• ベストアンサー
  • 困ってます

日本語訳をお願い致します。

The Royal Navy vessels on the Euphrates kept the Ottomans under fire while British troops managed to cross the Tigris. The British and Indian troops advanced across open ground but no crossing could be made across the river into Qurna itself. The British force retired. On the 6th, reinforced by the rest of the Norfolk Regiment, the 7th Rajputs and 120th Infantry and some mountain guns, they tried again. The Ottomans had moved back into positions they had lost in the previous engagement so the British and Indian troops had to re-take those positions. Again they drove the Ottomans back but could not cross the river into Qurna. On the 8th the 104th and 110th Infantry were sent up the Tigris to find a place to cross. They did, and in doing so cut the Ottomans off from retreat to the north while the gunboats kept up an effective bombardment of their positions in the town. The night of the 8th an Ottoman steamer sailed down the river with lights and sirens blazing. Lieutenant Commander Wilfrid Nunn of the British gunboat Espiegle took aboard three Ottoman officers. The Ottomans wanted to surrender the town and march away. Nunn, who was not in touch with Fry, insisted on unconditional surrender which upset the Ottomans. However they eventually agreed. On 9 December, the Ottoman commander, Colonel Subhi Bey, the Wali or Governor of Basra, surrendered his forces. Going into captivity were 42 Ottoman officers and 989 soldiers. The British/Indian losses were 27 soldiers killed and 242 wounded and two sailors killed and 10 wounded. Despite being more of a skirmish than a battle, the Battle of Qurna is important because it gave the British a secure front line in Southern Mesopotamia. Basra was secure, and the oil refineries at Abadan in Persia were safe. However, the Ottomans would try again at Shaiba and the British would later launch an offensive to take Baghdad. The Battle of Limanowa took place from 1 December to 13 December 1914, between the Austro-Hungarian Army and the Russian Army near the town of Limanowa (40 kilometres (25 mi) south-east of Kraków). The Austro-Hungarian high command had assumed that the German success would weaken Russian forces in the north and that the Galician front would remain quiet. Both these assumptions were incorrect. Though the Habsburg 2nd army offensive opened on 16 November and met early success, the Russians proved stronger than expected and their 4th Army yielded little ground. Meanwhile, further south the Russian 2nd Army advanced across the San river and moved into the Tarnów area by 20 November. Further north, the Habsburg 4th Army, supported by the 47th German Reserve Division, moved onto the offensive in the last days of November. In fierce battles around the towns of Łapanów and Limanowa, the Russian 3rd Army was beaten and forced to retreat east, ending its opportunity to reach Kraków. To avoid being surrounded, the Russian 8th Army also had to retreat, stopping its advance toward the Hungarian plains. Limanowa リマノバ

共感・応援の気持ちを伝えよう!

  • 英語
  • 回答数2
  • 閲覧数90
  • ありがとう数1

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.2
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率81% (8471/10438)

>The Royal Navy ~ the river into Qurna. ⇒英国軍隊が何とかしてチグリス川を渡る間、ユーフラテス川沿いの英国海軍艦船がオスマン軍を砲撃し続けた。英国軍とインド軍は開けた地面を横切って進軍したが、川を渡ってクルナ自体に入ることはできなかった。英国軍団は撤退した。6日、彼らは残りのノーフォーク連隊、第7ラジプツ隊、第120歩兵隊、および数門の山岳砲で補強して再び試みた。オスマン軍は前回の交戦で失った陣地に戻っていたため、英国軍とインド軍はそれらの陣地を奪回しなければならなかった。彼らは再度オスマン軍を攻めたが、クルナ川を渡ることができなかった。 >On the 8th ~ they eventually agreed. ⇒8日には第104、第110歩兵隊がチグリス川の上流に渡河できる場所を見つけた。彼らは渡河して、そうすることでオスマン軍の北への退路が遮断され、その間、小型砲艦は彼らの町中の陣地に対して効果的な砲撃を続けた。8日目の夜、オスマン軍の汽船が明りを灯し、サイレンを鳴らしながら川下へ航行した。英国の小型砲艦エスピーグル号の司令官ウィルフリッド・ナン中尉はオスマン軍将校3人を船上で捕縛した。オスマン軍は町の降伏(だけ)で立ち去ることを望んだ。フライと接触していなかったナンは、オスマン軍に無条件降伏を主張して、彼らを混乱させた。それでも最終的に彼らはそれに同意した。 >On 9 December, ~ to take Baghdad. ⇒12月9日、ワリ(州知事)またはバスラの総督にしてオスマン軍の司令官スブヒ・ベイ大佐は、彼の部隊を降伏させた。捕虜になったのは42人のオスマン軍将校と989人の兵士だった。英国/インド軍の損失としては、27人の兵士が戦死し、242人が負傷し、2人の船員が殺害され、10人が負傷した。「クルナの戦い」は、戦いというより小競り合い程度であったにもかかわらず、それは英国に南メソポタミアの安全な前線を与えたという意味で重要であった。バスラは確保され、ペルシャのアバダン製油所は安全であった。しかし、オスマン軍はシャイバで再挑戦し、英国軍は後にバグダッドを攻略する攻撃を開始することになる。 >The Battle of Limanowa ~ south-east of Kraków).  The Austro-Hungarian high ~ assumptions were incorrect. ⇒「リマノバの戦い」は、1914年12月1日から12月13日まで、オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍とリマノバ町近く(クラクフの南東40キロ〈25マイル〉)のロシア軍との間で行われた。  オーストリア‐ハンガリー軍高官は、ドイツ側の成功は北部ロシア軍を弱体化させ、ガリツィア戦線が静まったままであろうと仮定した。(しかし)これらの仮定は両方とも正しくなかった。 >Though the Habsburg ~ days of November. ⇒ハプスブルク第2方面軍の攻撃は11月16日に始まり、当初は成功を収めたが、ロシア軍は予想よりも強いことを証明して、彼らの第4方面軍はほとんど地面を譲らなかった。その間、さらに南のロシア第2方面軍はサン川を渡って進み、11月20日までにタルノフ地域に移動した。さらに北では、第47ドイツ予備師団の支援を受けたハプスブルク第4方面軍が11月の最終日に攻撃に突入した。 >In fierce battles ~ the Hungarian plains. ⇒ウァパノフ町やリマノバ町をめぐる激戦の中で、ロシア第3方面軍は打ちのめされ、東に後退することを余儀なくされ、クラコフに達する機会はついえた。ロシア第8方面軍もまた、包囲されるのを避けるために後退しなければならなくなり、ハンガリー平原への進軍を中止した。

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

質問者からのお礼

回答ありがとうございました。

その他の回答 (1)

  • 回答No.1

ユーフラテス諸島のイギリス海軍が何とかチグリスを通過する間、ユーフラテスのイギリス海軍の艦船はオスマン帝国を攻撃し続けました。 イギリス軍とインド軍は空地を越えて前進したが、川を渡ってクルナ自体に入ることはできなかった。 イギリス軍は引退した。 6日には、残りのノーフォーク連隊、第7 Rajputs、第120歩兵、そしていくつかの山砲で補強され、彼らは再び試みた。 オスマン帝国は以前の交戦で失ったポジションに戻ったので、イギリスとインドの軍隊はそれらのポジションを取り戻さなければなりませんでした。 再び彼らはオスマン帝国を後ろに運転したがクルナに川を渡ることができなかった。 8日には104番と110番の歩兵が渡る場所を見つけるためにTigrisに送られた。 彼らはそうしました、そしてそうすることでオットマンは北への後退から切り離されました、その間、ガンボートは町で彼らの位置の効果的な砲撃を続けました。 8日目の夜、オスマン汽船が灯火とサイレンで燃え上がった。 イギリスのガンボートEspiegleの中尉ウィルフリッド・ナンは3人のオスマン帝国の将校に乗った。 オスマン帝国は町を降伏して行進を望んでいた。 フライと接触していなかったナンは、オスマン帝国を混乱させた無条件降伏を主張した。 しかし、彼らは最終的に同意しました。 12月9日に、オスマン帝国の司令官、Subhi Bey大佐、WaliまたはBasraの総督は、彼の部隊を降伏させた。 捕虜になったのは42人のオスマン帝国の将校と989人の兵士だった。 イギリス/インドの損失は27人の兵士が殺され、242人が負傷し、2人の船員が殺され、10人が負傷した。 クルナの戦いは南部メソポタミアの安全な最前線をイギリスに与えたので、戦いよりも小競り合いであるにもかかわらず重要です。 バスラは安全で、ペルシャのアバダンの製油所は安全でした。 しかし、オスマン帝国はシャイバに再挑戦し、イギリス軍は後にバグダッドを攻略する攻撃を開始した。 リマノワの戦いは、1914年12月1日から12月13日まで、オーストリア - ハンガリー軍とリマノワの町の近くのロシア軍の間で行われました(クラクフの南東40キロメートル(25マイル))。 オーストリア - ハンガリーの最高司令部は、ドイツの成功は北部のロシア軍を弱体化させ、ガリシアの戦線は静かなままであろうと仮定していた。 これら両方の仮定は正しくありませんでした。 ハプスブルク第2軍の攻撃は11月16日に始まり、初期の成功を収めましたが、ロシア人は予想よりも強いことを証明しました、そして、彼らの第4軍は少し地面をもたらしませんでした。 その間、さらに南のロシアの第二軍はサン川を渡って進み、11月20日までにタルヌフ地域に移動した。 さらに北では、第47回ドイツ予備軍師団の支援を受けたハプスブルク第4軍が11月の最後の日に攻撃に突入した。 ウパノフとリマノワの町の周りの激しい戦いで、ロシアの第3軍は殴打され、東に後退することを余儀なくされ、クラクフに到達するその機会を終えました。 包囲されないようにするために、ロシアの第8軍もハンガリー平原への前進を止めて後退しなければなりませんでした。 リマノワ

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Fortress was under Russian threat, both from north and east. With the victories, the Russian Army had cleared the approaches to Erzurum. The Russians were now planning to take Erzurum, a heavily fortified stronghold. Erzurum was considered as the second best defended town in the Ottoman Empire. The Fortress was defended by 235 pieces of artillery. The fortifications covered the city on a 180 degree arc in two rings. There were eleven forts and batteries covering the central area. The flanks were guarded by a group of two forts on each flank. The Ottoman 3rd Army lacked the soldiers to adequately man the perimeter. Also, casualties totaled 10,000 and an additional 5,000 had been taken prisoner, 16 pieces of artillery had been lost and 40,000 men had found refuge in Erzurum Fortress. On February 11, Russians began to shell the fortified formations around Erzurum. Fierce fighting erupted. Turkish battalions of 350 men had to defend against Russian battalions of 1,000 men. There were few reinforcements for the beleaguered Turks. In three days Russians managed to reach the heights overlooking the Erzurum plain. It was now obvious for the command of the Turkish Third Army that the town was lost. Turkish units began to retreat from the fortified zones at the front and also evacuate the town of Erzurum.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The Battle of Mount Hamrin was an unsuccessful British effort to cut off part of the Ottoman Sixth Army after the capture of Baghdad during the Mesopotamia campaign during the First World War.The British Empire captured Baghdad from the Ottoman Empire on March 11, 1917. British General Frederick Stanley Maude felt that the presence of 10,000 Ottoman troops north of the city, led by Khalil Pasha, and the presence of another 15,000 Ottomans under Ali Ihsan Bey posed a considerable threat to the British position in the region. Intelligence obtained by the British indicated that the Ottomans were preparing a new army group to retake Mesopotamia. General Maude launched the Samarrah Offensive to push the Ottomans away from Baghdad. Maude dispatched four columns under the command of Major General H. D'Urban Keary. The immediate objective for the force was the village of Baquba. After an initial reverse, the British secured the village from the Ottomans on 17 March 1917.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    Later on, the Ottomans officially claimed to have scored a substantial victory in further heavy fighting around Shaikh Othman and Bir Ahmad. This was a sheer invention. In January 1916, the Aden Movable Column moved out to protect some friendly troops to the east of the Aden Protectorate against Ottoman troops who had been sent to coerce them. The column located the Ottoman force near Subar, and defeated it. The general position was so unsatisfactory, however, that in April 1916, it was decided, on the suggestion of the Government of India, that ladies should not be allowed to land at Aden without receiving permission from the Commander-in-Chief in India. British Camel Battery of BLC 15 pounder guns after the capture of Hatum on 5 January 1918. Teams of four camels in two pairs are seen towing a gun and limber at left and right of picture. In the centre appears to be an ammunition limber towed by three camels. End of the campaign in South Arabia[edit] The eruption of the British-sponsored Arab Revolt in the Hejaz diverted Ottoman attention from Aden in the summer of 1916. Those Ottoman troops which remained reverted to the defensive, while the British built an eleven-mile-long defensive perimeter around Aden. They did not attempt to resecure lost territories in the hinterland, and no major fighting with the British took place after 1916. The Ottomans continued to hold territories in the protectorate until the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918 and the partition of the Ottoman Empire after the war.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Visibility increased except for frequent ground fog around dawn, which helped conceal British infantry during the attack, before clearing to expose German troop movements to British observation and attack. The British infantry succeeded in capturing most of their objectives and then holding them against German counter-attacks, inflicting many casualties on the local German defenders and Eingreif divisions sent to reinforce them by massed artillery and small-arms fire. German defences on the Gheluvelt Plateau, which had been retained or quickly recaptured in July and August were lost and the British began a run of success which lasted into early October. Strategic background The Kerensky Offensive by Russia in July had accelerated the disintegration of the Russian Army, increasing the prospect of substantial German reinforcements for the Western Front. The French attack at Verdun in August had inflicted a defeat on the German 5th Army similar in extent to the defeat of the 4th Army in the Battle of Messines in June but morale in the French army was still poor. In reports to the War Cabinet on 21 August and 2 September, Sir Douglas Haig repeated his view that the British campaign at Ypres was necessary to shield the other armies of the alliance, regardless of the slow geographical progress being made in the unusually wet weather of August. Tactical developments The German 4th Army had defeated British attempts to advance to the black and green (second and third) lines set for 31 July in the centre of the battlefield and on the Gheluvelt Plateau on the southern flank, during the frequent weather interruptions in August. These defensive successes had been costly and by mid-August, German satisfaction at their defensive achievements was accompanied by concern at the extent of casualties. The rain, constant bombardments and British air attacks had also put great strain on the German defence between British attacks.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    While Baku and its environs had been the site of clashes since June and into mid-August, the term Battle of Baku refers to the operations of 26 August - 14 September. On 26 August, the Ottoman Islamic Army of the Caucasus launched its main attack against positions at the Wolf's Gate. Despite a shortage of artillery, British and Baku troops held the positions against the Army of the Caucasus. Following the main assault, the Ottoman forces also attacked Binagadi Hill farther north, but also failed. After these attacks, reinforcements were sent to the Balajari station, from where they held the heights to the north. However, faced with increased artillery fire from Ottoman forces, they retired to the railway line. Over the period 28–29 August, the Ottoman forces shelled the city heavily, and attacked the Binagadi Hill position. 500 Ottoman soldiers in close order charged up the hill, but were repulsed with the help of artillery. However, the under-strength British troops were forced to retire to positions further south. 29 August– 1 September, the Ottoman forces managed to capture the positions of Binagadi Hill and Diga. Several coalition units were overrun, and losses were heavy. By this point, allied troops were pushed back to the saucer-like position that made up the heights surrounding Baku. However, Ottoman losses were so heavy that Mürsel Bey was not immediately able to continue his offensive. This gave the Baku Army invaluable time to reorganize. Faced with an ever-worsening situation, Dunsterville organized a meeting with the Centrocaspian Dictators on 1 September. He said that he was not willing to risk more British lives and hinted at his withdrawal. However, the dictators protested that they would fight to the bitter end, and the British should leave only when troops of the Baku Army did. Dunsterville decided to stay until the situation became hopeless. Meanwhile, Bicherakhov captured Petrovsk, allowing him to send help to Baku. The reinforcements consisting of 600 men from his force, including Cossacks, raised hope. 1–13 September, the Ottoman forces did not attack. During this period, the Baku force prepared itself and sent out airplane patrols constantly. In his diary, Dunsterville reported the atrocities against the Muslim population perpetrated by Armenian militants. On 12 September, an Arab officer from the Ottoman 10th Division deserted, giving information suggesting the main assault would take place on 14 September. On the night of 13/14 September, the Ottoman forces began their attacks.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The 1/1st Herts war diary reads, The Bn who were in trenches on both sides of the road were ordered to move forward in support of the 118th Bde, being temporarily attached to the 4/5th Black Watch Regt. Soon after moving forward British troops were seen retiring to the left in large numbers. Consequently the Bn was ordered to move forward to the left and cover their withdrawal. After having skilfully carried this out the Bn conformed to the general withdrawal to a line between MORCOURT and the FOUCACOURT–LAMOTTE road. The Bn collected and assembled, then counter attacked the enemy, driving him back to within a few hundred yards of the village of MORCOURT.(27 March 1918) First Battle of Arras, 28 March Day 8, 28 March, The focus of the German attack changed again on 28 March. The Third Army, around Arras, that would be the target of Operation Mars. Twenty-nine divisions attacked the Third Army and were repulsed. German troops advancing against the Fifth Army, from the original front at St. Quentin, had penetrated some 60 km (40 mi) by this time, reaching Montdidier. Rawlinson replaced Gough, who was "Stellenbosched" (sacked) despite having organised a long and reasonably successful retreat given the conditions. The offensive saw a great wrong perpetrated on a distinguished British commander that was not righted for many years. Gough's Fifth Army had been spread thin on a 42-mile [68 km] front lately taken over from the exhausted and demoralized French. The reason why the Germans did not break through to Paris, as by all the laws of strategy they ought to have done, was the heroism of the Fifth Army and its utter refusal to break. They fought a 38-mile [61 km] rearguard action, contesting every village, field and, on occasion, yard ... With no reserves and no strongly defended line to its rear, and with eighty German divisions against fifteen British, the Fifth Army fought the Somme offensive to a standstill on the Ancre, not retreating beyond Villers-Bretonneux. — Roberts The German attack against the Third Army was less successful than that against the Fifth Army. The German 17th Army east of Arras advanced only 3 km (2 mi) during the offensive, largely due to the British bastion of Vimy Ridge, the northern anchor of the British defenses.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Ottoman 3rd Army started with 118,000 fighting men. It was reduced to 42,000 effective soldiers in January 1915, with an additional 12,000 in the Erzurum fortress garrison. 25,000 Turkish troops had become casualties even before the battle started, 30,000 frozen bodies were found by the Russians after the battle, and the entire Third Army was reduced to no more than 12,500 men. There are conflicting figures for Ottoman casualties, though it is clear that the Ottoman casualties were definitely huge, and the military hospitals of the Erzurum area were overflowed with wounded and sick. Sources do not agree on what should be included in the final sum. The Turkish official history and medical records states 33,000 KIA, 10,000 died in hospitals, 7,000 prisoners, 10,000 seriously wounded, for some 60,000 total irrecoverable casualties. Another estimate given by the German Commandant Larcher is 90,000 dead and 40,000–50,000 captured, which is often repeated in modern recountings of the battle. However, such figures are considered unreliable, both because they exceed the total strength of the entire Third Army and because the actual Chief of Staff of the Third Army (also a German), Lieutenant Colonel Guse, gave casualties as 37,000 dead and 7,000 missing based on operational returns. Artillery losses were 12 field artillery pieces and 50 mountain artillery. The casualties of the conflict escalated beyond the end of the active warfare period as the most immediate problem confronting the 3rd Army became the typhus epidemic. TAF presents a figure of 60,000 casualties throughout the period of the operation. The Russians took 7,000 POWs including 200 officers. These prisoners were kept under confinement for the next three years in the small town of Varnavino east of Moscow on the Vetluga River. After the final days of the Russian Empire, these soldiers had a chance to return to the ailing Ottoman Empire. Russian losses were up to 30,000: 16,000 killed and wounded and 12,000 sick/injured, mostly due to frostbite. Enver was the strategist of the operation. Hassan Izzet was the tactician who implemented the plan and remedied the shortcomings. The failure was blamed on Enver. Beyond his faulty estimate on how the enveloped Russians would react, his failure was on not keeping adequate operational reserves. He did not have enough field services to alleviate the hardships faced by the soldiers; he analyzed operational necessities theoretically rather than contextually. Carrying out a military plan in winter was not the major failure of the operation. A valid question is whether or not the plan could have been executed better. It would be hard to exceed the performance of the Turkish soldiers. The IX and X Corps marched with maximum effectiveness given the conditions. The majority of the units managed to move to the correct positions. In respect to the inflicted Russian casualties, they should be credited.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    The Action of Khan Baghdadi was an engagement during the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I.The 15th Indian Division had been at Ramadi since its capture of the town in September 1917. On 9 March 1918, it advanced and occupied the town of Hit in a bloodless victory, the Ottoman forces evacuating without a shot being fired. The next objective along the Euphrates was the town of Khan al Baghdadi. Most battles in Mesopotamia had been tied to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. If an attack was successful, the loser would withdraw along the line of the river to prepared positions further back. Securing a proper victory was difficult. In an attempt to break with the usual pattern, the 15th Indian Division were supplied with 300 Ford lorries, the 8th Light Armoured Motor Battery (armoured cars), and the 11th Cavalry Brigade. A mobile blocking force was assembled using divisional infantry in the lorries, the armoured cars, the cavalry brigade, and one of the divisional artillery batteries equipped with double the usual number of horses. This mobile force was then sent on a wide flanking march around Khan Baghdadi, and dug in behind the Ottoman positions. The remainder of the division then assaulted frontally in the normal fashion, and the Ottomans retreated from the town. They then ran unexpectedly into the blocking force, and their discipline quickly crumbled. The entire force of about 5000 men were taken prisoner. The mobile force was then dispatched further up the Euphrates in the direction the Ottomans had expected to retreat. 46 miles further upstream was the settlement of Ana. Here was the main Ottoman supply base, which was now captured along with some high-ranking German officers attached to the Ottoman Army. This was the last attack on the Euphrates Front. The diversion of transport to Dunsterforce during the summer resulted in the CinC of the Mesopotamian Theatre, Sir William Marshall, restricting advances to the Tigris Front only. When the armistice was declared on 1 November 1918, the 15th Indian Division were back downriver at Fallujah. Khan Baghdadi ハーン・バグダーディー

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    An Ottoman force based in Talin was sent to alleviate it by attacking the Armenian rear, but was unable to change the outcome of the battle. Suffering heavy losses, Ottoman commanders ordered a general retreat as the surviving elements of the Ottoman army were put to flight. With the Ottoman forces in a full rout, General Silikyan wished to press on his advantage with the hope of dislodging the Ottomans from Alexandropol and Kars. But, almost immediately, he was informed of the ongoing negotiations between the Ottoman leadership and the Armenian National Council in Tiflis and was told by Corps Commander Tovmas Nazarbekian to cease military operations in the region. Though members of the National Council were widely criticized for issuing this order at the time, this decision was carried out because the ammunition stores had been all but been depleted and Ottoman commanders had received fresh reinforcements. The Ottoman defeats at Sardarabad, Bash Abaran, and Karakilisa staved off the annihilation of the Armenian nation, and the victories here were instrumental in allowing the Armenian National Council to declare the independence of the First Republic of Armenia on May 30 (retroactive to May 28). Though the terms that Armenia agreed to in the Treaty of Batum (June 4, 1918) were excessively harsh, the little republic was able to hold out until the Ottomans were forced to withdraw from the region with the end of World War I in late 1918.The battle of Sardarabad holds a special place in Armenian historical memory and is often compared to the 451 A.D. battle of Avarayr. Leaders of the First Republic frequently invoked the name of the battle, exhorting their people to aspire to the example of those who had fought and participated in it. The battle was seldom mentioned or given little significance in Soviet historiography until after the death of Joseph Stalin. In the mid-1960s, a number of Soviet historians began to highlight its importance, as well as that of Bash Abaran and Karakilisa. The Soviet military historian Evgenii F. Ludshuvet, for example, emphasized that these battles, fought by the "Armenian Dashnak forces", helped slow down the Turkish advance on Baku and helped relieve some pressure against that city. Notable Soviet Armenian literary figures such as Hovhannes Shiraz and Paruyr Sevak, whose work "Sardarapat" was turned into a popular song, composed songs and wrote poems that lionized the Armenian fighters.

  • 日本語訳をお願い致します。

    An Anglo-Indian force consisting of the 17th and 18th Indian Divisions and the 7th and 11th Indian Cavalry Brigades, led by Sir Alexander Cobbe, left Baghdad on October 23, 1918. In just 39 hours they covered 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the Little Zab River, where the "Dicle Group" of the Ottoman Sixth Army, led by İsmail Hakkı Bey, who was the commander of the Ottoman 14th Division, was awaiting them. The Sixth Army had been weakened due to lack of replacements. His forces consisted of the XVIII Corps, which comprised the 14th and 46th Divisions, and the XIII Corps, which comprised the 2nd and 6th Divisions. Seeing his army's rear threatened, İsmail Hakkı Bey withdrew another 100 kilometers (62 mi) to the north to Sharqat, where Cobbe attacked him on October 29, sending the 11th Cavalry Brigade to pin the Ottoman front while the 17th Division came up to support them. The 17th were delayed in arriving, and the cavalry were shelled by Ottoman guns overnight. In the morning the 13th Hussars charged the hill where the guns were, and made a dismounted charge up it with fixed bayonets, successfully capturing the guns. İsmail Hakkı Bey was aware of the peace talks at Mudros, and decided to spare his men rather than fight or break out. He surrendered on October 30. The 18th Division advanced on Mosul, 50 miles further north, and were 12 miles short of the town when the armistice was declared. On November 1, 1918, Mosul was peacefully occupied by the 7th and 11th Indian cavalry brigades, after the British forces ignored the request of the Ottoman Commander-in-chief, Ali İhsan (Sâbis), to withdraw to the positions they had held at the armistice. The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War just one week later. The battle led to the capture of 5,000+ artillery pieces and over 350,000 Austro-Hungarian troops, including 120,000 Germans, 83,000 Czechs and Slovaks, 60,000 South Slavs, 40,000 Poles, several tens of thousands of Romanians and Ukrainians, and 7,000 Italians and Friulians. Some Italian authors see Vittorio Veneto as the final culmination of the Risorgimento nationalist movement, in which Italy was unified. The Battle of Vittorio Veneto ヴィットリオ・ヴェネトの戦い