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長いですが以下の英文を訳してください。 とても困ってます。 In discussing the origins of naturalism in the Middle Ages, Max Dvorak warned us against the folly of trying to fix a specific ‘beginning’ to anything so underground as the first growth of an artistic style. The modern movement in art, which in general is a reversal of the movement discussed with such brilliance by Dvorak (in his Idealismus und Naturalismus in der gotischen Skulptur und Malerei), offers no exception to this rule. Its origins are extremely obscure, and, like roots, proceed from different levels and contradictory directions. One cannot exclude either the revolutionary romanticism of a Blake or the revolutionary classicism of a David; Constable’s scientific naturalism is certainly a factor, but so is the historical idealism of Delacroix (to Cezanne always ‘le grand Maitre’). The realism of Courbet and Manet; the expressionism of Van Gogh and Munch; the symbolism of Emile Bernard and Gauguin---all these precede and in some degree predetermine the specifically modern movements of fauvism cubism, constructivism and surrealism. Perhaps we should abandon our biological analogies and think rather of the complex ‘movement’ of a chronometer; for historical ‘time’ seems to reduce, on analysis, to such an interlocking of gears and ratchets. It will be said that even the chronometer has a spring at the centre, but this is not necessarily true of the modern chronometer, which may be set and kept in motion by the simple alternation of night and day.


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  • 回答No.2
  • ddeana
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中世における自然主義(※1)の起源を論じる中で、マックス・ドボルザーク(※2)は芸術的技法の第一成長期ほど秘密裏に、何か特定の「始まり」を修正しようとする愚かさに対し、警鐘を鳴らしました。 ドボルザークによって(彼の「ゴシック彫刻と絵画における理想主義と自然主義」の中で)大変な卓越さで論じられた、一般的には運動の逆転である近代芸術運動も、例外とは言えません。 その起源は非常に曖昧であり、木々の根っこのように様々なレベルと相反する方向から生まれています。 人は、ブレイクの革命的ロマン主義とダビッドの革命的古典主義のどちらか一つを排除することは出来ません。コンスタブルの科学的自然主義が確かにひとつの要因であるならば、デラクロワの歴史的理想主義もまたそうであるからです(セザンヌまではずっと「巨匠」と言われてきました)。 クールベやマネの写実主義、ゴッホやムンクの表現主義、エミリー・ベルナールやゴーギャンの象徴主義・・・これらは皆先駆者であり、ある程度野獣主義、立体主義、構成主義、超現実主義らの近代運動を明確に運命づけているのです。 おそらく我々は、自分たちの生物学的アナロジー(※3)を放棄し、つまるところ縮まっているように思える歴史的「時間」の為にも、むしろ歯車や角穴といった連動装置をそなえたクロノメーター(※4)の複雑な「動作」で物事を考えるべきなのです。 クロノメーターだって中心部にばねがあると言われるでしょうが、昼夜の単純交替に基づいて設定され動き続ける現代のクロノメーターにとって必ずしも真実とは言えません。 ※1:下記をご参照ください。 http://www.genpaku.org/skepticj/naturalism.html ※2:人となりについては下記をご参照ください。 http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%9E%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E3%82%B9%E3%83%BB%E3%83%89%E3%83%B4%E3%82%A9%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A3%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF ※3:特定の事物に基づく情報を、他の特定の事物へ、それらの間の何らかの類似に基づいて適用する認知過程のこと。 ※4:極めて精巧な時計のことですが詳細については下記を参照のこと。 http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%AF%E3%83%AD%E3%83%8E%E3%83%A1%E3%83%BC%E3%82%BF%E3%83%BC



  • 翻訳をお願い致します。

    A modern revolutionary group heads for the television station, not the factory. It concentrates its energy on infiltrating and changing the image system.

  • 京都大学の入試問題です。日本語訳できる方お願いします。。

    こんにちは。英文科の学生です。 京都大学の入試問題の抜粋なのですが、訳どころか、 理解ができないのですが、どなかた教えてください。  History is the long struggle of man, by the excercise of his reason, to understand his environment and to act upon it. But the modern period has broadened the struggle in a revolutionary way. Man now seeks to understand, and to act in, not only his environment but himself; and this has added, so to speak, a new dimension to reason, and a new dimension to history. 京都大学に入るために高校生が読む文章なはずですが、 英文科2年の僕は理解不能で、  『人は進化するにつれ、自分に合うように環境を変えていった』 という意味なのかな??程度にしかわかりません。。。正直はずかしいのですが、 わかる方教えてください。

  • 英文の訳が分かりません

    英文の訳が分かりません。 in representing the coffee-house these literary materials , more than anything else, established and confirmed the place of coffee in modern urban life. It is in the nature of satire to exaggerate what it describes, to heighten foolishness and vice, and to portray its material in the most colourful language. The coffee-house satires can nevertheless be considered not only as works of literature but also as historical evidence: these low and crude satires are not a simple criticism of coffee-house life, but part of their conversation, one voice in the ongoing discussion of the social life of the city. この英文をできれば全訳していただけると嬉しいです。

  • 回答No.1

質問する前に翻訳サイトなり使ったらどうですか。 直訳だけどヒントにはなるデショ




  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    Initially, Lenin and his ideas did not have widespread support, even among Bolsheviks. In what became known as the July Days, approximately half a million people came out onto the streets of Petrograd in protest, including soldiers and sailors; Lenin was unable to direct them into an organised coup. The demonstrators, lacking leadership, disbanded and the government survived. However, the Provisional Government considered it a Bolshevik coup attempt and issued arrest warrants for prominent Bolsheviks. Lenin fled to Finland and other members of the Bolshevik party were arrested. Lvov was replaced by the Socialist Revolutionary minister Alexander Kerensky as head of the government.

  • 英文の和訳をお願いします(._.)

    Thunderous celebratory gunfire and cries of "God is great" rang out across Tripoli well past midnight, leaving the smell of sulfur in the air. People wrapped revolutionary flags around toddlers and flashed V for victory signs as they leaned out car windows. The outpouring of joy reflected the deep hatred of a leader who had brutally warped Libya with his idiosyncratic rule. After seizing power in a 1969 coup that toppled the monarchy, Gaddafi created a "revolutionary" system of "rule by the masses," which supposedly meant every citizen participated in government but really meant all power was in his hands. Giving himself titles such as ”leader of the revolution” and ”king of the kings of Africa,” he wieded power erratically, imposing random rules while crushing opponents, often hanging anyone who plotted against him in public squares. His regime was blamed in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland and the downing of a French passenger jet in Africa the following year, as well as the 1986 bombing of a German discotheque frequented by U.S. servicemen that killed three people.

  • 英語が得意な方 和訳を助けてください。

    英語が得意な方 和訳を助けてください。うまく訳せなくて困っています。よろしくお願いします。 Whereas the Bundeswehr(ドイツ軍) became an essential part of the anticommunist bastion in Western Europe under the leadership of the USA, the NVA, under the leadership of the SED and the USSR, had to fulfill its ‘revolutionary task’ in the sense of a struggle against the class enemy in the capitalist West.

  • 英文和訳

    Calling to mind this city's revolutionary past, he says he would accept the nomination for president "on behalf of a new birth of freedom — on behalf of the middle class who deserve a champion, and those struggling to join it who deserve a fair shot; for the brave men and women in uniform who risk their lives every day and the families who pray for their return; for those who believe our best days are ahead of us." 1.who deserve a fair shot はどう訳すのですか? 2.who の先行詞は those (struggling to join it ) と思いますが、どうでしょう?

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    Position of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation The Treaty of Kars is overtly rejected by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. The ARF specifically condemns the treaty as a "gross violation of international law" and argues that, because the three Transcaucasian republics were under the control of Moscow in 1921, their independent consent was questionable. The ARF also questions the validity of the treaty based on the authorities of the sides that concluded it. They contend that the Grand National Assembly of Turkey had no legal authority to sign international treaties. In addition, they argue that because the USSR was not founded until 1922, and therefore not a recognized state, it was also "not a subject of international law and, naturally, its government had no authority to enter into international treaties." Aftermath of the 2015 Russian Sukhoi Su-24 shootdown Following the shootdown of the Russian Sukhoi Su-24 over the Syria–Turkey border in November 2015 and the rise of Russo-Turkish tensions, members of the Communist Party of Russia proposed annulling the Treaty of Moscow and by extension the Kars treaty. Initially, the Russian Foreign Ministry considered this action in order to send a political message to the government of Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. However, Moscow ultimately decided against it in its effort to de-escalate tensions with Ankara. Genoa Conference (1922) The Genoa Economic and Financial Conference was a formal international conclave of 34 nations held in Genoa, Italy from 10 April to 19 May 1922. It was planned by British prime minister David Lloyd George to resolve the major economic and political issues facing Europe, and to deal with the pariah nations of Germany and Russia, both of which had been excluded from the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The conference was particularly interested in developing a strategy to rebuild defeated Germany, as well as central and eastern Europe, and to negotiate a relationship between European capitalist economies and the new Bolshevik regime in Soviet Russia. However Russia and Germany signed a separate agreement at Rapallo and the result at Genoa was a fiasco with few positive results. The conference did come up with a proposal for resuming the gold standard that was largely put in place by major countries. Genoa Conference (1922) ジェノア会議

  • 英文を日本語に訳し、()に入るものを選んでください

    So, why is this story so important to Americans? First of all, the story is about the challenge and excitement of a child disobeying a parent`s command, and destroying something treasured by that parent. Moreover, this act of youthful rebellion is committed by George Washington, the "Father of His Country." In this sense, the act is a symbolic one. The child disobeying and defying his father can be seen to represent the young America breaking with the older authority of Europe and, in particular, the English King. The second reason that this story is important to Americans reflects another symbolic meaning of cutting down a tree: the act of civilizing the wilderness. On their arrival in the New York, the trees had to be cut, the great forests leveled, in order to make civilized land out of the wilderness: to clear the land for planting crops; to build cabins; to get fuel for warmth and cooking; and to make fences for protection. Thus the tree-cutting hatchet is the essential tool for ( 1 ). Lastly, while the story of George Washington describes the act of a young revolutionary, it is significant to Americans that this act is done innocently and honestly. "Run to my arms, you dearest boy," cries his father, and with this sign of love the Revolution is given the approval of the parent. In this way, the story fulfills the wish of every rebellious child: that the gesture of independence will be respected, and that the child will be able to enjoy its act of rebellion without losing ( 2 ). ・(1)に入る3語の語句を同じ段階から抜き出してください。 ・(2)に入る適切なものを選んでください。 (1)its father`s love (2)its social relationships (3)its independence (4)its pride

  • この英文の和訳をお願いします。

        The numbers of collision orbits found in the present calculations are shown in Table 4 for the representative sets of (e,i). From these numbers we can expect the magnitude of statistical error in the evaluation of <P(e,i)> to be a few percent for small e, i and within 10% for large e, i for r_p=0.005 are shown in Table 5, together with those of the two-dimensional case. Interpolating these values, we have obtained the contour of <P(e,i)> and R(e,i) on the e-I plane. They are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. From Fig. 15 we can read out the general properties of the collisional rate in the three-dimensional case: (i) <P(e,i)> is enhanced over <P(e,i)>_2B except for small e and i, (ii) <P(e,i)> reduces to <P(e,i)>_2B for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4, and (iii) there are two peaks in R(e,i) near regions where e≒1 (i<1) and where i≒3 (e<0.1): the peak value is at most as large as 5.      In the vicinity of small v(=(e^2+i^2)^(1/2)) and i, R(e,i) rapidly reduces to zero. This is due to a singularity of <P(e,i)>_2B at v=0 and i=0 in the ordinary expression given by Eq. (29) and hence unphysical; the behavior of collisional rate in the vicinity of small v and i will be discussed in detail later. Thus, we are able to assert, more strongly, the property (i) mentioned in the last paragraph: that is, solar gravity always enhances the collisional rate over that of the two-body approximation.      One of the remarkable features of R(e,i) found in Fig. 15 is the property (ii). That is, the collisional rate between Keplerian particles is well described by the two-body approximation, for (e^2+i^2)^(1/2)≧4. This is corresponding to the two-dimensional result that R(e,0)≒1 for e≧4. よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文を訳して下さい。

    In August 1916, an Entente-supported popular revolt broke out in Thessaloniki. There, Venizelos established a provisional revolutionary government, which declared war on the Central Powers. With Allied support, the revolutionary government of Venizelos gained control of half the country &#8211; significantly, most of the "New Lands" won during the Balkan Wars. This cemented the "National Schism", a division of Greek society between Venizelists and anti-Venizelist monarchists, which was to have repercussions in Greek politics until past World War II. Early in 1917, the Venizelist Government of National Defence (based in Thessaloniki) took control of Thessaly. In the face of Venizelist and Anglo-French pressure, King Constantine left the country for Switzerland on 11 June 1917; his second-born son Alexander became king in his place. The Allied Powers were opposed to Constantine's first born son George becoming king, as he had served in the German army before the war and like his father was thought to be a Germanophile. King Alexander died on 25 October 1920, after a freak accident: he was strolling with his dogs in the royal menagerie, when they attacked a monkey. Rushing to save the poor animal, the king was bitten by the monkey and what seemed like a minor injury turned to septicemia. He died a few days later. The following month Venizelos suffered a surprising defeat in a general election. Greece had at this point been at war for eight continuous years: World War I had come and gone, yet no sign of an enduring peace was near. Young men had been fighting and dying for years, lands lay fallow for lack of hands to cultivate them, and the country, morally exhausted, was at the brink of economic and political unravelling. The pro-royalist parties promised peace and prosperity under the victorious Field Marshal of the Balkan Wars, he who knew of the soldier's plight because he had fought next to him and shared his ration.

  • 日本語訳を教えてください。

    ゼミで社会運動論を勉強しています。次回参考にするのが英語の文献になり、どうしても日本語訳が出来ないので教えてください。 Marxism then, has tended to be a theoretical or analytical discourse about revolutionary strategy. Anarchism has tended to be an ethical discourse about revolutionary practice. As a result, where Marxism has produced brilliant theories of praxis, it's mostly been anarchists who have been working on the praxis itself.

  • 英文翻訳をお願いします。

    In addition to questions of institutional authority and historical precedent, the personal qualities of the first three Tokugawa shoguns did much to confirm their family’s power. All of them were cautious and hard-working men who, although they surrounded themselves with capable advisers, nevertheless reserved the right to make final decisions. Hidetada appears somewhat prim and colorless in comparison with the other two, but there two, but there is no doubt of his administrative ability. Iemitsu is alleged to have been imperious and capricious. He certainly behaved like a strong ruler and it was in his time that the bakufu's control system was ‘perfected’; but whether he was really moody or not &#8211; or whether even if he were, this in any way affected the issues at stake &#8211; is hard to say.