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France The signing of the treaty was met with roars of approval, singing, and dancing from a crowd outside the Palace of Versailles. In Paris proper, people rejoiced at the official end of the war, the return of Alsace and Lorraine to France, and that Germany had agreed to pay reparations. While France ratified the treaty and was active in the League, the jubilant mood soon gave way to a political backlash for Clemenceau. The French Right saw the treaty as being too lenient and saw it as failing to achieve all of France's demands. Left-wing politicians attacked the treaty and Clemenceau for being too harsh (the latter turning into a ritual condemnation of the treaty, for politicians remarking on French foreign affairs, as late as August 1939). Marshal Ferdinand Foch stated "this (treaty) is not peace. It is an armistice for twenty years."; a criticism over the failure to annex the Rhineland and for compromising French security for the benefit of the United States and Britain. When Clemenceau stood for election as President of France in January 1920, he was defeated. Italy Reaction in Italy to the treaty was extremely negative. The country had suffered high casualties, yet failed to achieve most of its major war goals, notably gaining control of the Dalmatian coast and Fiume. President Wilson rejected Italy's claims on the basis of "national self-determination." For their part, Britain and France—who had been forced in the war's latter stages to divert their own troops to the Italian front to stave off collapse—were disinclined to support Italy's position at the peace conference. Differences in negotiating strategy between Premier Vittorio Orlando and Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino further undermined Italy's position at the conference. A furious Vittorio Orlando suffered a nervous collapse and at one point walked out of the conference (though he later returned). He lost his position as prime minister just a week before the treaty was scheduled to be signed, effectively ending his active political career. Anger and dismay over the treaty's provisions helped pave the way for the establishment of Benito Mussolini's dictatorship three years later. Portugal Portugal entered the war on the Allied side in 1916 primarily to ensure the security of its African colonies, which were threatened with seizure by both Britain and Germany. To this extent, she succeeded in her war aims. The treaty recognized Portuguese sovereignty over these areas and awarded her small portions of Germany's bordering overseas colonies. Otherwise, Portugal gained little at the peace conference. Her promised share of German reparations never materialized, and a seat she coveted on the executive council of the new League of Nations went instead to Spain—which had remained neutral in the war. In the end, Portugal ratified the treaty, but got little out of the war, which cost more than 8,000 Portuguese troops and as many as 100,000 of her African colonial subjects their lives.

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>France The signing of ~ to pay reparations. ⇒フランス 条約調印のときは、「べルサイユ宮殿」の外にいる群衆からの承認、歌、踊りの轟音で満たされた。当のパリでは、人々が戦争の公式終結、アルザスとロレーヌのフランスへの復帰、それとドイツが賠償の支払いに同意したことを喜んだ。 >While France ratified ~ he was defeated. ⇒フランスはこの条約を批准し、「リーグ」内で活発だったが、この歓喜の雰囲気が、間もなくしてクレメンソーに政治的反動へ進ませる道を与えた。「フランスの正義」が、この条約をあまりにも寛容であると見なし、フランスの要求のすべては達成できないと見なしたのである。左翼の政治家は、あまりにも厳しすぎるとして、条約とクレメンソーを攻撃した(後者クレメンソーは、1939年8月、フランス外交問題について発言した政治家らによって、条約式の主宰を非難されることになった)。フェルディナン・フォッシュ元帥は、「これ(条約)は、和平ではない、20年間の停戦協定である」と述べた。ラインラントの附属化を失敗したことに対する批判と、米国と英国の利益のためにフランスの安全保障を傷つけたことに対する批判であった。 クレメンソーは、1920年1月にフランス大統領として選挙に立ったとき、(ついに)敗北した。 >Italy Reaction in Italy ~ three years later. ⇒イタリア イタリアでの条約に対する反応は極めて否定的であった。この国は、高い死傷者を被ったが、主要な戦争目標の大半を達成することはできず、特にダルマチア沿岸とフィウメの支配権を獲得できなかった。ウィルソン大統領は、「国家自決」の根拠に基づいてイタリアの主張を拒否した。彼らの側としては、 ― 戦後後半、崩壊を防ぐために自らの軍隊をイタリア前線にさし向けた ― 英国とフランスは、平和会議でイタリアの立場を支持することを拒否したのである。ビットリオ・オルランド首相とシドニー・ソニーノ外相との交渉戦略の違いが、この会議でのイタリアの立場をさらに悪化させた。激怒したビットリオ・オルランドは、いらいらのあまり虚脱状態となり、いつの間にか会議場から出ていった(後で戻ったが)。彼は、条約の署名が予定される1週間前に首相としての地位を失い、政治活動の経歴を終えた。この条約の条項に対する怒りと憂慮は、3年後にベニト・ムッソリーニが独裁政権を樹立する道を開く促進剤となった。 >Portugal Portugal entered the war ~ subjects their lives. ⇒ポルトガル ポルトガルは、1916年に連合国側について参戦したが、それは英国とドイツ双方から脅かされていたアフリカ植民地の安全を確保するためであった。この範囲までは、この国の戦争目的は成功であった。例の条約は、ポルトガルの主権をこれらの地域(のみ)に認め、ドイツと国境を接する海外植民地の小部分を与えた。それがなければ、ポルトガルは平和会議でほとんど得られなかっただろう。この国が見込んでいたドイツからの賠償はまったく実現しなかった。新しい国際連盟の執行評議会で欲しかった席も、― 戦争で中立に留まっていた ― スペインにとって代わられた。結局、ポルトガルはこの条約を批准したが、8,000人以上のポルトガル兵と10万人ものアフリカの従属植民地人が命を奪われた戦争であったにしては、ほとんど何も得られなかった。

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