British Attack on the German Front Line in World War I

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  • The British First Army launched an attack on the German front line during World War I, with the aim of making two breaches in the German defenses.
  • The attack took place on both the southern and northern areas of the front line, but the preliminary bombardment was not as effective as expected.
  • The British suffered heavy casualties and the attack was ultimately unsuccessful in gaining significant ground.
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次の英文を日本語翻訳してください。

Two areas of the German front line, on either side of the Neuve Chapelle battlefield, were attacked by the British First Army (General Sir Douglas Haig). In the south I Corps and the Indian Corps attacked on a 2,400 yd (1.4 mi; 2.2 km) front from the Rue du Bois and IV Corps attacked in the north on a 1,500 yd (1,400 m) front opposite Fromelles. The attack was intended to make two breaches in the German defences 6,000 yd (3.4 mi; 5.5 km) apart, after which the infantry were to advance to Aubers Ridge about 3,000 yd (1.7 mi; 2.7 km) beyond. The preliminary bombardment began at 5:00 a.m. and at 5:30 a.m. became intense. Ten minutes later, the infantry attacked and surprised the German defenders, artillery fire cutting all the German telephone lines to the rear. Visibility was poor due to smoke and dust and the bombardment proved less effective than assumed; much of the British shell-fire fell short and few of the German machine-guns were destroyed. German machine-gunners and artillery began to fire at the same time and in ten minutes inflicted many casualties on the British infantry as they advanced across no man's land. The failure of the attack to gain more than a few footholds in the German first line led to a second attack at 8:00 a.m. after a forty-five-minute bombardment, which was repelled in no man's land by German defensive fire. A new attack was ordered for noon but was delayed until about 5:00 p.m. Despite a "terrific" bombardment, the German machine-gun nests were not destroyed and the machine-gunners stopped the attack with flanking-fire. To assist the French, whose attack had been more successful, another attack was ordered for 8:00 p.m. and then cancelled as it became clear that another attack could not be launched. The extent of the British defeat had not been realised, due to the difficulty of communicating with the front line. The British lost c. 11,000 casualties and German casualties had also been severe; the defensive position had been turned into a crater-field but German reserves were moved from the British front to Vimy Ridge on 12 May. Joffre and Foch met French that day to persuade him to resume the attack after the redeployment of German divisions south against the Tenth Army: French agreed to relieve a French division south of La Bassée by 15 May. Pétain proposed a combined attack on Souchez with the divisions of XXXIII and XXI corps for 12 May, which was rejected due to the exhaustion of the XXI Corps divisions. Pétain substituted a plan for three limited attacks against Carency, Bois 125, Ablain and Souchez, with similar attack in the south against Neuville. Joffre sent the III Corps to the Tenth Army as reinforcement but also had to withdraw artillery to support the British attack due at Festubert.

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>Two areas of the German ~ about 3,000 yd (1.7 mi; 2.7 km) beyond. ⇒ヌーヴ・シャペルの戦場の両側にあるドイツ軍前線の2地域が、英国第1方面軍(将軍ダグラス・ヘイグ卿)によって攻撃された。南では、第I軍団とインド軍団がルア・デュ・ボワから2,400ヤード(1.4マイル、2.2キロ)の前線で攻撃し、北では第IV軍団がフロメユの反対側の1,500ヤード(1,400 m)地点で攻撃した。この攻撃は、6,000ヤード(3.4マイル; 5.5キロ)離れたドイツ軍の防衛を2つに分断することを意図して、その後で歩兵隊が約3,000ヤード(1.7マイル; 2.7キロ)離れたオーベル・リッジに進軍することにしていた。 >The preliminary bombardment began ~ advanced across no man's land. ⇒予備爆撃は午前5時から始まり、午前5時30分に激しくなった。10分後、歩兵はドイツの防衛隊を急襲攻撃して、砲撃によりドイツ軍の後方に繋がるすべての電話回線を切断した。煙と塵のため視界は悪く、砲撃は想定よりも効果が低いことが判明した。英国軍の砲撃の多くは標的に届かず、ドイツ軍の機関銃はほとんど破壊されなかった。ドイツ軍の機関銃と大砲が同時に発砲し始めたが、英国軍の歩兵隊は中間地帯を横断中だったので10分後に多くの死傷者が出た。 >The failure of the attack to gain more than a few footholds in the German first line led to a second attack at 8:00 a.m. after a forty-five-minute bombardment, which was repelled in no man's land by German defensive fire. A new attack was ordered for noon but was delayed until about 5:00 p.m. Despite a "terrific" bombardment, the German machine-gun nests were not destroyed and the machine-gunners stopped the attack with flanking-fire. To assist the French, whose attack had been more successful, another attack was ordered for 8:00 p.m. and then cancelled as it became clear that another attack could not be launched. ⇒ドイツ軍の第一戦線への攻撃で2,3か所の足場しか獲得できなかったため、午前8時に2回目の攻撃を行うに至ったが、45分間の砲撃の後ドイツ軍守備隊の射撃によって中間地帯まで撃退されてしまった。新しい攻撃は正午にという発令であったが、それは午後5時頃まで遅れた。「素晴らしい」砲撃にもかかわらず、ドイツ軍の機関銃巣は破壊されず、(逆に)その機関銃手の側面砲火で攻撃が食い止められた。攻撃をより見事に成功させるフランス軍を支えるために、午後8時に別の攻撃が命じられたが、さらなる攻撃の開始はできそうもないことが明らかになったために、それは中止された。 >The extent of the British defeat ~ Vimy Ridge on 12 May. Joffre and Foch met French* that day to persuade him to resume the attack after the redeployment of German divisions south against the Tenth Army: French agreed to relieve a French division south of La Bassée by 15 May. ⇒英国軍の敗北の程度は、前線とのコミュニケーションが困難なために、実感されていなかった。英国軍は約11,000人の死傷者を失ったが、ドイツ軍の死傷者も深刻であった。防衛陣地は火口場に変わっていたが、ドイツ予備軍は5月12日に英国戦線からヴィミー・リッジに移された。その日、ジョフルとフォッシュが、ドイツ軍南師団による対第10方面軍の再配備後、ドイツ軍への攻撃を再開するよう説得するためにフレンチ*(=フレンチ・シャスール)と会談した。フレンチは5月15日までにラ・バセのフランス軍南師団に援軍を送ることに同意した。 *前便で「フレンチ・シャスール」とすべきところを、「フランス軍のシャスール」と誤訳していました。お詫びして訂正いたします。 >Pétain proposed a combined ~ attack due at Festubert. ⇒ペタンは、5月12日に第XXXIII軍団と第XXI軍団の数個師団によるスーシェへの複合攻撃を提案したが、第XXI軍団師団の消耗により拒否された。ペタンは、カレンシー、森林125、アブレン、スーシェに対する3回の限定攻撃の計画を、南でのヌヴィーユに対する同様の攻撃に置き換えた。ジョフルは、第III軍団を増援として第10方面軍に派遣したが、フェストゥベールでの英国の攻撃を支援するために、砲兵隊を撤退させなければならなかった。

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