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Q:次の文の誤りを指摘して正しくなおしなさい。 1:That famous cherry tree is dead because of pollution. Yes,we have to do something to save it. 2:John and Mary have been knowing each other since 1976. 3:When have you come to Japan? 4:By the time he retires,Professor Yamada will teach for almost forty years. 解答と訳をお願いします

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  • 回答No.1

1:That famous cherry tree is dead because of pollution. Yes,we have to do something to save it. (That famous cherry tree is dying because of pollutants. Yes we have to do something to save it.汚染物質によりあの有名な桜の木が死につつあります。確かに、木を守るために何かをわれわれはしなければなりません。) われわれはその木を助けるために何かしなければならないというわけですからまだ生きており、死につつあるということが分かります。従いましてis dyingとなります。またpollutionは汚染という概念ですので、概念が木を枯らすわけではないので汚染物質つまりpollutantsとする必要があります。 2:John and Mary have been knowing each other since 1976. (John and Mary have known each other since 1976.ジョンとメアリは1976年以来の知り合いです。) あえて進行形にする必要がない、なぜならばhave knownというのはある期間をすでに示しているので、この場合は進行している状態と重複するように思えます。 3:When have you come to Japan? (When did you come to Japan?あなたはいつ日本に来ましたか) 日本に来たのはいつかというある時点を聞いているはずですので、have comeという時間に幅のある文章では意図と矛盾します。 4:By the time he retires,Professor Yamada will teach for almost forty years. ( By the time Professor Yamada retires, he will have taught for almost forty years. 山田教授が退任するまでに、彼はその時までおおむね40年教えることとなります。) 最初にheが出てくると聞いた人はそんな人知らないよという疑問を持ちますので、初めにProfessor Yamadaを持ってきます。またいまから退職するまでにというわけですから、40年という期間がかかるという意味では今から40年後の未来に完了するという意味にすべきだと思います。

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  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
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1. That famous cherry tree is dying because of pollution. Yes, we have to do something to save it. あの有名な桜の木が、汚染のせいで、枯れかけています。 ええ、私たちは、それを守るために何かしなくてはいけません。 is dead 枯れている のではなくて、is dying 枯れかけている ので、何かしなくてはならない。 2. John and Mary have known each other since 1976. ジョンとメアリーは、1976年以来の知り合いです。 know は、知っている、状態を表わしているので、進行形は不可。 3. When did you come to Japan? あなたは、いつ、日本に来ましたか? When で、時を訪ねている場合、現在完了ではなく、過去形を用いる。 4. By the time he retires, Professor Yamada will have taught for almost forty years. 退職する頃までには、山田教授は、ほぼ40年教えたことになるだろう。 退職するのはこれから先のこと、その時までに、40年教えたことになるので、未来完了。

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