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Advancing towards the British was the German 1st Army, commanded by Alexander von Kluck. The 1st Army was composed of four active corps (II, III, IV, and IX Corps) and three reserve corps (III, IV and IX Reserve corps), although only the active corps took part in the fighting at Mons. German corps had two divisions each, with attendant cavalry and artillery. The 1st Army had the greatest offensive power of the German armies, with a density of c. 18,000 men per 1-mile (1.6 km) of front, or about ten per 1 metre (1.1 yd).

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前進する英国軍はアレクサンダー・フォン・クルックの指揮するドイツ第1軍に向かっていた。第1軍は、作戦中の4個軍団(第二、第三、第四、第九)と、予備の3個軍団(第三、第四、第九各予備軍団)で構成したが、モンスで戦闘に参加している作戦中の軍団は一つだけであった。ドイツ軍団はそれぞれ2個師団で構成し騎兵と砲兵が付属した。 第1軍はドイツ陸軍中で最も(高い)攻撃力を有していた。正面1マイル(1.6Km)あたり兵員18,000名の密度で、言い換えれば1メートル(1.1ヤード)あたり兵員約10名だった。

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