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In the weeks following the unsuccessful First Transjordan attack on Amman and the First Battle of Amman, German and Ottoman Empire reinforcements strengthened the defences at Shunet Nimrin, while moving their Amman army headquarters moved forward to Es Salt. Just a few weeks later at the end of April, the Desert Mounted Corps again supported by the 60th (London) Division were ordered to attack the recently entrenched German and Ottoman garrisons at Shunet Nimrin and advance to Es Salt with a view to capturing Amman. Although Es Salt was captured, the attack failed despite the best efforts of the British infantry's frontal attack on Shunet Nimrin and the determined light horse and mounted rifle defences of the northern flank in the Jordan Valley. However, the mounted yeomanry attack on the rear of Shunet Nimrin failed to develop and the infantry attack from the valley could not dislodge the determined Ottoman defenders at Shunet Nimrin. By the fourth day of battle, the strength and determination of the entrenched German and Ottoman defenders at Shunet Nimrin, combined with the strength of attacks in the valley and from Amman in the hills, threatened the capture of one mounted yeomanry and five light horse brigades in the hills, defending Es Salt and attacking the rear of the Shunet Nimrin position, forcing a retreat back to the Jordan Valley. Battle of Kaniv, or Battle of Kaniów took place during World War I on the night of 10–11 May 1918, near Kaniv, Ukraine (Ukrainian: Канів, Polish: Kaniów) between Polish and German army troops. The fighting pitted the Polish II Corps in Russia (including Brigade II of the Polish Legions), under General Józef Haller von Hallenburg, against the German Imperial Army (including the 28th Landwehr Brigade), under General Franz Hermann Zierold. Ultimately the Germans were victorious with about half of the Polish forces surrendering and the rest retreating in disarray. On 15 February, protesting against the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which reduced the chances for the creation of an independent Poland, the II Brigade of the Polish Legions, formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Army, broke through the frontline near Rarańcza and merged with the Polish units formerly in the Russian Army, joining the newly formed Polish II Corps in Russia. The Germans, however, saw the II Corps as troublesome, and decided to ensure it would be disarmed, or would otherwise be incapacitated. Kaniv カニウ Kaniów カニュフ

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>In the weeks following the unsuccessful First Transjordan attack on Amman and the First Battle of Amman, German and Ottoman Empire reinforcements strengthened the defences at Shunet Nimrin, while moving their Amman army headquarters moved forward to Es Salt. Just a few weeks later at the end of April, the Desert Mounted Corps again supported by the 60th (London) Division were ordered to attack the recently entrenched German and Ottoman garrisons at Shunet Nimrin and advance to Es Salt with a view to capturing Amman. ⇒アンマンに対する第1次トランスヨルダン攻撃と「第1次アンマンの戦い」の失敗に続く数週の間に、ドイツ・オスマン帝国軍の援軍はシャンネ・ニムリンの防衛を強化し、アンマン方面軍の本部をエス・ソルトに移動した。ちょうど数週間後の4月の終わり、砂漠騎馬軍団が第60(ロンドン)師団の支援を受けて、シャンネ・ニムリンで塹壕に陣取ったばかりのドイツ・オスマン帝国軍の守備隊を攻撃し、アンマンを攻略する目的でエス・ソルトに進軍するよう命じられた。 >Although Es Salt was captured, the attack failed despite the best efforts of the British infantry's frontal attack on Shunet Nimrin and the determined light horse and mounted rifle defences of the northern flank in the Jordan Valley. However, the mounted yeomanry attack on the rear of Shunet Nimrin failed to develop and the infantry attack from the valley could not dislodge the determined Ottoman defenders at Shunet Nimrin. ⇒エス・ソルトが攻略されたけれども、シュネ・ニムリンに対する英国軍歩兵隊の正面攻撃、決然たる軽騎馬隊やヨルダン渓谷北側の騎馬ライフル防衛隊の攻撃のこの上ない奮闘努力にもかかわらず、攻撃は失敗した。シュネ・ニムリンの後衛部に対するヨーマンリー騎馬隊の攻撃は展開に失敗し、渓谷からの歩兵隊攻撃は、シュネ・ニムリンでの決然たるオスマン帝国軍守備隊を追い払うことができなかった。 >By the fourth day of battle, the strength and determination of the entrenched German and Ottoman defenders at Shunet Nimrin, combined with the strength of attacks in the valley and from Amman in the hills, threatened the capture of one mounted yeomanry and five light horse brigades in the hills, defending Es Salt and attacking the rear of the Shunet Nimrin position, forcing a retreat back to the Jordan Valley. ⇒シュネ・ニムリンのドイツ・オスマン帝国軍の守備陣の強さと決意が谷の攻撃力と丘のアンマンからの軍勢と相まって、戦闘4日目までに、ヨーマンリー騎馬隊と丘の5個軽馬隊を攻略する脅威をちらつかせながらエス・ソルトを防衛し、シュネ・ニムリンの陣地の後衛を攻撃し、ヨルダン渓谷への退去を余儀なくさせた。 >Battle of Kaniv, or Battle of Kaniów took place during World War I on the night of 10–11 May 1918, near Kaniv, Ukraine (Ukrainian: Канів, Polish: Kaniów) between Polish and German army troops. The fighting pitted the Polish II Corps in Russia (including Brigade II of the Polish Legions), under General Józef Haller von Hallenburg, against the German Imperial Army (including the 28th Landwehr Brigade), under General Franz Hermann Zierold. Ultimately the Germans were victorious with about half of the Polish forces surrendering and the rest retreating in disarray. ⇒「カニウの戦い」ないし「カニュフの戦い」は、第一次世界大戦中の1918年5月10日~11日の夜、ウクライナのカニウ(ウクライナ語:Канів, ポーランド語:Kaniów)の近くで、ポーランド軍とドイツの軍隊の間に起こった。それは、ヨゼフ・ハレル・フォン・ハレンブルク将軍麾下でロシア駐在のポーランド軍団II(ポーランド軍団の旅団IIを含む)が、フランツ・ヘルマン・チェロルド将軍麾下のドイツ帝国軍(第28陸軍旅団を含む)に対して立ち向かった戦闘であった。最終的にドイツ軍が勝利を収め、ポーランド軍の約半分が降伏し、残りは混乱のうちに退却した。 >On 15 February, protesting against the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which reduced the chances for the creation of an independent Poland, the II Brigade of the Polish Legions, formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Army, broke through the frontline near Rarańcza and merged with the Polish units formerly in the Russian Army, joining the newly formed Polish II Corps in Russia. The Germans, however, saw the II Corps as troublesome, and decided to ensure it would be disarmed, or would otherwise be incapacitated. ⇒2月15日、独立ポーランド創設の機会を減らしたブレスト・リトフスク条約に抗議して、それまでオーストリア・ハンガリー陸軍の一部であったポーランド軍団のII旅団がラランシャ付近の前線を突破し、旧ロシア方面軍のポーランド軍部隊と合併し、新たに編成されたロシアのポーランド軍II軍団に合流した。しかしドイツ軍は、第II軍団を厄介なものと見て、その軍縮かそうでなければ能力の喪失を確保することを決定した。

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  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Joffre set 14 August as the date when the First and Second armies were to invade Lorraine between Toul and Épinal, south of the German fortified area of Metz-Thionville. The First Army was to attack in the south with four corps, towards Sarrebourg 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Nancy and Donon 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Sarrebourg. Passes in the Vosges to the south of Donon were to be captured before the main advance began. The Second Army was to attack towards Morhange 45 kilometres (28 mi) north-east of Nancy, with two corps north of the First Army and three advancing successively behind the left flank of the corps to the south, to counter a German attack from Metz. The French offensive was complicated by the two armies diverging as they advanced, on difficult terrain particularly in the south, the combined fronts eventually being 150 kilometres (93 mi) wide. The advances of the First and Second armies were to attract German forces towards the south, while a French manoeuvre took place in Belgium and Luxembourg, to pierce a weak point in the German deployment and then destroy the main German armies.

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    The First Transjordan attack on Amman (known to the British as the First Attack on Amman) and to their enemy as the First Battle of the Jordan took place between 21 March and 2 April 1918, as a consequence of the successful Battle of Tell 'Asur which occurred after the Capture of Jericho in February and the Occupation of the Jordan Valley began, during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. During the First Transjordan attack large incursions into Ottoman territory occurred. Firstly the Passage of the Jordan River, was successfully captured between 21 and 23 March, followed by the first occupation of Es Salt in the hills of Moab between 24 and 25 March. The First Battle of Amman took place between 27 and 31 March when the Anzac Mounted Division and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade (fighting dismounted as infantry) were reinforced by two battalions of 181st Brigade followed by a second two battalions from the 180th Brigade (60th London Division) and artillery. The Fourth Army headquarters located in Amman was strongly garrisoned and during the battle received reinforcements on the Hejaz railway, the strength of which eventually forced the attacking force to retire back to the Jordan Valley between 31 March and 2 April. The Jordan Valley would continue to be occupied by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) through the summer until the middle of September 1918 when the Battle of Megiddo began. During the winter of 1917/1918, the considerable territorial gains by the EEF as a consequence of victories at the Battle of Mughar Ridge in November and the Battle of Jerusalem in December, from the Gaza–Beersheba line to the Jaffa–Jerusalem line, were consolidated. The front line was adjusted in February 1918 when the right flank of the Jaffa–Jerusalem line was secured by the capture of land to the east of Jerusalem and down into the Jordan Valley to Jericho and the Dead Sea. The Capture of Jericho was also a necessary precursor, along with the Action of Tell 'Asur, and advances by Allenby's force across the Jordan River and into the hills of Moab towards Es Salt and Amman. The Battle of Hijla (21 March 1918) was fought by the forces of the British and Ottoman Empires during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. Hijla (now called Makhadet Hijla) is on the River Jordan a few miles upriver from the Dead Sea.

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