• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


Chemotherapy drugs act by interfering with the metabolism or replication of rapidly diving cancer cells. Surprisingly, the first drug used for chemotherapy was mustard gas, a chemical weapon from World War I. In the 1940s, scientists accidentally discovered that exposure to mustard gas inhibited rapid cell division and slowed some kinds of cancers, giving rise to the new medical field of chemotherapy. Once in the bloodstream, most chemotherapy drugs are non-specific in their attack on rapidly dividing cells. This means that while these drugs attack cancer cells, they can also attack other rapidly dividing cells in the body as well. The cells in your blood, mouth, intestinal tract, nose, nails, and hair are also undergoing constant, rapid division, and can suffer serious damage from the treatment. Doctors usually treat cancers with combination therapy, utilizing a mixture of two or more drugs. Combination therapy improves treatment effectiveness because the cancer cells have less chance of building resistance to several chemotherapy drugs. Drug resistance is a major concern in chemotherapy because drugs sometimes become ineffective when cancer cells are no longer affected by the drugs. There are several classes of drugs that are used in chemotherapy: Antibody-based therapies: There new drugs are able to target cancer cells. They represent a promising future in cancer treatment because they spare most of the beneficial cells in the body, and thus have fewer side effects. Antitumor antibiotics: There drugs bind with DNA in active cancer cells and prevent the synthesis of ribonucleic acid(RNA), which is imperative for cell survival. Alkylating agents: These agents add alkyl groups to strategic positions on the cancer DNA strand, making the strands unable to uncoil, thus halting cell division. Antimetabolites: These drugs alter the function of enzymes required for cell metabolism and protein creation, thereby starving cells to death and preventing division. Mitotic inhibitors: These drugs, derived from plants, stop cell reproduction by inhibiting cell division and blocking the use of certain proteins required for mitosis. Doctors and scientists are hard at work to make chemotherapy drugs more effective with fewer side effects. The day may be near when certain types of cancer will be successfully treated through chemotherapy with little or no incidental harm to the body.



  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • ありがとう数0


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • Nakay702
  • ベストアンサー率81% (8993/11075)

以下のとおりお答えします。(ためになる内容でした。) (訳文) 化学療法薬は、敏速に潜み込む癌細胞の代謝や複製を妨げるような作用をする。驚いたことに、化学療法のために使われた最初の薬は、第1次世界大戦に由来する化学兵器のマスタードガスであった。1940年代、科学者らが偶然に、マスタードガスの被爆は急速な細胞分裂を抑制し、癌の種類によっては進行を遅らせるので、化学療法の新しい医学分野への起源となることを発見した。 ほとんどの化学療法薬が、一度血流に入れば、急速に分割する細胞への攻撃は非特異的に働く(選択攻撃でない)。このことは、これらの薬が癌細胞を攻撃する間、体内の他の急速分割細胞も攻撃し得ることを意味する。あなたの血、口、消化器系、鼻、爪、および毛の細胞は、一定かつ急速な分割を行うので、この治療から重大な損害を受けることがあり得る。 医師は、通常、2つ以上の薬の混合剤を組み合わせて利用する療法によって癌を治療する。組み合わせ療法は、癌細胞が化学療法薬に対する抵抗力を作る可能性を減らすので、治療の有効性を高める。薬剤への耐性は、化学療法の主要な懸念材料である。なぜなら、癌細胞が薬による影響を受けなくなった時には、薬はしばしば無効になるからである。化学療法で使われる薬は、以下のようないくつかの種類がある。 抗体準拠する療法:ここでいう新しい薬は癌細胞(のみ)を標的とすることができる。それらは、体内の有用な細胞のほとんどを傷つけることがなく、副作用が少ないので、未来の癌治療に有望視されている。 制癌性の抗生物質:ここでいう薬は活動的な癌細胞のDNAを拘束し、細胞の存続にとって必須なリボ核酸(RNA)の統合を阻止する。 アルキル化の媒介:これらの媒介作用は、アルキルグループを癌DNA糸の狙った位置に追加して、その糸がほどけることを不可能にする。こうして細胞分裂を停止させる。 代謝拮抗物質:これらの薬は細胞の代謝とたんぱく質生成のために必要な酵素の機能を変更する。そのようにして細胞が死ぬまで飢えさせ、分割を防止する。 有糸分裂の抑制剤:これらの薬は、植物由来だが、細胞分裂を抑制し、有糸分裂のために必要な一定のたんぱく質の使用を妨げることによって、細胞の増殖を止める。 医師と科学者は、より効果的で副作用がより少ない化学療法薬を作り出すために賢明に働いている。特定タイプの癌なら、体にほとんどあるいは全く害を与えずに、化学療法で首尾よく治療できる時が、近いうちに来るだろう。



  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いしたいです。

    Not too long ago, most people thought that contracting HIV was a certain and swiftt death sentence. After several decades of experience with this deadly disease, however, medical scientists have found drugs and treatment strategies that now allow HIV patients to live years or even decades with the disease. It is essential for those who have contracted HIV to be diagnosed early so that monitoring and treatment can begin as soon as possible. The scientific community has accepted that the cause of AIDS is HIV. Once an individual has been infected with HIV, the virus quickly attacks the infection-fighting soldiers in our immune system, called T-cells. Damage to these cells slowly destroys the body's ability to fight disease. After infection with HIV, a person may be symptom-free for years, but eventually the number of HIV viruses in the body(his/her "vital load") will increase, while the number of his/her T-cells will decrease, weakening the person's ability to fight disease. Advanced HIV infections (OIs), which are serious infections from bacteria, viruses, or fungi that our body would normally be able to fend off. Through research and experience, scientists have learned the importance of tracking the viral load of HIV in the body as well as the patient's T-cell count. It is essential to suppress the viral load early in the disease cycle while maintaining and boosting the level of T-cells, allowing patients to fight off OIs. There are powerful drugs and drug mixtures now available that are doing this with increasing effectiveness. With this therapy, many patients with HIV have been able to live long periods of time without developing ALDS. Some of the drugs that have been effective in fighting AIDS are: zidovudine(AZT), nevirapine, and a class of drugs known as HIV protease inhibitors. Although these new drug therapies can delay the advance of HIV in the body, the virus will eventually overcome the immune system and the patient will develop AIDS and die. Today's science can only slow the progression of the disease. However, with each new day, new discoveries are made and patients are living longer and longer. Doctors are hopeful that in the near future HIV-infected people will be able to live a totally normal lifespan.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    For millennia, humans have used plants and herbs as medicines. Ginger, for example, is used to relieve nausea, vomiting and other gastrointestinal symptoms; rhubarb is good for constipation; Saint John's wort eases depression and anxiety. While cultures around the world have greatly benefited from the pharmacological ingredients in these and other herbs for treating various disorders, the Chinese have been especially successful at developing their own traditional medical practices over several thousand year. Japan adapted these practices durig the 4th or 5th century and created its own unique herbal medical diagnosis and treatment system called Kampo. Kampo is the most commonly employed form of alternative medicine in Japan. According to a recent survey, about 75% of Japanese physicians have prescribed Kampo drugs as part of their treatment. This increasing interest in Kampo comes from a simple fact: Kampo drugs have been producing promising results in patients. In Kampo treatment, physicians see a disease condition as the manifestation of "imbalances" within the body. Symptoms of various illnesses are thought to result when the body's energy, known as qi, is out of balance. Kampo physicians examine a patient's eyes, tongue, abdomen and pulse. A Kampo diagnosis takes into account different body types and the symptom patterns of each patient, so patients with the same illness are not always prescribed the same Kampo formulas. This is in contrast to Western medicine, where the same drug is used for a specific disease affecting large numbers of people. In this respect, Kampo drugs can be called trailormade drugs. Kampo drugs are carefully balanced combinations of several herbs based on formulas found in ancient Chinese literature on medicine. This makes Kampo drugs quite different from Western drugs, which usually consist of a single ingredient in standard doses, and from folk remedies, where generally only one herb is used. Combined together, the ingredients in a Kampo drug restore the balance in the affected organ or metabolic system, harmonizing the disrupted qi while counteracting any potential side effects. With these unique characteristics, Kampo can be considered a viable alternative when Western drugs do not produce the desired effect.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いしたいです。

    It was long thought that peptic ulcers were caused by stress or spicy foods. This common belief was eventually refuted in 1983, when Dr.Barry J. Marshall and Dr. J. Robin Warren made a startling breakthrough. In 2005, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their "discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its role in gastriris and peptic ulcer disease." Although this bacterium was known to scientists as early as 1875, it was not initially associated with peptic ulcers because it was believed that no organism could live in the acidic environment of the stomach. The H. pylori bacterium, however, is one of the few organisms that can survive in such an environment thanks to the ammonia it secretes. The discovery that peptic ulcers are caused by the colonization of these organisms in the stomach suggested that peptic ulcers could be cured simply be getting rid of the bacteria. When an ulcer is found, the doctor performs a biopsy to determine whether the ulcer is cancerous or caused by the presence of H.pylori bacteria. If tests confirm that the ulcer is H.pylori-related, it is treated with drugs - two kinds of antibiotics - that kill the bacteria. Other drugs used to treat peptic ulcers include H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and antacids. These drugs reduce or neutralize the production of stomach acid, thereby promoting healing whatever the cause may be. H2 blockers are the pillar of the ulcer treatment. When histamine binds with H2 receptors, gastric acid secretion is stimulated. H2 blockers prevent this binding, and hence, prevent acid secretion. Proton pump inhibitors are the strongest of the drugs that suppress acid production by halting the mechanism that pumps the acid into the stomach. Antacids raise the pH level to reduce acid damage, and sucralfate is used to protect the stomach lining. Formerly, patients with peptic ulcers underwent surgical procedures to remove the ulcers, but the discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcers disease, coupled with the development of new drugs over the past 20 yesrs, has allowed 90% of patients to be cured of H.pylori-related peptic ulcers without any surgical procedures. These drugs are always used in combination because, when used alone, they neither H. pylori nor cure the ulcers, which may lead to the recurrence of the disease. Marshall and Warren's discovery, along with these revolutionary new drugs, is making life far less painful for thousands of ulcer sufferers.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いしたいです。

    Approximately 42000 new cases of tuberculosis were reported in Japan in 1997. That marked the first increase in 38 years. Tuberculosis cannot be called a disease of the past any longer. Tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial disease that usually affects the lungs. In many cases, the body's immune system destroys the bacteria before it does much damage: only a scar or spot is left on the lungs as evidence of the infection. Sometimes, however, the infection spreads and causes a variety of symptoms, including coughing, fatigue, fever, sweating at night, loss of appetite, and weight loss. The bacteria may also pass from the lungs through the lymphatic system to the bones and joints, kidneys, or brain and spinal cord. Occasionally, the bacteria remain dormant in the lungs for years, flaring up again to do further damage. Left untreated, tuberculosis may eventually cause death. A tuberculosis patient is usually treated with two to four antituberculous drugs. The reason multiple drugs are administered is that this helps overcome the danger that the bacteria may develop resistance to one of the drugs. The drugs act either by directly killing the bacteria or by preventing them from multiplying. Some antituberculous drugs may cause adverse side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Because of this, special care is needed when taking these drugs. Drug treatment normally continues until the symptoms have subsided and laboratory investigations such as sputum tests have shown the person to be clear of infection. The treatment usually takes a long time, sometimes more than a year. Conditions in Japan now suggest that the nation is at a critical point inits fight against tuberculosis. There has been a vast increase in the number of patients infected by multiple-drug-resistant strains. One reason for this is that many TB victims did not complete their treatment and, consequently, the bacteria that remained became resistant to current medications. Now, a great deal of research is under way to develop drugs effective against multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. It is hoped that the advent of such drugs will represent the final victory in the fight against this stubborn, troublesome disease.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いしたいです。

    For a pharmaceutical agent to be effective in carrying out its selective action, the drug must be administered in an appopriate manner. Each route of drug administration has specific purposes, advantages, and disadvantages. With this method, drugs formulated in liquid or solid form are absoebed into the body from the gastrointestinal tract(GIT). This is the most commonly used route. Oral drugs are convenient --- portable, oainless, easy to take. Also, administration can be carried out by the patient him or heself. However, the onset of the drug's effect is relatively slow. In this case, the drug, usually in tablet form, is placed under the tongue. This produces a very fast onset of drug action because of the good blood supply to the area, but the duration of the drug's effect is usually short. This method can be used for patients who are unable to take drugs orally, or with younger children, elderly, or mentally disturbed patients. This route is usuful when a drug is known to cause GIT irritation. However, absorption is often incomplete and effectiveness is unpredictable.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします。

    次の英文の和訳をお願いします。 1.if text message have already been deleted from your cell phone, then the chances of recovery are next to nothing. 2.wallis simpson had been married whem she first spotted edward, prince of wales,and fell in love with him in 1931. 3.by the time of that meeting ,the world's central banks had already taken significant sueps to stabilize financial markets and to mitigate the worst effects of the recession.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    If the focus on cancer sometimes tilts toward its impact in rich, industrialized nations, statistics show that the disease is a scourge all around the world, with 95 percent of cancer deaths occurring in developing countries. Children in poor countries aren't spared. An estimated 90 percent of children with cancer die in the world's 25 poorest countries, compared with just 12 percent in a wealthy country such as Canada, according to statistics from the Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries. That glaring disparity has mobilized a group of Harvard School of Public Health (HSPS) students. The students, together with the HSPH student government, the student group Students in Latino Public Health, and the Harvard Global Equity Initiative, have put together a half-day event to raise awareness and dispel myths about cancer as a global health issue. The event, scheduled for Friday at the School of Public Health's Kresge Building, marks World Cancer Day on Monday. As part of their commitment, students are also gathering signatures for the World Cancer Declaration by the Union for International Cancer Control, which contains a list of 11 cancer-related health priorities. "There is a lot of difference between what happens in low-income countries and what happens in high-income countries," said HSPH student Sebastián Rodríguez Llamazares. Rodriguez said the effort calls attention to the fact that cancer is a serious problem in poor nations and that steps to prevent or treat it—routine in richer countries—should be part of the global health agenda. Associate Professor of Medicine Felicia Knaul, who heads the Harvard Global Equity Initiative, which supports student World Cancer Day efforts, said there are few cancers whose outcomes are similar in both developed and developing countries. Pancreatic cancer is one, because it's equally deadly everywhere. "For every other cancer that can be treated, the outcomes are very different," said Knaul, a breast cancer survivor. There are several reasons for the disparity. People in poor countries seldom hear messages about lifestyle changes—don't smoke, eat a healthy diet, exercise—that have been shown to prevent cancer. Similarly, a vaccine that can prevent one cancer fatal to women, cervical cancer, is not widely distributed. As a result, 90 percent of cervical cancer cases are found in developing countries, Knaul said.

  • 次の英文の和訳をお願いします!!

    "It has very much become a cancer of poor women and a cancer for which poor women die," she said. Disparities in mortality extend to highly treatable cancers, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, fatal to just 10 percent of patients in wealthy countries but deadly 90 percent of the time in poor countries. Knaul said there are several myths about global cancer that need to be exploded, including that there's nothing that can be done, that tackling the problem would cost too much, and that bigger health issues plague the developing world. All are false, she said, adding that institutions like HSPH are key to gathering affordable, innovative solutions from around the world that can be used toward new strategies to meet the challenge. Students are a big part of the solution, Knaul said, because they'll be designing the health solutions of tomorrow. In addition to organizing Friday's event, students who have been touched by cancer planned to participate and share their stories of surviving or supporting a family member's struggles with the disease. Toni Kuguru, one of the student organizers, became interested in the subject when her husband, David, became ill with multiple myeloma. He was treated in the United States and is currently in remission, but the episode got Toni Kuguru thinking about the health care system in his native Kenya, where the outcome could have been different. Kuguru said she hopes that more students will get involved after hearing about the problem and the personal testimony of those touched by cancer. "What we're hoping for the student body is that they'll be inspired. We're hoping students understand there's lots of possibilities out there to become involved," Kuguru said.

  • 英文の和訳お願いします

    Advocates of slow food are concerned with eating food which promotes good health and is produced in such a way as to be environmentally responsible and humane regarding the treatment of animals raised for consumption. この英文の和訳をお願いします

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします。

    Their discoveries concern the manipulation of living cells, and lie at the heart of the techniques for cloning animals and generating stem cells, the primitive cells from which the mature tissues of the body develop. Dr. Gurdon was the first to clone an animal, a frog, and Dr. Yamanaka discovered the proteins with which an adult cell can be converted to an egg-like state. The prize was announced in Stockholm.   (Nicholas Wade "Cloning and Stem Cell Work Earns Nobel"より)