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If the focus on cancer sometimes tilts toward its impact in rich, industrialized nations, statistics show that the disease is a scourge all around the world, with 95 percent of cancer deaths occurring in developing countries. Children in poor countries aren't spared. An estimated 90 percent of children with cancer die in the world's 25 poorest countries, compared with just 12 percent in a wealthy country such as Canada, according to statistics from the Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries. That glaring disparity has mobilized a group of Harvard School of Public Health (HSPS) students. The students, together with the HSPH student government, the student group Students in Latino Public Health, and the Harvard Global Equity Initiative, have put together a half-day event to raise awareness and dispel myths about cancer as a global health issue. The event, scheduled for Friday at the School of Public Health's Kresge Building, marks World Cancer Day on Monday. As part of their commitment, students are also gathering signatures for the World Cancer Declaration by the Union for International Cancer Control, which contains a list of 11 cancer-related health priorities. "There is a lot of difference between what happens in low-income countries and what happens in high-income countries," said HSPH student Sebastián Rodríguez Llamazares. Rodriguez said the effort calls attention to the fact that cancer is a serious problem in poor nations and that steps to prevent or treat it—routine in richer countries—should be part of the global health agenda. Associate Professor of Medicine Felicia Knaul, who heads the Harvard Global Equity Initiative, which supports student World Cancer Day efforts, said there are few cancers whose outcomes are similar in both developed and developing countries. Pancreatic cancer is one, because it's equally deadly everywhere. "For every other cancer that can be treated, the outcomes are very different," said Knaul, a breast cancer survivor. There are several reasons for the disparity. People in poor countries seldom hear messages about lifestyle changes—don't smoke, eat a healthy diet, exercise—that have been shown to prevent cancer. Similarly, a vaccine that can prevent one cancer fatal to women, cervical cancer, is not widely distributed. As a result, 90 percent of cervical cancer cases are found in developing countries, Knaul said.



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癌病の矛先は往々工業化された豊かな国家に衝撃を与える傾向があるが、統計では癌死の95%は開発途上国に存在し、この病気が世界中のや一大厄災であることが示されている。 貧しい国の子供は、助けてもらえないのだ。「開発途上国における癌征圧の拡大に関する国境なき医師団」の統計によると、カナダなどの裕福な国のわずか12%に比べて、世界の最貧25か国で癌を患う子供のうち90%と見積もられる子供が死亡する。 そのぎらつくような相違が、「ハーバード大学公衆衛生学科」(HSPS)の学生集団を動員させることになった。学生団体は、HSPH学生自治会、「ラテンアメリカ公衆衛生」学徒団、および「ハーバード公平世界発議団」とともに、自覚を喚起し、全地球的な健康問題として癌をめぐる神話を追い払うために、世界半日イベントなるものを立ち上げた。金曜日に公衆衛生学科のK棟で予定されたそのイベントは、月曜日を「世界癌(撲滅)日」と定め、学生らは自ら関与することの一環として、「国際癌制圧連合」による「世界癌(撲滅)宣言」のための署名集めもしている。それには、癌に関連する11項の健康優先事項の一覧が含まれている。 「低所得の国で起こることと、高収入国で起こることとの間には、たくさんの違いがあるのです」と、HSPHの学生セバスチャン・ロドリゲス・リャマサレスは語った。 その気になりさえすれば、貧しい国家では癌が重大問題であり、その予防や治療への取組-より豊かな国では恒例のこととなっている-を全地球的な健康問題の議事日程の一部とすべきである、という事実に注意が向けられる、とロドリゲスは語った。 医学部准教授のフェリシア・ノールは「ハーバード公平世界発議団」の団長で、団体では学生の「世界癌(撲滅)日」の取組を支援している。彼は、先進国と開発途上国の双方において同じであるような癌はほとんどない、と語った。ただ、膵臓癌は一つである。なぜならそれは、どこにあっても等しく致命的だからである。 「治療できる他のすべての癌にとっては、結果は非常に異なってくる」と、乳癌生存者でもあるノールは語った。 その相違には、幾つか理由がある。貧しい国の人々は、癌を予防するために示される生活様式の変化に関する情報-喫煙しないように、健全な摂食をするように、運動するように-をほとんど聞かない。同様に、女性にとって致命的な癌である子宮頸癌を予防できるはずのワクチンだが、これが広く配布されてはいないのだ。結果として、子宮頸癌の場合の90%が開発途上国で見つかるのです、とノールは語った。



  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    "It has very much become a cancer of poor women and a cancer for which poor women die," she said. Disparities in mortality extend to highly treatable cancers, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, fatal to just 10 percent of patients in wealthy countries but deadly 90 percent of the time in poor countries. Knaul said there are several myths about global cancer that need to be exploded, including that there's nothing that can be done, that tackling the problem would cost too much, and that bigger health issues plague the developing world. All are false, she said, adding that institutions like HSPH are key to gathering affordable, innovative solutions from around the world that can be used toward new strategies to meet the challenge. Students are a big part of the solution, Knaul said, because they'll be designing the health solutions of tomorrow. In addition to organizing Friday's event, students who have been touched by cancer planned to participate and share their stories of surviving or supporting a family member's struggles with the disease. Toni Kuguru, one of the student organizers, became interested in the subject when her husband, David, became ill with multiple myeloma. He was treated in the United States and is currently in remission, but the episode got Toni Kuguru thinking about the health care system in his native Kenya, where the outcome could have been different. Kuguru said she hopes that more students will get involved after hearing about the problem and the personal testimony of those touched by cancer. "What we're hoping for the student body is that they'll be inspired. We're hoping students understand there's lots of possibilities out there to become involved," Kuguru said.

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    Climate change is often associated with extreme weather events, melting glaciers and rising sea levels. But it could also have a major impact on human, animal and plant health by making it easier for diseases to spread. Various germs and parasites may find the coming years a time to live longer and prosper. Rising temperatures are changing environments and removing some of their natural impediments. Sonia Altizer is an associate professor at the University of Georgia’s Odum School of Ecology and lead author of the study. She said it’s a review of research done over the past 10 years to see what trends and new information on climate change have emerged. “One of the big themes that has emerged is that there’s a lot of diseases, especially in natural systems, where there as a pretty clear signal that either the prevalence or severity of those diseases has increased in response to climate change.” She said some of those natural systems where the signal is strongest are in the arctic and in warmer oceans. “So in the arctic there are parasitic worms that affect muskox and reindeer, for example, that are developing faster and becoming more prevalent and expanding their ranges. And then in tropical oceans, like Caribbean coral reefs, there’s a large amount of evidence that has mounted that shows that warming interferes with the symbiosis of corals – makes them more vulnerable to disease and at the same time increases the growth rate of some lethal bacteria,” she said. But a second theme emerged indicating that sometimes climate change may have no effect at all. “The other main point that we focused on is that knowing why different pathogens respond differently to climate change is what’s needed to help us predict and ultimately manage disease outbreaks in people and animals and plants,” she said. Some countries will be much better prepared to handle the disease threat than others, like those in Europe and North America. . “Surveillance, vector control, modern sanitation, drugs, vaccines can be deployed to prevent outbreaks of a lot of diseases, especially vector borne disease or diarrheal disease that are much more problematic in the developing world. And so these can counter the effects of climate change and make it hard to detect increases in those pathogens,” said Altizer. Controlling vectors means controlling such things as mosquitos and ticks, which can carry malaria or dengue fever. In developing countries, pathogens affecting agriculture and wildlife could adversely affect food security and the livelihoods of indigenous peoples. So how concerned should health officials be? Altizer said there’s no simple answer. “I think that the answer to it really depends on the location. So where, when and what pathogen? So I think we’re at a stage now where in the next five to ten years scientists will be able to move towards a predictive framework that will be able to answer questions about where in the world and what pathogens are responding and will continue to respond most strongly to climate change.” Altizer says the effects of climate change will unfold over decades. So it’s vital to follow long-term standardized data for many diseases and pathogens. She said crop management may be a good example to follow. It has a long history of tracking disease outbreaks, forecasting potential threats and responding to those threats early.

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    Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of communication-having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected. The explosion around the world in mobile phone use has some health professionals worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, there has been a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phons are bad for your health. この英文の和訳が分かりません教えて下さい。できればいやくはしないでください。

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    下記の英文について教えてください。 (1) 死亡率は23%下がったのですか?それとも23%に下がったのですか? (2) plunge は他動詞ですか?それとも自動詞ですか? Over a longer period of time, from 1990 through 2008, cancer death rates plunged almost 23 percent for men and just over 15 percent for women. --補足-- 【前後の文】 The American Cancer Society's annual report shows that death rates from cancer in the U.S. have continued to fall. Between 2004 and 2008, cancer death rates for men went down nearly two percent a year; for women they declined about one-and-a-half percent each year. Over a longer period of time, from 1990 through 2008, cancer death rates plunged almost 23 percent for men and just over 15 percent for women. That translates to a million lives saved. 【出展】 VOA:http://www.voanews.com/english/news/health/Report-Obesity-Related-Cancers-Rising-136871703.html

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    とても長い文章ですがお願いします おかしなところがあればご指摘ください The report describes the other elements that have proved to be vital: a single, powerful national AIDS plan involving a wide range of actors; social openness, increasing the visibility of the epidemic and countering stigma; social policies that address core vulnerabilities; the engagement of all sectors (not just health); a recognition of the synergy between prevention and care; support to community participation; and targeting interventions to those who are most vulnerable, including young people before they become sexually active. Countries that have adopted forward-looking strategies to fight the epidemic are reaping the rewards in the form of falling incidence

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    •WTO is too powerful, in that it can in effect compel sovereign states to change laws and regulations by declaring these to be in violation of free trade rules. •WTO is run by the rich for the rich and does not give significant weight to the problems of developing countries. For example, rich countries have not fully opened their markets to products from poor countries. •WTO is indifferent to the impact of free trade on workers' rights, child labour, the environment and health. •WTO lacks democratic accountability, in that its hearings on trade disputes are closed to the public and the media.                   http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/2429503.stmより

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    Since the early 18th century, however, the force of the rule of law has fostered standards of living that rose by 20 times in that part of the world that embraced competitive markets. Life expectancy more than doubled. And in the developing countries that have abandoned central planning for markets since the end of the Cold War, hundreds of millions of people have been elevated from subsistence poverty. Other hundreds of millions are now experiencing a level of affluence that people born in developed nations have experienced all their lives.

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    LONDON(AP)ーJust try sugar-coating this:the World Health Organiz ation says your daily sugar intake should be just 5 percent of your total caloriesーhalf of what the agency previously recommended,according to new draft guidelines published earlier this month. After a review of about 9000studies,WHO's expert panel says dropping sugar intake to that level will combat obesity and cavities.Tha t includes sugars added to foods and those present in honey,syrups and fruit juices,but not those occurring naturally in fruits. Amerivans and others in the West eat a lot more sugar than that.Their average sugar in take would have to drop by two-thirds to meet WHO's suggested limit. Many doctors ap plauded the U.N. agency's attempt to limit th e global sweet tooth. "The less sugar you're eating, the better," sai d Dr. Robert Lustig, a professor of pediatrics at the University of California and author of a book about the dangers of sugar. "If the su gar threshold is lowered, I think breakfast ce real is going to have a really hard time justif ying its existence," he said, referring to swee tened cereals often targeted to children. Lustig said WHO's new guidelines could alte r the food environment by forcing manufact urers to rethink how they're using sugar in p rocessed foods like bread, soups, pasta sau ces and even salad dressings. He called the amount of sugar in processed food an "abso lute, unmitigated disaster." WHO's expert group found high sugar consu mption is strongly linked to obesity and toot h decay. It noted that heavy people have a hi gher risk of chronic diseases, responsible fo r more than 60 percent of global deaths. De ntal care costs up to 10 percent of health bu dgets in Western countries and cause signifi cant problems in the developing world. WHO warned many of the sugars eaten toda y are hidden in processed foods, pointing ou t that one tablespoon of ketchup contains a bout one teaspoon of sugar . There is no universally agreed consensus o n how much sugar is too much. The American Heart Association advises lim iting sugar to about 8 percent of your diet, or six teaspoons a day for women and nine for men. A study led by the U.S. Centers for Dise ase Control and Prevention published last m onth found too much sugar can raise the ch ances of fatal heart problems. Researchers f ound the average American gets about 15 p ercent of their calories from sugar, similar to other Western nations.

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    1,U.S. exports to china grew 20.5 percent from 2004 to2005 and are continuing to grow rapidly,with an increace of 36.5 percent during the first five months of this year,comrared to 2005. 2,the plane was making a right turn over Los Angels when it suddenly plunged nose-down from a height of 500 feet. 3,we are pleased to announce that we are taking part in the 36th hong kong international film festival running March 21 through April5. 4,the instructor said," a participant who is continuously chatting with his or her neighbor can be extremely disruptive tovthe entire group."

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     Red wine likewise offers some protection from heart disease.Researchers,have found that other types of alcohol,like beer,taken in moderate quantities,may also help raise levels of the“good”cholesterol,which is known to reduce the risk of stroke.Meanwhile,we have been warned to avoid coffee to protect our hearts.However,recent studies have found that women who drink as many as six cups of coffee a day experience no increased risk.Apparently,the real danger is not in the coffee but in the cigarettes which people may smoke with their coffee.  In the hope of preventing cancer,people have been swallowing tablets of beta-carotene and vitamin A by the handful.Research at the National Institutes of Health in the United States shows,however,that taking such vitamin tablets has little or no effect on the risk of cancer,particularly lung cancer.What does make a difference is eating food rich in beta‐carotene:peaches,pumpkins,carrots.For reasons that scientists don´t clearly understand,these foods have a beneficial effect that the vitamin tablets do not.Perhaps the foods contain other elements which the body uses to fight cancer in ways that we are not yet aware of.    参考までに、beta-carotene:ベータカロチン(人体内で代謝されてビタミンAとなる) the National Institutes of Health:国民健康研究所 と書いてあったので載せておきます。スペルの間違いがあったらごめんなさい。