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  • 質問No.9556142
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After the Versailles conference, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson claimed that "at last the world knows America as the savior of the world!" However, the Republican Party, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, controlled the US Senate after the election of 1918, and the senators were divided into multiple positions on the Versailles question. It proved possible to build a majority coalition, but impossible to build a two-thirds coalition that was needed to pass a treaty.
A discontent bloc of 12–18 "Irreconcilables", mostly Republicans but also representatives of the Irish and German Democrats, fiercely opposed the treaty. One block of Democrats strongly supported the Versailles Treaty, even with reservations added by Lodge. A second group of Democrats supported the treaty but followed Wilson in opposing any amendments or reservations. The largest bloc, led by Senator Lodge, comprised a majority of the Republicans. They wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Article 10, which involved the power of the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the US Congress. All of the Irreconcilables were bitter enemies of President Wilson, and he launched a nationwide speaking tour in the summer of 1919 to refute them. However, Wilson collapsed midway with a serious stroke that effectively ruined his leadership skills.
The closest the treaty came to passage was on 19 November 1919, as Lodge and his Republicans formed a coalition with the pro-Treaty Democrats, and were close to a two-thirds majority for a Treaty with reservations, but Wilson rejected this compromise and enough Democrats followed his lead to permanently end the chances for ratification. Among the American public as a whole, the Irish Catholics and the German Americans were intensely opposed to the treaty, saying it favored the British.
After Wilson's presidency, his successor Republican President Warren G. Harding continued American opposition to the formation of the League of Nations. Congress subsequently passed the Knox–Porter Resolution bringing a formal end to hostilities between the United States and the Central Powers. It was signed into law by President Harding on 2 July 1921. Soon after, the US–German Peace Treaty of 1921 was signed in Berlin on 25 August 1921, the US–Austrian Peace Treaty of 1921 was signed in Vienna on 24 August 1921, and the US–Hungarian Peace Treaty of 1921 was signed in Budapest on 29 August 1921.

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英語 カテゴリマスター
>After the Versailles conference, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson claimed that "at last the world knows America as the savior of the world!" However, the Republican Party, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, controlled the US Senate after the election of 1918, and the senators were divided into multiple positions on the Versailles question. It proved possible to build a majority coalition, but impossible to build a two-thirds coalition that was needed to pass a treaty.
⇒ベルサイユ会議の後、ウッドロー・ウィルソン民主党大統領は、「ついに世界は、アメリカを世界の救世主として認めている」と主張した。しかし、ヘンリー・キャボット・ロッジが率いる共和党は、1918年の選挙後に米国上院を支配し、上院議員はベルサイユ問題に関しては複数の立場に分かれた。多数派連合を構築することは可能であったが、条約を通すために必要な3分の2の連合を構築することは不可能であった。

>A discontent bloc of 12–18 "Irreconcilables", mostly Republicans but also representatives of the Irish and German Democrats, fiercely opposed the treaty. One block of Democrats strongly supported the Versailles Treaty, even with reservations added by Lodge. A second group of Democrats supported the treaty but followed Wilson in opposing any amendments or reservations. The largest bloc, led by Senator Lodge, comprised a majority of the Republicans. They wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Article 10, which involved the power of the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the US Congress. All of the Irreconcilables were bitter enemies of President Wilson, and he launched a nationwide speaking tour in the summer of 1919 to refute them. However, Wilson collapsed midway with a serious stroke that effectively ruined his leadership skills.
⇒12名ないし18名の「不協和音(非妥協)組」の不満分子があって、その大部分は共和党員であったが、それにアイルランドとドイツの民主党の代表者も加わって条約に激しく反対した。民主党の一派は「ベルサイユ条約」を強く支持したが、ロッジによって留保制限(条件)がこれに加えられた。民主党の第2グループはこの条約を支持したが、ウィルソンの改正案や留保制限には反対した。ロッジ上院議員が率いる最大派閥には、大多数の共和党員が入っていた。彼らは、留保制限付の条約、特に第10条に関して、米国議会の投票なしで国際連盟が戦争(を行うことができる)権限を含む条約を望んでいた。すべての非妥協組はウィルソン大統領にとって苦い敵だったので、彼らを反駁するために1919年の夏に全国遊説を開始した。しかし、ウィルソンは途中深刻なストローク(打撃論争・反論)に遭遇して、事実上崩壊し、指導者能力を失った。

>The closest the treaty came to passage was on 19 November 1919, as Lodge and his Republicans formed a coalition with the pro-Treaty Democrats, and were close to a two-thirds majority for a Treaty with reservations, but Wilson rejected this compromise and enough Democrats followed his lead to permanently end the chances for ratification. Among the American public as a whole, the Irish Catholics and the German Americans were intensely opposed to the treaty, saying it favored the British.
⇒条約が議会通過に最も近づいたのは1919年11月19日で、ロッジと共和党が条約賛成派の民主党と連立を組み、留保付条約成立(議会通過)の3分の2に近づいた。しかし、ウィルソンはこの妥協案を拒否し、(反立に)相応する数の民主党員が、批准の機会を恒久的に終わらせるために彼の指導に従った。米国の国民全体の中で、アイルランドのカトリック教徒とドイツ系アメリカ人は、条約は英国人を利するだけだとしてこれに強く反対した。

>After Wilson's presidency, his successor Republican President Warren G. Harding continued American opposition to the formation of the League of Nations. Congress subsequently passed the Knox–Porter Resolution bringing a formal end to hostilities between the United States and the Central Powers. It was signed into law by President Harding on 2 July 1921. Soon after, the US–German Peace Treaty of 1921 was signed in Berlin on 25 August 1921, the US–Austrian Peace Treaty of 1921 was signed in Vienna on 24 August 1921, and the US–Hungarian Peace Treaty of 1921 was signed in Budapest on 29 August 1921.
⇒ウィルソン大統領の後、後継者である共和党のウォーレン・G・ハーディング大統領が連合国連盟の成立に対して米国としての反対を続けた。続いて米議会は、「ノックス‐ポーター決議案」を通過させ、合衆国と中央連盟国(枢軸国)との間の敵対行為に正式な終結をもたらした。「米国・ドイツ平和条約1921」は1921年8月25日にベルリンで署名され、「米国・オーストリア平和条約1921」は1921年8月24日にウィーンで署名され、「米国・ハンガリーの平和条約1921」は、1921年8月29日にブダペストで署名された。

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iwano_aoi

お礼率 88% (2483/2792)

回答ありがとうございました。
投稿日時 - 2018-11-17 13:00:28
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