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British counter-attack patrols easily observed the advance and as the lines of German troops breasted Broodseinde ridge at 2:30 p.m., a huge bombardment enveloped them.

  • British counter-attack patrols witnessed German troops advancing and were then subjected to a massive bombardment.
  • The German forces faced casualties as they advanced down the slope in good visibility.
  • The British artillery fire slowed down the advance of the German Eingreif units.


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  • Nakay702
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>8月29日に投稿した質問があるのですが回答いただけますと幸いです。 ⇒失礼しました。以下のとおりお答えします。 >British counter-attack patrols easily observed the advance and as the lines of German troops breasted Broodseinde ridge at 2:30 p.m., a huge bombardment enveloped them. German field artillery with the infantry was hit by artillery-fire, which blocked the roads, causing delays and disorganisation. German infantry had many casualties, as they advanced down the slope in good visibility. The 236th Division lost so many men that it was only able to reinforce the troops of the 3rd Reserve Division, found east of the Zonnebeke–Haus Kathé road on Grote Molen spur, chasing a few Australian souvenir hunters out of Molenaarelsthoek. ⇒英国軍の反撃パトロール隊がドイツ軍の進軍を容易に観察し、その戦線がブロードサインデ尾根の頂上まで行った午後2時30分に強大な砲撃が彼らを包囲した。ドイツ軍の野戦砲兵隊は、歩兵隊とともに大砲火に打たれ、道路を塞がれ、遅延と秩序崩壊を引き起こされた。ドイツ軍の歩兵隊がよい視界の斜面の下に進んだので、多くの死傷者数を被った。第236師団は、あまりに多くの兵士を失ったので、グロート・モレン山脚のゾンネベーケ-ハウス・キャス道東にいた第3予備師団の軍隊を補強したが、せいぜいオーストラリア軍の土産物漁りの兵を少しばかりモレナーレルシュトークから追い出すことができただけであった。 >The 4th Bavarian Division had to find a way across the mud and floodings of the Paddebeek east of Kleinmolen spur, losing 1,340 casualties to reach the survivors of the 3rd Reserve Division (Polygon Wood–Kleinmolen) and the 23rd Reserve Division (Kleinmolen–St Julien). A renewal of the British attack at 6:00 p.m. and the German counter-attack over Hill 40 and Kleinmolen met, the mélee leaving both sides where they began. ⇒第4バヴァリア師団は、クラインモレン山脚東のパデベークの泥地と氾濫帯を横切る道を探さなければならず1,340人の死傷者数を失ったので、第3予備師団(ポリゴンウッド-クラインモレン)や第23予備師団(クラインモレン-サン・ジュリアン)の生存者と接触する必要があった。午後6時に英国軍の攻撃が更新され、40番ヒルとクラインモレンのドイツ軍の反撃とかち合って混戦となり、両軍とも開始場所に残った。 >British artillery fire slowed the advance of the Eingreif units, which took up to two hours to cover one kilometre and arrived at the front line exhausted. The 17th Division had replaced the 16th Bavarian Division as the Eingreif division covering the forces near Zandvoorde, just before the battle began. At 10:00 a.m. movement orders arrived and parts of the division advanced north-west towards Terhand, where the first layer of the British barrage (directed by artillery-observation aircraft) was met, delaying the arrival of advanced units in their assembly areas until 1:00 p.m.. ⇒英国軍の大砲火はアイングリーフ部隊の進軍を遅らせ、1キロをカバーするために最高2時間かかって、疲労困憊の体で前線に到着した。戦いが始まる直前、ザンドヴォーデ近くの軍団を庇護するアイングリーフ師団として、第17師団が第16バヴァリア師団に取って代わった。午前10時、活動指令が届いて師団の数個部隊がテルハンドに向って北西に進軍しているところに英国軍の(砲兵隊の観察航空機の指導する)集中砲火の最初の打ち込みがなされて、会合地域への先進部隊の到着は午後1時まで延びた。 >The order to advance took until 2:00 p.m. to reach all units and then the advance resumed through crater fields and the British bombardment, having to disperse to avoid swamps and the worst of the British artillery fire. Polderhoek was not reached until 4:10 p.m. and as soon as the first battalions crossed the skyline near Polderhoek Château they were hit by artillery and machine-gun fire from three sides and the counter-attack "withered away". ⇒進軍命令がすべての部隊へ届くのに午後2時までかかったが、その時点で、砲弾痕の戦場を通る進軍が再開された。しかし、彼らは湿地と英国軍の砲撃という最悪事態を避けるために分散せざるを得なかった。(それで)午後4時10分までポルダーホークに到達しなかったが、最初の大隊がポルダーホーク城近くの地平線を横切るや否や、彼らは3方向から機関銃掃射火に打たれ、そうして、反撃隊は「しぼんだ」。






  • 英文を日本語訳して下さい。

    When the attack resumed the troops met those of Bavarian Reserve Regiment 21 at around 8:10 a.m. German artillery support was less extensive than that available to the attackers but managed to "smother the British trenches with fire" as the artillery of the 50th Reserve Division and 54th Reserve Division fired from the flanks "thus the backbone of the British (sic) attack was broken before it left the trenches at 5:30 p.m.".

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    Laffert had expected that the two Eingreif divisions behind Messines Ridge, would reach the Höhen (second) line before the British. The divisions had reached assembly areas near Gheluvelt and Warneton by 7:00 a.m. and the 7th Division was ordered to move from Zandvoorde to Hollebeke, to attack across the Comines canal, towards Wijtschate into the British northern flank. The 1st Guard Reserve Division was to move to the Warneton line east of Messines, then advance around Messines to recapture the original front system. Both Eingreif divisions were plagued by delays, being new to the area and untrained for counter-attack operations. The 7th Division was shelled by British artillery all the way to the Comines canal, then part of the division was diverted to reinforce the remnants of the front divisions holding positions around Hollebeke. The rest of the division found that the British had already taken the Sehnen (Oosttaverne) line, by the time that they arrived at 4:00 p.m. The 1st Guard Reserve Division was also bombarded as it crossed the Warneton (third) line but reached the area east of Messines by 3:00 p.m., only to be devastated by the resumption of the British creeping barrage and forced back to the Sehnen (Oosttaverne) line, as the British began to advance to their next objective. Laffert contemplated a further withdrawal, then ordered the existing line to be held after the British advance stopped. Most of the losses inflicted on the British infantry by the German defence came from German artillery fire. In the days after the main attack, German shellfire on the new British lines was extremely accurate and well-timed, inflicting 90 percent of the casualties suffered by the 25th Division.

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    A cavalry brigade, some artillery and an infantry battalion were moved to Vieille Chappelle behind the 3rd Division, two 4.7-inch gun batteries and Jellicoe a Royal Navy armoured train, were sent and the field gun ammunition ration was doubled to 60 shells per gun per day. Maud'huy added two more battalions to the one in Givenchy and Conneau moved the II Cavalry Corps behind the 3rd Division flank. About 2,000 British replacements had arrived by 27 October, which brought the infantry battalions up to about 700 men each. There was much German patrolling before dawn on 26 October and at sunrise the Germans attacked north of Givenchy, having crept up in the dark but were repulsed by small-arms fire aimed at sounds because the British had no Very pistols or rockets. Later on, French reinforcements arrived so that the British battalion could move into divisional reserve, with the two already withdrawn. Another German attack began in the afternoon on the left of the 5th Division, in which the German infantry broke into the British trenches before being annihilated. Another attack began near Neuve-Chappelle at 4:00 p.m. against the extreme left flank of the division and the right of the 3rd Division, after an accurate artillery bombardment. The British infantry had many casualties and some units withdrew from their trenches to evade the German artillery-fire. A battalion was broken through and the village was occupied but the flanking units enfiladed the Germans until the reserve company, down to 80 men held the western exits and forced the Germans back into the village, which was on fire. At 6:00 p.m. a reserve battalion and 300 French cyclists reached the area as did the rest of the brigade reserve but the darkness and disorganisation of the troops took time to resolve. A counter-attack by three companies began from the west after dark and pushed the Germans back to the former British trenches east of the village. Attacks were then postponed until dawn and Smith-Dorrien Trench, a new line east of the village was dug and linked to the defences north and south of the village.

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    The 15th Division relief of the 12th Division from 24–30 April, was allowed to proceed. Four reserve artillery batteries were moved into the 15th Division area and all units were required to rehearse gas alerts daily. The British were equipped with PH helmets, which protected against phosgene up to a concentration of 1,000 p.p.m. The German attack near Hulluch began on 27 April, with the release of smoke, followed by a mixture of chlorine and phosgene gas  1 1⁄2 hours later, from 3,800 cylinders, on the fronts of Bavarian Infantry Regiment 5 and Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment 5. The discharge on the front of Bavarian Infantry Regiment 9 was cancelled, as the direction of the wind risked enveloping the 3rd Bavarian Division on the right flank, in the Hohenzollern Redoubt sector.

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    New smoke shells were fired when the creeping barrage paused beyond each objective, which helped to obscure the British infantry from artillery observers and German machine-gunners far back in the German defensive zone who fired through the British artillery barrages. Around Langemarck, the British infantry formed up close the German positions, too near for the German artillery to fire on for fear of hitting their infantry, although British troops further back at the Steenbeek were severely bombarded. British platoons and sections were allotted objectives and engineers accompanied troops to bridge obstacles and attack strong points. In the 20th Division, each company was reduced to three platoons, two to advance using infiltration tactics and one to mop up areas where the forward platoons had by-passed resistance by attacking from the flanks and from behind. In the II and XIX Corps areas, the foremost infantry had been isolated by German artillery and then driven back by counter-attacks. On 17 August, Gough ordered that the capture of the remainder of their objectives of 16 August would be completed on 25 August. Apart from small areas on the left of the 56th Division (Major-General F. A. Dudgeon), the flanks of the 8th Division and right of the 16th Division, the British had been forced back to their start line by German machine-gun fire from the flanks and infantry counter-attacks supported by plentiful artillery. Attempts by the German infantry to advance further were stopped by British artillery-fire, which inflicted many losses. Dudgeon reported that there had been a lack of time to prepare the attack and study the ground, since the 167th Brigade had relieved part of the 25th Division after it had only been in the line for 24 hours; neither unit had sufficient time to make preparations for the attack. Dudgeon also reported that no tracks had been laid beyond Château Wood, that the wet ground had slowed the delivery of supplies to the front line and obstructed the advance beyond it. Pillboxes had caused more delays and subjected the attacking troops to frequent enfilade fire.

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    The brigade reached the final objective from just short of the Flandern I Stellung on the right and the edge of Zonnebeke on the left and gained touch with the 5th Australian Division further south. At 1:20 p.m. air reconnaissance reported German troops east of Broodseinde ridge and at 3:25 p.m. as the German force from the 236th Division, massed to counter-attack it was dispersed by artillery fire. The northern brigade advanced to the final objective against minor opposition, moving beyond the objective to join with the 3rd Division to the north, which had pressed on into Zonnebeke. Attempts by the Germans to counter-attack at 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. were stopped by the protective barrage and machine-gun fire. Fifth Army The southern boundary of the Fifth Army lay approximately 800 yd (730 m) south of the Ypres–Roulers railway, in the V Corps area. The 3rd Division attacked either side of the line at 5:50 a.m. The right brigade met little resistance but was briefly held up, when crossing the Steenbeek. The advance slowed under machine-gun fire from Zonnebeke station on the far side of the railway as Zonnebeke was entered. North of the embankment the left brigade attacked at 5:30 a.m. in a mist. The attack reached the first objective, despite crossing severely boggy ground at 7:00 a.m. The advance resumed and reached the western slope of Hill 40, just short of the final objective. A German counter-attack began at 2:30 p.m. but was stopped easily. A bigger attempt at 6:30 p.m. was defeated with rifle and machine-gun fire, as the British attack on Hill 40 resumed, eventually leaving both sides still on the western slope. 59th Division attacked with two brigades, the right brigade advancing until held up by its own barrage and took Dochy Farm at 7:50 a.m. One battalion found a German barrage laid behind the British creeping barrage, which crept back with it and caused many casualties. The advance continued beyond the final objective to Riverside and Otto Farms but when the protective barrage fell short, Riverside was abandoned.

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    Although this battle was a failure, the British learned important lessons about the need for close liaison between tanks, infantry, and artillery, which they would later apply in the Battle of Cambrai (1917). Round Bullecourt, 11 April – 16 June First attack on Bullecourt (10–11 April 1917)South of Arras, the plan called for two divisions, the British 62nd Division and the Australian 4th Division to attack either side of the village of Bullecourt and push the Germans out of their fortified positions and into the reserve trenches. The attack was initially scheduled for the morning of 10 April, but the tanks intended for the assault were delayed by bad weather and the attack was postponed for 24 hours. The order to delay did not reach all units in time, and two battalions of the West Yorkshire Regiment attacked and were driven back with significant losses. Despite protests from the Australian commanders, the attack was resumed on the morning of 11 April; mechanical failures meant that only 11 tanks were able to advance in support, and the limited artillery barrage left much of the barbed wire in front of the German trenches uncut.

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    An assembly trench was dug 150 yards (140 m) from the German front line, in three hours on the night of 30/31 May, complete with communication trenches and barbed wire. Bridges and ladders were delivered in the two days before the attack. 13,000 yards (12,000 m) of telephone cable was dug in at least 7 feet (2.1 m) deep, which withstood fifty German artillery hits before the British attack. Large numbers of posts from which machine-guns were to fire an overhead barrage were built and protective pits were dug for mules, which were to carry loads of 2,000 rounds of ammunition to advanced troops. Three field companies of engineers with a pioneer battalion were kept in reserve, to follow up the attacking infantry and rebuild roads and work on defensive positions as ground was consolidated. The artillery in support of the division devised a creeping and standing barrage plan and time-table, tailored to the estimated rates of advance of the infantry units. The standing barrage lifts were to keep all trenches within 1,500 yards (1,400 m) of the infantry under continuous fire and targets fired on by 4.5-inch howitzer, 6-inch howitzer and 8-inch howitzers were to change from them only when infantry got within 300 yards (270 m). The 18-pounder field gun standing barrages would then jump over the creeping barrages, to the next series of objectives. The concealed guns of the Guards Division field artillery were to join the creeping barrage for the advance at 4:50 a.m. and at 7:00 a.m. the 112th Army Field Brigade was to advance to the old front line, to be ready for an anticipated German counter-attack by 11:00 a.m. The 47th Division planned to attack with two brigades, each reinforced by a battalion from the reserve brigade, along either side of the Ypres–Comines Canal.

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    The left of the battalion entered the wood further north, took thirty prisoners and occupied part of the eastern edge, as German troops in the wood from I Battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment 106, II Battalion, Infantry Regiment 182 and III Battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment 51, skirmished with patrols and received reinforcements from Guillemont. Around noon, more German reinforcements occupied the north end of the wood and at 6:00 p.m., the British artillery fired a barrage between Trônes Wood and Guillemont, after a report from the French of a counter-attack by Reserve Infantry Regiment 106. The attack was cancelled but some German troops managed to get across to the wood to reinforce the garrison, as part of a British battalion advanced from the south, retook the south-eastern edge and dug in.

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    The effect of British artillery-fire diminished, as the north end of the village was out of view on a slight north-facing slope; German reinforcements reached the village and artillery and machine–gun fire from Delville Wood and Longueval, raked the 26th Brigade. By the afternoon, the western and south western parts of the village had been occupied and the 27th Brigade, intended for the attack on Delville Wood had been used to reinforce the attack. At 1:00 p.m. Furse ordered the 1st South African Brigade to take over the attack on Delville Wood.

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