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•WTO is too powerful, in that it can in effect compel sovereign states to change laws and regulations by declaring these to be in violation of free trade rules. •WTO is run by the rich for the rich and does not give significant weight to the problems of developing countries. For example, rich countries have not fully opened their markets to products from poor countries. •WTO is indifferent to the impact of free trade on workers' rights, child labour, the environment and health. •WTO lacks democratic accountability, in that its hearings on trade disputes are closed to the public and the media.                   http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/2429503.stmより


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* これらが自由貿易の規則に違反すると宣言することによって、それ(WTO)が、実質的に、主権国家に法律や規則を変えるように強要することができるという点で、WTO(世界貿易機関)は力がありすぎます。 * WTOは富裕国のために富裕国によって運営されていて、発展途上国の問題を重視しません。 たとえば、富裕国は、貧困国からの製品に対して彼らの市場を完全に開放したことはありません。 * WTOは、労働者の権利、児童労働、環境や健康に与える自由貿易の影響には無関心です。 * 貿易摩擦についての聴問会が市民やメディアに閉ざされているという点で、WTOは民主的な説明責任が不足しています。





  • 英文翻訳をお願いいたします。

    "French intentions in Syria are surely incompatible with the war aims of the Allies as defined to the Russian Government. If the self-determination of nationalities is to be the principle, the interference of France in the selection of advisers by the Arab Government and the suggestion by France of the Emirs to be selected by the Arabs in Mosul, Aleppo, and Damascus would seem utterly incompatible with our ideas of liberating the Arab nation and of establishing a free and independent Arab State. The British Government, in authorising the letters despatched to King Hussein [Sharif of Mecca] before the outbreak of the revolt by Sir Henry McMahon, would seem to raise a doubt as to whether our pledges to King Hussein as head of the Arab nation are consistent with French intentions to make not only Syria but Upper Mesopotamia another Tunis. If our support of King Hussein and the other Arabian leaders of less distinguished origin and prestige means anything it means that we are prepared to recognise the full sovereign independence of the Arabs of Arabia and Syria. It would seem time to acquaint the French Government with our detailed pledges to King Hussein, and to make it clear to the latter whether he or someone else is to be the ruler of Damascus, which is the one possible capital for an Arab State, which could command the obedience of the other Arabian Emirs."

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    The forts were not linked and could only communicate by telephone and telegraph, the wires for which were not buried. Smaller fortifications and trench lines in the gaps between the forts, to link and protect them had been planned by Brialmont but had not been built by 1914. The fortress troops were not at full strength in 1914 and many men were drawn from local guard units, who had received minimal training, due to the reorganisation of the Belgian army, which had begun in 1911 and which was not due to be complete until 1926. The forts also had c. 30,000 soldiers of the 3rd Division to defend the gaps between forts, c. 6,000 fortress troops and members of the paramilitary Garde Civique, equipped with rifles and machine-guns. The garrison of c. 40,000 men and 400 guns, was insufficient to man the forts and field fortifications. In early August 1914, the garrison commander was unsure of the forces which he would have at his disposal, since until 6 August, it was possible that all of the Belgian army would advance towards the Meuse.

  • 英文の翻訳をお願いいたします

    どなたか以下の英文を翻訳できる方が居ましたらぜひお願いいたします。 As this book seeks to demonstrate, the visual world and its producers, its users and its designers, are engaged in a heated debate over the status of design - who has ownership of it, who is qualified to do it, and how we receive and interpret it, It is in a period of evolution, and requires more developed and rigorous understanding. It may seem odd to say this , but whatever your view of the discussion in this chapter, it should ve clear that design is not simp;y a visual medium; it is a social and, as we have identified, a political one. It just happens to be most apparent visually in the messages sent to us by commerce, media and government, and the subtler but equally important messages we send each other in our everyday practices. Like an iceberg, 90 per cent of visual communication is hidden beneath the surface. And, just like an iceberg, it is the invisible 90 per cent that provides the raw power of visual communication. So, there we end this overview of some of the key ideas that are involved in the study and under standing of visual communication and its relationship with design. Undoubtedly, like some of the practitioners interviewed for the book, you will disagree with some of it. Hopefully some of it will have challenged your own positon on this subject.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    Supporters of the WTO argue that it is democratic, in that its rules were written by its member states, many of whom are democracies, who also select its leadership. They also argue that, by expanding world trade, the WTO in fact helps to raise living standards around the world.                    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/2429503.stmより

  • 英文の翻訳をお願いします!

    Nonetheless, in the Big Brother/It Could Be You society, great swaths of the population believe they can become rich and famous, and that it is highly desirable. (Oliver James "Selfish capitalism is bad for our mental health"より)

  • 英文和訳をお願いします。

    Rich countries should therefore properly finance the “CG system”, a network of government-backed institutes, carrying out research into rice, wheat, maize and livestock. And the emerging giants should chip in, too. China, India, Brazil and Russia complain that they do not get the respect they deserve. Here is a chance for them to earn it by helping underwrite a global public good. They should contribute to the CG system (as Mexico, to its credit, is doing) and make their national research available more widely. Few things matter to human happiness more than the yields of staple crops.

  • 英語の翻訳をお願いいたしますm(__)m

    Water is our most important natural resource. Yet though water covers most of the Earth, only 2.5% of it is salt-free. Demand for fresh water has risen sharply in the last 50 years, and it is still going up. That’s already causing serious problems. Finding the right solutions may be one of the biggest challenges of our time. There are several reasons behind the growing crisis. The first is waste. About 70% of our fresh water is used to grow crops. It takes 1,000 tons of water to grow just one ton of wheat. Unfortunately, around 60% of that water is wasted. Better irrigation methods would help the situation. Pollution is another big problem. Many of the world’s great rivers, such as the Ganges in India, are badly polluted. Yet 350 million people rely on the Ganges. Their health is affected by the health of the river. Steps are being taken to clean up some waterways, but it is expensive and can take years. Overuse also puts pressure on water supplies. In the USA, 95% of the country’s fresh water comes from underground sources. With so much water being used to grow crops and raise livestock, water levels are dropping rapidly. Once used, those supplies are gone forever, since they are not refilled by rainwater. The key there is to lower demand. In many places around the world, people already live in crisis. More than one billion people have no access to clean water. That leads to millions of deaths every year, including thousands of children dying every day in Africa. By 2025, as many as 25 African countries may face severe water shortages. The situation could even lead to wars over water rights. The fresh water crisis is not limited to poor regions. Indeed, rich and poor countries from Asia to Europe to North America are facing shortages. It’s a growing problem that could soon affect us all.

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    II Corps resumed operations to capture Nonne Bosschen, Glencorse Wood and Inverness Copse around the Menin Road on 22–24 August, which failed and were costly to both sides. Gough laid down a new infantry formation of skirmish lines to be followed by "worms" on 24 August. Cavan noted that pill-box defences required broad front attacks, so as to engage them simultaneously. The British general offensive intended for 25 August, was delayed because of the failure of previous attacks to hold ground, following the Battle of Langemarck and then postponed due to more bad weather. Attacks on 27 August were minor operations, which were costly and inconclusive. Haig called a halt to operations amidst tempestuous weather. In Field Marshal Earl Haig (1929), Brigadier-General John Charteris, the BEF Chief of Intelligence from 1915 to 1918, wrote that Careful investigation of records of more than eighty years showed that in Flanders the weather broke early each August with the regularity of the Indian monsoon. — Charteris which was quoted by Lloyd George (1934), Liddell Hart (1934) and Leon Wolff (1959). In a 1997 essay, John Hussey called the passage by Charteris "baffling". The BEF had set up a Meteorological Section under Ernest Gold in 1915, which by the end of 1917 had 16 officers and 82 men. The section predicted the warm weather and thunderstorms of 7–14 June and in a letter of 17 January 1958, Gold wrote that the facts of Flanders climate contradicted the claim made by Charteris in 1929. In 1989, Philip Griffiths examined August weather for the thirty years before 1916 and found that, ...there is no reason to suggest that the weather broke early in the month with any regularity. — Griffith From 1901–1916, records from a weather station at Cap Gris Nez showed that 65 percent of August days were dry and that from 1913–1916, there were 26, 23, 23 and 21 rainless days and monthly rainfall of 17, 28, 22 and 96 mm (0.67, 1.10, 0.87 and 3.78 in), ...during the summers preceding the Flanders campaign August days were more often dry than wet.

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    The Russian government promised Germany that its general mobilization did not mean preparation for war with Germany but was a reaction to the events between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. The German government regarded the Russian promise of no war with Germany to be nonsense in light of its general mobilization, and Germany in turn mobilized for war. On August 1, Germany sent an ultimatum to Russia stating that since both Germany and Russia were in a state of military mobilization, an effective state of war existed between the two countries.

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    On 21 July, Franz Joseph was reportedly surprised by the severity of the ultimatum that was to be sent to the Serbs, and expressed his concerns that Russia would be unwilling to stand idly by; yet he nevertheless chose to not question Berchtold's judgement. A week after the ultimatum, on 28 July, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and two days later the Austro-Hungarians and the Russians went to war. Within weeks, the Germans, French and British entered the fray. Because of his age, Franz Joseph was unable to take an active part in the war in comparison to past conflicts. Franz Joseph died in the Schönbrunn Palace on the evening of 21 November 1916, at the age of eighty-six. His death was a result of developing pneumonia of the right lung several days after catching a cold while walking in Schönbrunn Park with the King of Bavaria. He was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I, who reigned until the collapse of the Empire following its defeat in 1918. He is buried in the Kaisergruft in Vienna, where flowers are still left by monarchists.