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British Forces' Attacks in Givenchy and Bellewaarde during World War I

  • The British First Army launched an attack in Givenchy, facing a shortage of ammunition and without covering fire. They managed to enter the German front trench but were pushed back due to crossfire and lack of ammunition. Another attack took place, capturing the German front line, but was later forced back by a German counter-attack.
  • The British Second Army's attack on Bellewaarde was initially successful, with the 3rd Division easily taking the German first line. However, subsequent waves faced difficulties due to the British bombardment and ran short of ammunition. A planned exploitation of the success was delayed and repulsed with heavy casualties.
  • The British forces faced criticism for their perceived inaction and lack of coordination, allowing the Germans to concentrate their resources against the Tenth Army. The Battle of Aubers Ridge and other attacks in the area saw limited gains and were met with German counter-attacks.


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>In the Second Action of Givenchy ~ where a bombing fight began. ⇒「第二次ジバンシー戦役」(6月15-16日)で、英国第1方面軍の第IV軍団は、60時間の砲撃の後、第7師団、第51師団、およびカナダ軍師団(の共同)でラ・バセの北西を攻撃した。その中で急性の弾薬不足を軽減する試みが、砲兵隊の観測と、強化されたRFC(英国空軍)飛行隊による戦術的偵察に依存して行われた。攻撃のための援護砲火はなかったが、それで前進を始める前にドイツ軍の防御隊が前線に人員を配置しているのが目視された。ドイツ軍は大規模な小火器砲撃を開始したが、英国軍がドイツ軍の前線塹壕に侵入するのを阻止できず、そこで爆撃戦が始まった。 >German infantry were well-supplied ~ further attacks were cancelled. ⇒ドイツ軍の歩兵は十分に手榴弾を供給されたが、英国軍は中間地帯に沿った防護壁によって隔離されたものの、弾薬を使い果たしたために押し戻され、最後の軍隊が午前4時に撤退した。6月15日の新しい攻撃は、濃い霧と歩兵隊再編成の難しさによって遅れたが、残った大砲の弾薬はすべてを駆使しながら先へ進んで午後4時45分にドイツ軍の前線を奪取した。戦線が統合されるまで前進は中止され、英国軍隊とカナダ軍隊は自前の塹壕に固定されていなかったため、午後8時のドイツ軍反撃によって後戻りを余儀なくされ、その後のさらなる攻撃も中止された。 >The British Second Army conducted ~ the British ran short of ammunition. ⇒英国第2方面軍は、6月16日に第3師団をもって「第1次ベルワーデ攻撃」を行い、午前4時15分にドイツ軍の第1戦線を難なく奪取した。第2波と第3波が前方へ突進して、英国軍の砲撃(域の)中に入っていったが、霧や砲撃による大量の煙によって砲手らにはそれが視認されなかった。それでも英国軍は何とかしてドイツ軍の第2戦線に到達したところ、ドイツ軍は3回の反撃で第3師団だけは第1戦線に押し戻すことができた。その頃に、英国軍は弾薬不足に陥ったのである。 >Support from a brigade of the 14th Division ~ the French offensive further south. ⇒第14師団の1個旅団は成功したが、それ(取得地)を開発するための支援はドイツ軍の砲撃を受けて遅れ、第3師団の2個足らずの大隊(のみ)が午後3時30分に前進したが、開かれた平らな斜面を上る際に多くの死傷者を被って撃退された。午後6時、メニン道からレールウエイ・ウッド(鉄道森)までのドイツ軍の前線塹壕は統合されたが、これはベルワールデ尾根と、それに沿ったドイツ軍の前哨基地の間近であった。英国軍の「無活動」のせいで、第10方面軍に対抗するために資源を集中させることをドイツ軍に許したことで、ジョフルは英国軍を批判した。(そこで)英国の第1方面軍は、さらに南のフランス軍の攻勢を支援して、「オーベル・リッジの戦い」で攻撃した。 >North of La Bassée Canal, British ~ sent south to reinforce the Arras front. ⇒ラ・バセ運河の北で、第IIババリア軍団と第XIXサクソン軍団に対する英国軍の砲撃が加増され、午前6時に第6ババリア予備軍師団に対する攻撃が始まってフロメーユ北側の第1戦線に突入した。戦いは続いて、夕方には塹壕が再攻略された。リシブール・ラブエで英国軍の攻撃はさらに膨れ上がり、時には反撃される前にドイツ軍の第1戦線に侵入した。地面はほとんど確保されず、ドイツ軍の反撃に対して何も拘束されず、ドイツ軍はアラス前線を強化するためすぐに南へ送られた。 ※この段落、意味がよく分かりません。誤訳の節はどうぞ悪しからず。






  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    A large number of German casualties were caused by the change in the wind direction and the decision to go ahead against protests by local officers, which were increased by British troops, who fired on German soldiers as they fled in the open. The gas used by the German troops at Hulluch was a mixture of chlorine and phosgene, which had first been used against British troops on 19 December 1915 at Wieltje, near Ypres. The German gas was of sufficient concentration to penetrate the British PH gas helmets and the 16th Division was unjustly blamed for poor gas discipline.

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    A company which had lost direction in the dark and stumbled into La Boisselle, took 220 German prisoners but the division had 2,400 casualties. On 7 July, an attack by X Corps on Ovillers was delayed by a German attack, after a bombardment which fell on the 49th Division front near the Ancre, then concentrated on the British position in the German first line north of Thiepval. The survivors of the garrison were forced to retreat to the British front line by 6:00 a.m. A German attack on the Leipzig Salient at 1:15 a.m. from three directions, was repulsed and followed by a bombing fight until 5:30 a.m.; the British attack was still carried out and the rest of the German front line in the Leipzig Salient was captured. The 12th Division and a 25th Division brigade advanced on Ovillers, two battalions of the 74th Brigade on the south side of the Albert–Bapaume road reached the first German trench, where the number of casualties and continuous German machine-gun fire stopped the advance.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Eighty dead German soldiers were counted later, in and around the British front trenches. By 7:30 a.m., the German raid was over and during the night, two British battalions were relieved; the rest of 28 April was quiet, except for a raid by the 1st Division, at the "Double Crassier" near Loos. At 3:45 a.m., a German artillery bombardment and gas discharge began on the 16th Division front but the expected attack did not occur. German troops were seen massing in the trenches near Hulluch at 4:10 a.m. and small numbers advanced towards the British trenches, where they were engaged by small-arms fire. The German gas then reversed course and German infantry on a 0.5-mile (0.80 km) front ran to the rear through the gas and British artillery-fire, leaving about 120 dead on the front of the 16th Division.

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    The German force moving up the Reutelbeek valley into the area of the 23rd and 1st Australian divisions, was watched by the infantry for an hour, when at 7:02 p.m. a field artillery and machine-gun barrage fell on the Germans for an hour, stopping all movement towards the British positions, The 16th Bavarian Division was a high quality formation, but all the skill and dash in the world stood no chance in the face of the torrent of fire the British artillery could bring to bear at the critical points. — Sheldon a similar barrage for forty minutes in front of the 2nd Australian Division, on a regiment of the 236th Division advancing from Molenaarelsthoek and downhill from Broodseinde, stopped the counter-attack long before it came within range of the Australian infantry. On the southern edge of the plateau, German troops dribbling forward in the 39th Division area, managed to reinforce the garrison at Tower Hamlets, then tried twice to advance to the Bassevillebeek and were "smashed" by artillery and machine-gun fire. In the Fifth Army area, from 800 yd (730 m) south of the Ypres–Roulers railway, north to the Ypres–Staden railway, many Germans were seen moving west down Passchendaele ridge around 5:30 p.m., into the area held by the 55th, 58th and 51st divisions. In the 58th Division area, fire was opened on the Germans after half an hour, which forced the Germans to deploy into open order. When the Germans were 150 yd (140 m) from the first British strong point, the British defensive barrage arrived with such force that the German infantry "stampeded". No Germans were seen in the area until night, when patrols occupied an outpost. On the 55th Division front, "an extraordinarily gallant" German counter-attack by Reserve Infantry Regiment 459 (236th Division) from Gravenstafel, on Hill 37, through the positions of Reserve Infantry Regiment 91, was stopped by artillery and enfilade fire by machine-guns at Keir Farm and Schuler Galleries. A German attack down Poelcappelle spur at 5:30 p.m. towards the 51st Division, had much better artillery support and although stopped in the area of the Lekkerboterbeek by 7:00 p.m., pushed the British left back to Pheasant trench in the Wilhemstellung, before the British counter-attacked and pushed the Germans back to the line of the first objective, 600 yd (550 m) short of the final objective.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front. There were big gains on the first day, followed by stalemate. The battle cost nearly 160,000 British and about 125,000 German casualties. For much of the war, the opposing armies on the Western Front were at a stalemate, with a continuous line of trenches stretching from the Belgian coast to the Swiss border. The Allied objective from early 1915 was to break through the German defences into the open ground beyond and engage the numerically inferior German Army in a war of movement. The British attack at Arras was part of the French Nivelle Offensive, the main part of which was to take place 50 miles (80 km) to the south. The aim of this combined operation was to end the war in forty-eight hours. At Arras the British were to divert German troops from the French front and to take the German-held high ground that dominated the plain of Douai.

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    During the Battle of Arras the British Fifth Army was intended to help the operations of the Third Army, by pushing back German rear guards to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) and then attacking the position from Bullecourt to Quéant, which was 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from the main Arras–Cambrai road. The German outpost villages from Doignies to Croisilles were captured on 2 April and an attack on a 3,500-yard (3,200 m) front, with Bullecourt in the centre was planned. The wire-cutting bombardment was delayed by transport difficulties behind the new British front line and the attack of the Third Army, which was originally intended to be simultaneous, took place on 9 April. A tank attack by the Fifth Army was improvised for 10 April on a front of 1,500 yards (1,400 m) to capture Riencourt and Hendecourt. The attack was intended to begin 48 minutes before sunrise but the tanks were delayed by a blizzard and the attack was cancelled at the last minute; the 4th Australian Division withdrawal from its assembly positions was luckily obscured by a snowstorm.

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    German defensive changes: late 1917 On 7 October, the 4th Army again dispersed its troops in the front defence zone. Reserve battalions moved back behind the artillery protective line and the Eingreif divisions were organised to intervene as swiftly as possible once an attack commenced, despite the risk of being devastated by the British artillery. Counter-battery fire to reduce British artillery fire was to be increased, to protect the Eingreif divisions as they advanced. All of the German divisions holding front zones were relieved and an extra division brought forward, as the British advances had lengthened the front line. Without the forces necessary for a counter-offensive south of the Gheluvelt plateau towards Kemmel Hill, Rupprecht began to plan for a slow withdrawal from the Ypres salient, even at the risk of uncovering German positions further north and the Belgian coast. Battle of Poelcappelle The French First Army and British Second and Fifth armies attacked on 9 October, on a 13,500 yards (12,300 m) front, from south of Broodseinde to St. Jansbeek, to advance half of the distance from Broodseinde ridge to Passchendaele, on the main front, which led to many casualties on both sides. Advances in the north of the attack front were retained by British and French troops but most of the ground taken in front of Passchendaele and on the Becelaere and Gheluvelt spurs was lost to German counter-attacks. General William Birdwood later wrote that the return of heavy rain and mud sloughs was the main cause of the failure to hold captured ground. Kuhl concluded that the fighting strained German fighting power to the limit but that the German forces managed to prevent a breakthrough, although it was becoming much harder to replace losses. First Battle of Passchendaele Passchendaele:パッシェンデール The First Battle of Passchendaele on 12 October, was another Allied attempt to gain ground around Passchendaele. Heavy rain and mud again made movement difficult and little artillery could be brought closer to the front. Allied troops were exhausted and morale had fallen.

  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    The Fifth Army defences which were still incomplete, the Rear Zone existed as outline markings only and the Battle Zone consisted of battalion "redoubts" that were not mutually supporting and vulnerable to German troops infiltrating between them. The British ordered an intermittent bombardment of German lines and likely assembly areas at 03:30 and a gas discharge on the 61st Division front. At 04:40 a huge German barrage began along all the Fifth Army front and most of the front of the Third Army. Battle of St. Quentin, 21–23 March Day 1, 21 March The artillery bombardment began at 04:35 with an intensive German barrage opened on British positions south west of St. Quentin for a depth of 4–6 km (2.5–3.7 mi). At 04:40 a heavy German barrage began along a 60 km (40 mi) front. Trench mortars, mustard gas, chlorine gas, tear gas and smoke canisters were concentrated on the forward trenches, while heavy artillery bombarded rear areas to destroy Allied artillery and supply lines. Over 3,500,000 shells were fired in five hours, hitting targets over an area of 400 km2 (150 sq mi) in the biggest barrage of the war, against the Fifth Army, most of the front of Third Army and some of the front of the First Army to the north. The front line was badly damaged and communications were cut with the Rear Zone, which was severely disrupted. When the infantry assault began at 09:40, the German infantry had mixed success; the German 17th and 2nd Armies were unable to penetrate the Battle Zone on the first day but the 18th Army advanced further and reached its objectives. Dawn broke to reveal a heavy morning mist. By 05:00, visibility was barely 10 m (10 yd) in places and the fog was extremely slow to dissipate throughout the morning. The fog and smoke from the bombardment made visibility poor throughout the day, allowing the German infantry to infiltrate deep behind the British front positions undetected. Much of the Forward Zone fell during the morning as communication failed; telephone wires were cut and runners struggled to find their way through the dense fog and heavy shelling. Headquarters were cut off and unable to influence the battle.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    Ignorance of the situation at the northern end of the II Anzac Corps front. was resolved by air reconnaissance at dawn on 8 June. At 2:50 a.m. on 7 June, the British artillery bombardment ceased; expecting an immediate infantry assault, the German defenders returned to their forward positions. At 3:10 a.m. the mines were detonated, killing c. 10,000 German soldiers and destroying most of the middle breastwork Ib of the front system, paralysing the survivors of the eleven German battalions in the front line, who were swiftly overrun. The explosions occurred while some of the German front line troops were being relieved, catching both groups in the blasts, and British artillery fire resumed at the same moment as the explosions. Some of the Stoßtruppen (Stormtroops) in breastwork Ic were able to counter-attack but were overwhelmed quickly, as the British advanced on the Sonne line, which usually held half of the support battalions but had been reduced to about 100 men and six machine-guns, in each 800 yards (730 m) regimental zone. Smoke and dust from the British barrage limited visibility to 100 yards (91 m) and some defenders thought that figures moving towards them were German soldiers, retreating elastically and were also overrun. After a pause, the British continued to the Höhen line, held by half of the support battalions, a company of each reserve battalion and 10–12 machine-guns per regimental sector. Despite daylight, German defenders only saw occasional shapes in the dust and smoke, as they were deluged by artillery fire and machine-gunned by swarms of British aircraft. The German defence in the south collapsed and uncovered the left flank of each unit further north in turn, forcing them to retire to the Sehnen (Oosttaverne) line. Some German units held out in Wijtschate and near St. Eloi, waiting to be relieved by counter-attacks which never came. The garrison of the Kofferberg (Caterpillar or spoil heap to the British) held on for 36 hours until relieved.

  • 次の英文を日本語翻訳してください。

    Two areas of the German front line, on either side of the Neuve Chapelle battlefield, were attacked by the British First Army (General Sir Douglas Haig). In the south I Corps and the Indian Corps attacked on a 2,400 yd (1.4 mi; 2.2 km) front from the Rue du Bois and IV Corps attacked in the north on a 1,500 yd (1,400 m) front opposite Fromelles. The attack was intended to make two breaches in the German defences 6,000 yd (3.4 mi; 5.5 km) apart, after which the infantry were to advance to Aubers Ridge about 3,000 yd (1.7 mi; 2.7 km) beyond. The preliminary bombardment began at 5:00 a.m. and at 5:30 a.m. became intense. Ten minutes later, the infantry attacked and surprised the German defenders, artillery fire cutting all the German telephone lines to the rear. Visibility was poor due to smoke and dust and the bombardment proved less effective than assumed; much of the British shell-fire fell short and few of the German machine-guns were destroyed. German machine-gunners and artillery began to fire at the same time and in ten minutes inflicted many casualties on the British infantry as they advanced across no man's land. The failure of the attack to gain more than a few footholds in the German first line led to a second attack at 8:00 a.m. after a forty-five-minute bombardment, which was repelled in no man's land by German defensive fire. A new attack was ordered for noon but was delayed until about 5:00 p.m. Despite a "terrific" bombardment, the German machine-gun nests were not destroyed and the machine-gunners stopped the attack with flanking-fire. To assist the French, whose attack had been more successful, another attack was ordered for 8:00 p.m. and then cancelled as it became clear that another attack could not be launched. The extent of the British defeat had not been realised, due to the difficulty of communicating with the front line. The British lost c. 11,000 casualties and German casualties had also been severe; the defensive position had been turned into a crater-field but German reserves were moved from the British front to Vimy Ridge on 12 May. Joffre and Foch met French that day to persuade him to resume the attack after the redeployment of German divisions south against the Tenth Army: French agreed to relieve a French division south of La Bassée by 15 May. Pétain proposed a combined attack on Souchez with the divisions of XXXIII and XXI corps for 12 May, which was rejected due to the exhaustion of the XXI Corps divisions. Pétain substituted a plan for three limited attacks against Carency, Bois 125, Ablain and Souchez, with similar attack in the south against Neuville. Joffre sent the III Corps to the Tenth Army as reinforcement but also had to withdraw artillery to support the British attack due at Festubert.