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The Ottoman 3rd Army started with 118,000 fighting men. It was reduced to 42,000 effective soldiers in January 1915, with an additional 12,000 in the Erzurum fortress garrison. 25,000 Turkish troops had become casualties even before the battle started, 30,000 frozen bodies were found by the Russians after the battle, and the entire Third Army was reduced to no more than 12,500 men. There are conflicting figures for Ottoman casualties, though it is clear that the Ottoman casualties were definitely huge, and the military hospitals of the Erzurum area were overflowed with wounded and sick. Sources do not agree on what should be included in the final sum. The Turkish official history and medical records states 33,000 KIA, 10,000 died in hospitals, 7,000 prisoners, 10,000 seriously wounded, for some 60,000 total irrecoverable casualties. Another estimate given by the German Commandant Larcher is 90,000 dead and 40,000–50,000 captured, which is often repeated in modern recountings of the battle. However, such figures are considered unreliable, both because they exceed the total strength of the entire Third Army and because the actual Chief of Staff of the Third Army (also a German), Lieutenant Colonel Guse, gave casualties as 37,000 dead and 7,000 missing based on operational returns. Artillery losses were 12 field artillery pieces and 50 mountain artillery. The casualties of the conflict escalated beyond the end of the active warfare period as the most immediate problem confronting the 3rd Army became the typhus epidemic. TAF presents a figure of 60,000 casualties throughout the period of the operation. The Russians took 7,000 POWs including 200 officers. These prisoners were kept under confinement for the next three years in the small town of Varnavino east of Moscow on the Vetluga River. After the final days of the Russian Empire, these soldiers had a chance to return to the ailing Ottoman Empire. Russian losses were up to 30,000: 16,000 killed and wounded and 12,000 sick/injured, mostly due to frostbite. Enver was the strategist of the operation. Hassan Izzet was the tactician who implemented the plan and remedied the shortcomings. The failure was blamed on Enver. Beyond his faulty estimate on how the enveloped Russians would react, his failure was on not keeping adequate operational reserves. He did not have enough field services to alleviate the hardships faced by the soldiers; he analyzed operational necessities theoretically rather than contextually. Carrying out a military plan in winter was not the major failure of the operation. A valid question is whether or not the plan could have been executed better. It would be hard to exceed the performance of the Turkish soldiers. The IX and X Corps marched with maximum effectiveness given the conditions. The majority of the units managed to move to the correct positions. In respect to the inflicted Russian casualties, they should be credited.

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>The Ottoman 3rd Army ~ included in the final sum. ⇒オスマン軍の第3方面軍は、118,000人の戦闘員で始まった。それが、1915年1月には戦える兵士が42,000人に減ったので、エルズルム要塞駐屯地で12,000人が追加された。戦闘開始前でも、25,000人のトルコ軍が死傷者となり、戦闘後に30,000人の凍死体がロシア軍によって発見され、第3方面軍全体は12,500人以下に減少した。オスマン軍(の発表)による死傷者数には食い違いがあるが、それでも間違いなくオスマン軍の死傷者数は膨大であり、エルズルム地域の軍病院は負傷者と病人であふれていた。情報源(の数値)は、最終的な合計として何を含めるかによって一致しない。 >The Turkish official history ~ and 50 mountain artillery. ⇒トルコの広報誌と医療記録によると、KIA(戦死者)は33,000人、病院での死亡者は10,000人、囚人7,000人、重傷者10,000人、回復不能な犠牲者は約60,000人であったという。ドイツ軍の司令官ラーチェルが数えた別の見積もりでは、死者90,000人と囚人40,000人-50,000人であるが、現代でもしばしば戦いの再集計が繰り返されている。しかし、そのような数字は、第3方面軍全体の総数を超えているし、第3方面軍の実際の参謀長グーズ中佐(これもドイツ人)が、死者37,000人、行方不明者7,000人をあげているため、その信憑性はないと考えられる。大砲の損失は、野戦砲12門と山岳砲50門とされた。 >The casualties of the conflict ~ the ailing Ottoman Empire. ⇒紛争の犠牲者は、戦争活動期が終っても、その後も拡大していったが、それというのも、第3方面軍が直面した最も直接的な問題が、腸チフスの流行ということになったからであった。TAF(トルコ当局?)は、作戦行動期間を通して60,000人の死傷者を提示している。ロシア軍は、200人の将校を含む7,000人のPOW(戦争捕虜)を捕縛した。これらの囚人は、それから3年間、モスクワ東のベルトルガ川沿いの小さな町ベルナビノに監禁されていた。これらの兵士たちは、ロシア帝国最後の数日間の後、落ち込んでいるオスマン帝国に戻る機会を得た。 >Russian losses were up to 30,000: ~ rather than contextually. ⇒ロシア軍の損失は最大30,000人であった。すなわち、主に凍傷のため16,000人が戦死または戦いで受傷し、12,000人が疾病/怪我を負った。エンベルは作戦行動の戦略家であった。ハサン・イゼットは、計画を実行し、その欠陥を修正した戦術家であった。失敗はエンベルに非があった。包囲されたロシア軍がどう反応するかについての誤った見積もりを超えて、それ以上の彼の失敗は、作戦行動のために十分な予備軍を保持しなかったことにあった。彼は兵士たちが直面した困難を軽減するのに足るような野外奉仕をしていなかった。作戦行動上の必要性を、実際的な文脈に即さず、机上の理論だけで分析したのである。 >Carrying out a military plan ~ they should be credited. ⇒軍事計画を冬に実行したことが作戦行動の最大の失敗というわけではなかった。問われるべき問題は、計画がより適切に実行されたかどうかである。トルコ軍兵士の実行能力を超えたことが困難(のもと)だったのであろう。第IX軍団と第X軍団は、諸条件を考慮して最大の有効性をもって進軍した。大多数の部隊は何とか正しい位置に動いた。ロシア軍が被った死傷者に関しては、彼らの(戦功の)証しと見るべきであろう。

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