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During the 19th century, the major European powers went to great lengths to maintain a balance of power throughout Europe, resulting in the existence of a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent by 1900.[20] These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. When Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria-Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria-Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken.[9] This alliance expanded, in 1882, to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.[21] Bismarck had especially worked to hold Russia at Germany's side in an effort to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. When Wilhelm II ascended to the throne as German Emperor (Kaiser), Bismarck was compelled to retire and his system of alliances was gradually de-emphasised. For example, the Kaiser refused, in 1890, to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. Two years later, the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1904, Britain signed a series of agreements with France, the Entente Cordiale, and in 1907, Britain and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Convention. While these agreements did not formally ally Britain with France or Russia, they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia a possibility, and the system of interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente.[9]

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19世紀には、主要ヨーロッパ諸国は、1900年までに大陸全体に政治的・軍事的同盟関係の複雑なネットワークが存在するように、これらはプロイセン、ロシア、オーストリアの聖同盟によって1815年に始まりました。 1871年にドイツが統一されたとき、プロイセンは新しいドイツ国家の一部となった。その後、1873年10月、オットー・フォンビスマルク首相は、オーストリア - ハンガリー、ロシア、ドイツの王家の間で三帝国連合(German:Dreikaiserbund)を交渉した。この協定は、オーストリアとハンガリーとロシアが1879年に結成されたデュアル・アライアンスという同盟にドイツとオーストリア - ハンガリーを残して、バルカン政策に同意できないために失敗した。これは、オスマン帝国が弱体化し続ける中で、バルカン諸国におけるロシアの影響力に対抗する方法と考えられていた[9]。この同盟は、1882年に、トリプル・アライアンスになったものにイタリアを含めるように拡大した[21]。 ビスマルクは特に、フランスとロシアとの2大戦争を避けるために、ドイツ側にロシアを抑えていた。ヴィルヘルム2世がドイツの天皇(カイザー)として王位に昇格したとき、ビスマルクは引退を余儀なくされ、同盟制度は徐々に強調された。例えば、カイザーは1890年にロシアとの再保険条約を更新することを拒否した。 2年後、フランコロシア連合は、トリプル・アライアンスの力に打ち勝つために署名されました。 1904年、英国はフランス、エンテンテ・コディアルエと一連の協定を締結し、1907年に英国とロシアはアングロロシア条約に調印した。これらの協定は、英国とフランスやロシアとの正式な提携はしていないが、今後のフランスやロシアの紛争への英国参入を可能にし、相互協定のシステムはTriple Ententeと呼ばれた[9]

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