture Grévillers, held by two battalions of the Royal Bavarian 14th Infantry Regiment (Kgl. Bayerisches 14. Infanterie-Regiment), and then push into, and beyond, Bapaume, while the 37th Division, on the left of the New Zealanders, was to capture Biefvillers. The attack had two phases; the 1st Infantry Brigade was to capture Loupart Wood and Grévillers and establish a line about 450 m (490 yd) beyond. This would leave Bapaume and the high ground beyond to be captured in the second phase by the 2nd Infantry Brigade. Intelligence indicated that Bapaume was lightly held and the advance was to be supported by two brigades of artillery as well as thirteen Mark IV tanks and a company of Whippets. Most of the armoured support was intended to cover the 2nd Infantry Brigade in its advance, as the artillery support was primarily for the 1st Infantry Brigade. A Whippet tank crossing a trench near Grevillers, August 1918 The New Zealanders' attack began with a night-time advance on 24 August by the 1st Infantry Brigade to clear the approaches to Bapaume, including Loupart Wood and Grévillers. Brigadier General Charles Melvill, commanding the brigade, was directed to move onto Bapaume if it were able to do so quickly. However, progress was delayed by heavy machine gun fire and artillery took its toll on the supporting tanks allocated to the brigade. Furthermore, in contrast to the previous three days, the weather was poor. Despite this, Grévillers fell to the brigade along with 380 prisoners and several field guns. There were over 100 casualties among the attacking New Zealanders, including the commander of 2nd Auckland Battalion.

  • 英語の文章を和訳して下さい。

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  • 次の英文を訳して下さい。

    There, a company from the Canterbury Battalion had just arrived, with their commanding officer Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas Stewart. By 16:00 the New Zealand companies had formed a defence line on Russell's Top. On Baby 700, there was on the left Morsehead's and Lalor's men, and at the top of Malone's Gulley were the survivors of the 2nd Battalion and some men from the 3rd Brigade. On the right were the men left from the Auckland companies, and a mixed group from the 1st, 2nd, 11th and 12th Battalions. Once Stewart's men were secure, he ordered Morsehead to withdraw. During a Turkish artillery bombardment of The Nek, Stewart was killed. The artillery heralded the start of a Turkish counter-attack; columns of troops appeared over the top of Battleship Hill and on the flanks and attacked the ANZAC lines. At 16:30 the three battalions from the 72nd Infantry Regiment arrived and attacked from the north. At the same time the Australians and New Zealanders holding on at Baby 700 broke and ran back to an improvised line, from Walker's Ridge in the north to Pope's Hill in the south. The defence line at The Nek was now defended by nine New Zealanders, under the command of a sergeant; they had three machine-guns but the crews had all been killed or wounded. As the survivors arrived from Baby 700 their numbers rose to around sixty. Bridges in his divisional headquarters starting receiving messages from the front; just after 17:00 Lieutenant-Colonel George Braund on Walker's Ridge advised he was holding his position and "if reinforced could advance". At 17:37 Maclagen reported they were being "heavily attacked", at 18:15 the 3rd Battalion signalled, "3rd Brigade being driven back". At 19:15 from Maclagen again "4th Brigade urgently required". Bridges sent two hundred stragglers, from several different battalions, to reinforce Braund and promised two extra battalions from the New Zealand and Australian Division which was now coming ashore. Dusk was at 19:00 and the Turkish attack had now reached Malone's Gulley and The Nek. The New Zealanders waited until the Turks came close, then opened fire in the darkness, stopping their advance. Seriously outnumbered, they asked for reinforcements. Instead, the supporting troops to their rear were withdrawn and the Turks managed to get behind them. So, taking the machine-guns with them, they withdrew off Russell's Top into Rest Gully. This left the defenders at Walker's Ridge isolated from the rest of the force.

  • 英語の文章を和訳して下さい。

    The Germans were prevented from advancing further by Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)'s counter-attacks and a night move by the 10th Brigade. The PPCLI held the line at a steep cost; their 700-man force was reduced to 150, who were in no shape to fight. After this, their unofficial motto—"Holding up the whole damn line"—is still used today. Battle of Bellewaarde (24–25 May) On 24 May the Germans released a gas attack that hit Shell Trap Farm and to the area around the north west, which was affected the most by the attack. A report of the event by Captain Thomas Leahy, of the 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers, shows that their C.O. Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Loveband suspected a gas attack and had warned all company officers. Later the Germans threw up red lights over their trench, which would signal a gas release. We had only just time to get our respirators on before the gas was over us. — Captain Thomas Leahy German forces managed to advance and occupy the British line to north and left of the Battalion. The Battalion was now under heavy fire from the German forces. But with shellfire and the aid from the 9th Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders they managed to hold their trenches to the end. Germans advancing under cover of enfilade fire, in small parties, finally occupied Battalion line by 2.30pm. Shelling ceased but rifle and M.G. fire remained accurate and constant, whenever a target presented itself, until dusk. — The War Diary By the end of the battle the Ypres salient was compressed, with Ypres closer to the line. The city, bombarded by artillery fire, was demolished. Although poison gas had been used on the Eastern Front, it surprised the Allies and about 7,000 gas casualties were transported in field ambulances and treated in casualty clearing stations. In May and June, 350 British deaths were recorded from gas poisoning. Both sides developed gas weapons and counter-measures, which changed the nature of gas warfare; the French and British used gas at the Battle of Loos in late September. Gas protection was somewhat improved with the issue of improvised respirators made from cotton waste pads impregnated with sodium hyposulphite, sodium bicarbonate and glycerin. The respirators made little difference, however, due to lack of training and the use of local contraptions and poorly made items imported from Britain. The "P helmet" (or "Tube Helmet") soaked in sodium phenate was issued by December 1915, and the PH helmet (effective against phosgene) was issued in early 1916.

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    The Krupp guns were pushed forward to fire at point blank, blowing up several houses and causing the surrender of 20 hostile soldiers. Meanwhile, the 22nd Mounted Brigade, advancing at the gallop along the track from Beit Durdis to Gaza, had also reached the outskirts of the town by dusk. By nightfall, the Anzac Mounted Division had fought their way into the streets of Gaza, suffering very few casualties during this advance. While the attack in the centre by the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade was progressing, the 22nd Mounted Brigade had come up on the New Zealanders' left, and it was this attacking force that entered the town. Meanwhile, the 2nd Light Horse Brigade had met stiff resistance from defenders holding entrenchments in the sand hills to the northwest of the town. Closest to the Mediterranean coast, the 7th Light Horse Regiment (2nd Light Horse Brigade) met considerable opposition, but was eventually able to advance close up to the town.[By 18:00, the position of the attacking force was most satisfactory, and by 18:30 the whole position had been captured, while the defenders were retreating into the town centre.

  • 以下の英文を訳して下さい。

    When one of the men was wounded they returned to the rest of their group, which was being engaged by Turkish machine-gun and rifle fire. Around 08:00, Loutit sent a man back for reinforcements; he located Captain J. Ryder of the 9th Battalion, with half a company of men at Lone Pine. Ryder had not received the order to dig in, so he advanced and formed a line on Loutit's right. Soon after, they came under fire from Scrubby Knoll and were in danger of being cut off; Ryder sent a message back for more reinforcements. The messenger located Captain John Peck, the 11th Battalion's adjutant, who collected all the men around him and went forward to reinforce Ryder. It was now 09:30 and the men on the spur, outflanked by the Turks, had started to withdraw. At 10:00 the Turks set up a machine-gun on the spur and opened fire on the withdrawing Australians. Pursued by the Turks, only eleven survivors, including Loutit and Haig, reached Johnston's Jolly and took cover. Further back, two companies of the 9th and the 10th Battalions had started digging a trench line. As part of the second wave, the 2nd Brigade had been landing since 05:30; the 5th, 6th and 8th Battalions were supposed to cross 400 Plateau and head to Hill 971, while the 7th Battalion on the left were to climb Plugge's Plateau then make for Hill 971. One 7th Battalion company, Jackson's, landed beside the Fisherman's Hut in the north and was almost wiped out; only forty men survived the landing. At 06:00 Major Ivie Blezard's 7th Battalion company, and part of another, were sent onto 400 Plateau by Maclagen to strengthen the defence. When the 7th Battalion commander Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Elliott landed he realised events were not going to plan, and he headed to the 3rd Brigade headquarters to find out what was happening. Maclagen ordered him to gather his battalion at the south of the beachhead, as the 2nd Brigade would now form the division's right flank, not left. When the 2nd Brigade commander Colonel James McCay arrived Maclagen convinced him to move his brigade to the south, swapping responsibility with the 3rd Brigade. Eventually agreeing, he established his headquarters on the seaward slope of 400 Plateau (McCay's Hill). Heading onto the plateau, McCay realised the ridge to his right, Bolton's Ridge, would be a key point in their defence. He located the Brigade-Major, Walter Cass, and ordered him to gather what men he could to defend the ridge. Looking around, he saw the 8th Battalion, commanded by Colonel William Bolton, moving forward, so Cass directed them to Bolton's Ridge. As such, it was the only ANZAC battalion that remained together during the day. Eventually, around 07:00, the rest of the brigade started arriving. As each company and battalion appeared they were pushed forward into the front line, but with no defined orders other than to support the 3rd Brigade.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    Dobell immediately ordered Chetwode and Dallas to dig in on their present line, connecting his right with the 54th (East Anglian) Division. It was nearly midnight when Dallas commanding 53rd (Welsh) Division, discovered the 54th (East Anglian) Division was moving towards the north of Mansura – had he known of this move at the time, he would not have abandoned all of the captured positions.[140] It 05:00 on 27 March, when Chetwode learned that the 53rd (Welsh) Division had abandoned its entire position, and he ordered them back to Ali Muntar. Dallas ordered the 160th (Welsh Border) Brigade (53rd Division) and 161st (Essex) Brigades (54th Division) to push forward with strong patrols to the positions they had held on the previous evening. Both Green Hill and Ali Muntar were found to be unoccupied and one company of the 1/7th Battalion Essex Regiment, (161st Brigade) reoccupied Ali Muntar, while two companies of the same battalion reoccupied Green Hill. After the 2nd Battalion of the 10th Middlesex Regiment (160th Brigade) had pushed forward patrols beyond Sheluf, the 2nd Battalion of the 4th Royal West Surrey or 4th Royal West Kent Regiment (160th Brigade) was ordered to advance and "gain touch" with the 161st Brigade.

  • 英語の文章を翻訳して下さい。

    On the morning of 7 August, it was clear that the prerequisites for the attack had not been met. The initial concept of operations for the August offensive required a simultaneous attack from the rear of Baby 700, thereby creating a hammer and anvil effect on the Ottoman trenches caught in between this pincer movement. Because the New Zealand advance on Chunuk Bair had been held up and failed to reach Chunuk Bair, the troops assaulting the Nek would have to do so alone if the attack was to continue. The New Zealanders had made some progress, though, having captured the lower part of Rhododendron Spur and it was hoped that Chunuk Bair could still be carried; as a result, Birdwood and Skeen decided it was important for the attack on the Nek to proceed as a feint – rather than a pincer – to assist the New Zealanders at Chunuk Bair, while the Australians and Indians from other formations also attacked Hill 971. British troops were also landing at Suvla Bay, having commenced their operation the night before (6 August). A further part of the plan required an attack from Steele's Post through several tunnels against German Officers' Trench by the Lieutenant Colonel Gordon Bennett's 6th Battalion (2nd Infantry Brigade of the Australian 1st Division). The Ottoman machine guns sited there enfiladed the ground in front of Quinn's Post and the Nek and the 6th Battalion's attack was conceived as a preliminary supporting move to suppress Ottoman fire onto the Nek to assist the 3rd Light Horse Brigade's. Planners had requested that this attack be conducted simultaneously with the attack at the Nek, but Birdwood had decided it should be conducted prior. The failure of this attack meant that Ottoman machine guns supporting the 18th Regiment around the Nek remained intact. Nonetheless, Birdwood declared that the 3rd Light Horse Brigade's attack was to proceed, albeit with some modifications. This would see the Australian light horsemen become the right flank of the assault on Chunuk Bair, linking in with the New Zealand Infantry Brigade on Rhododendron Spur. Following the decision to proceed, at 04:00 field artillery and howitzers began firing from the beachhead around Anzac Cove onto the Ottoman trenches around the Nek. These guns were then joined by several warships, including a destroyer, which opened fire on the Nek and other positions around Baby 700. This continued at a steady and deliberate rate until 04:27, when the intensity rose. Due to the proximity of the two sides' trenches, the shells mostly landed behind the first line of Ottoman trenches. Bean describes the bombardment as the heaviest since 2 May; but Carlyon notes that no battleships were assigned to the shelling due to the proximity of the Australian trenches, and describes it as "'desultory' and a 'joke'", citing an officer from the 9th Light Horse Regiment, who were in reserve for the attack.