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For a pharmaceutical agent to be effective in carrying out its selective action, the drug must be administered in an appopriate manner. Each route of drug administration has specific purposes, advantages, and disadvantages. With this method, drugs formulated in liquid or solid form are absoebed into the body from the gastrointestinal tract(GIT). This is the most commonly used route. Oral drugs are convenient --- portable, oainless, easy to take. Also, administration can be carried out by the patient him or heself. However, the onset of the drug's effect is relatively slow. In this case, the drug, usually in tablet form, is placed under the tongue. This produces a very fast onset of drug action because of the good blood supply to the area, but the duration of the drug's effect is usually short. This method can be used for patients who are unable to take drugs orally, or with younger children, elderly, or mentally disturbed patients. This route is usuful when a drug is known to cause GIT irritation. However, absorption is often incomplete and effectiveness is unpredictable.

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以下のとおりお答えします。 2,3誤植がありましたので、一応原文もすべて併記いたします。 >For a pharmaceutical agent to be effective in carrying out its selective action, the drug must be administered in an appopriate (→appropriate) manner. Each route of drug administration has specific purposes, advantages, and disadvantages. 調剤取扱者が選択的な行動を実践する際に効果的であるために、薬は適切な方法で管理されなければならない。薬剤管理には、その個々のルート(吸収の道筋)に応じて特有の目的、利点、および不利益が存している。 >With this method, drugs formulated in liquid or solid form are absoebed(absorbed) into the body from the gastrointestinal tract(GIT). This is the most commonly used route. Oral drugs are convenient --- portable, oainless (→painless), easy to take. Also, administration can be carried out by the patient him or heself (→herself). However, the onset of the drug's effect is relatively slow. この方法によって、液状または堅固の形状に整えられた薬剤が、胃腸の部位(GIT)から身体に吸収される。これは、最も一般的に使われるルートである。経口薬は簡易で…携行に便利で、無痛で、摂取しやすいからである。また、薬剤管理が患者自身によって実践可能である。しかし、薬剤の効果の発現は相対的に遅い。 >In this case, the drug, usually in tablet form, is placed under the tongue. This produces a very fast onset of drug action because of the good blood supply to the area, but the duration of the drug's effect is usually short. この場合薬剤は、通常タブレット(舌下錠)形にして、舌の下に置かれる。これは、その部位の血液供給がいいので、きわめて早い薬剤効果の発現を生み出すけれども、薬剤効果の継続時間は通常短い。 >This method can be used for patients who are unable to take drugs orally, or with younger children, elderly, or mentally disturbed patients. This route is usuful when a drug is known to cause GIT irritation. However, absorption is often incomplete and effectiveness is unpredictable. この方法は、薬を口から飲むことができない患者や、弱年齢の子供、年配者または精神的に阻害のある患者用に使われうる。薬剤が、GIT(胃腸)障害を起こすことが知られている時には、このルートが有益である。しかし、吸収はしばしば不完全で、その有効性は予測不可能である。 以上、ご回答まで。

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