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Animals in the wild lead lives of compulsion and necessity within an unforgiving social hierarchy in an environment where the supply of fear is high and the supply of food low and where territory must constantly be defended and parasites forever endured. Animals in the wild are, in practice, free neither in spase nor in time, nor in their personal relations. In theory an animal could pick up and go, defying all the social conventions and boundaries proper to its species. But such an event is less likely to happen than for a member of our own species, say a shopkeeper with all the usual ties ― to family, to friends, to society ― to drop everything and walk away from his life with only the spare change in his pockets and the clothes on his frame. If human beings, boldest and most intelligent of creatures, won't wander from place to place, why would an animal, which is by temperament far more conservative? For that is what animals are, conservative, one might even say reactionary. The smallest changes can upset them. They want things to be just so, day after day, month after month. Surprises are highly disagreeable to them. You see this in their spatial relations? An animal inhabits its space, whether in a zoo or in the wild, 'in the same way chess pieces move about a chessboard. There is no more happenstance, no more "freedom," involved in the whereabouts of a lizard or a bear or a deer than in the location of a knight on a chessboard. Both speak of pattern and purpose.In the wild, animals stick to the same paths for the same pressing reasons, season after season. In a zoo, if an animal is not in its normal place in its regular posture at the usual hour, it means something. Animals are territorial. That is the key to their minds. Only a familiar territory will allow them to fulfill the two relentless imperatives of the wild:the avoidance of enemies and the getting of food and water. A biologically sound zoo enclosure is just another territory, peculiar only in its size and in its proximity to human territory. Such an enclosure is subjectively neither better nor worse for an animal than its condition in the wild;so long as it fulfills the animal's needs, a territory, natural or constructed, simply is, without judgment, a given, like the spots on a leopard. One might even argue that if an animal could choose with intelligence, it would opt for living in a zoo, since the major difference between a zoo and the wild is the absence of parasites and enemies and the abundance of food in the first, and their respective abundance and scarcity in the second. Think about it yourself. Would you rather be put up at the Ritz Hotel with free room service and unlimited access to a doctor or be homeless without a soul to care for you? But animals are incapable of such discernment. Within the limits of their nature, they make do with what they have.


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  • 回答No.1

野生動物は、恐怖の供給が高く、食糧の供給が低く、領土を絶えず守り、寄生虫を永遠に耐えなければならない環境において、容赦のない社会階層内の強制的かつ必然的な生活を送る。野生の動物は、実際には、時間も個人的な関係もありません。理論的には、動物は拾い上げることができ、その種に適した社会的慣習と境界をすべて無視することができます。しかし、このような出来事は、家族や友人、社会など、私たち自身の種族のメンバーにとって、すべてのものを落とし、余計な変化だけで彼の人生から離れていくことはあまりありません彼のポケットや服のフレームに。 最も生き生きとした人間が場所を巡ってさまようことがないなら、なぜ気質に基づく動物ははるかに保守的だろうか? それは動物は何か、控えめなもの、反動的なことさえあるかもしれません。 最小の変更はそれらを動揺させる可能性があります。 彼らは日々、毎月、物事がちょうどそうであることを望んでいます。 驚きは非常に彼らに不愉快です。 あなたは彼らの空間的関係にこれを見ますか? 動物は動物園であろうと野生であろうと、その空間に生息しています。チェス片がチェス盤の周りを動くのと同じように。 チェス盤の騎士の所在地よりもトカゲやクマや鹿の所在に関わる偶然はなく、もはや「自由」はありません。 どちらもパターンと目的を述べています。野生動物は同じシーズン後のシーズンを同じ理由で同じ経路に固執します。 動物園では、通常の時間に通常の姿勢で動物が正常な場所にいない場合は、何かを意味します。 動物は領土です。 それが彼らの心の鍵です。 おなじみの領土だけが野生の厳しい2つの命令を遂行することを許します:敵の回避と食糧と水の入手。 生物学的に健全な動物園のエンクロージャーは、その大きさと人間の領土に近接した独特の領域です。 そのようなエンクロージャーは野生の状態よりも主観的に動物の状態が良くないも悪いものではなく、動物の必要性を満たす限り、天然または構築された領域であり、単にヒョウの斑点。 動物園と野生動物との間の主な違いは、寄生虫や敵の欠如、最初の餌の豊富さ、そして彼らの食物の豊富さが原因で動物が知性を持って選ぶことができるならば、それぞれの豊富さと希少性が第二にある。 自分で考えてみてください。 無料のルームサービスと医者への無制限のアクセス、またはあなたの世話をすることなく魂のないホームレスでリッツホテルにお任せください。 しかし、動物はそのような識別能力がありません。 彼らの性質の限界内で、彼らは彼らが持っているものとやり取りします。



  • 英語 和訳

    (1)Both speak of pattern and purpose. (2)In the wild,animals stick to the same paths for the same pressing reasons,season after season. (3)A biologically sound zoo enclosure is just another territory,peculiar only in its size and in its proximity to human territory. 上の(1)~(3)の英文の和訳お願いします。

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    In much of the world, authority is not challenged, either out of respect or out of fear, and, sometimes because a hierarchy of rank has been fixed for so long that people have been trained for generations never to challenge it. In such countries children are not expected to question their teachers in school, and brilliant young scholars or inventive industrial geniuses are hampered in technical research because they hesitate to disagree with their "superiors." Clever researchers may be considered too young to have any right to present findings that contradict the knowledge and wisdom of their elders. The American is trained from childhood to question, analyze, search. "Go and look it up for yourself;’’ a child will be told. In many schools tasks are designed to stimulate the use of a wide range of materials. An assignment to "Write a paper on the world's supply of sugar," for example, will send even a young child in search of completely unfamiliar ideas. Even in the primary grades children are taught to use libraries and to search for new ideas. By the time they are 14, 15, or 16, many young scholars are making original and valuable contributions in all fields of science. Industry is so aware of this untouched resource that each year, through national competitions, it offers awards to teenagers in order to seek out (and later employ) young people with brilliant, inquiring minds.

  • 18-5日本語訳

    お願いします。 Many people benefit from Q&A sites such as OKWave, as they help solve their problems. This is quite understantable. In fact, this is probably the raison d'etre of such Q&A sites; to provide a space where community members can both seek and offer knowledge to help eachother. Putting it another way, people "take advantage" of Q&A sites for their own benefit, be it for their personal enlightenment, professional gains, or for their academic ends. In my opinion, there is nothing wrong with that. However, when "taking advantage" escalates to sheer "exploitation", I begin to wonder. Though a minority, there are those who through in a long passage/text of Japanese or English, hoping that someone will translate it for them. In Japanese, this act is known as "Marunage". It is astonishing that there are even people who do this Marunage repeatedly and continuously. I am in no position to criticize such people who routinely do Marunage, and in deed, there is always a generous, saintly person who responds to the requests. The truth is, however, that those throwing in Marunage questions are academic losers and those answering them, are the winners.

  • この分の訳がわかりません

    Animal rights activists are represented by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), a group who states that it “focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time : on factory farms, in laboratories, in the clothing trade, and in the entertainment industry.” よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Indeed, ill-discipline among the Australian force appears to have been an issue—perhaps due to the haste with which the AN&MEF had been raised and the poor character of some of those that were enlisted. Claims in the Australian media of criminal behaviour caused considerable controversy at the time, and later led to a parliamentary enquiry. In the end a number of soldiers were court martialled and imprisoned for looting and theft, although more serious allegations, including rape, also arose. Following the capture of the remaining German possessions in the region, the AN&MEF provided occupation forces for the duration of the war. Holmes subsequently established a military government which continued until 1921, after which Australia received a mandate from the League of Nations to govern the territory. The Australian military administration continued the exploitative economic policies of the previous German colonial administration, and official policy was to continue the status quo, including the use of indentured Melanesian labour on plantations, the levy of the "native head tax" and official floggings, or corporal punishment. Equally, despite previously being protected by the German colonial administration in 1914, the hunting of the native bird-of-paradise, crowned pigeon and white heron for the lucrative trade in their feathers and skin, was officially condoned and a custom tax levied on their export. Under the terms of the German surrender, Haber was allowed to return to Germany, while German civilians could remain as long as they swore an oath of neutrality. Those who refused were later transported to Australia, where they could freely travel back to Germany. On 9 January 1915, Holmes handed over command of the AN&MEF to Brigadier General Sir Samuel Pethebridge, the former Secretary of the Department of Defence. Holmes returned to Australia and re-enlisted in the AIF, as did most of his men. They were replaced by the 3rd Battalion, AN&MEF which was known as the "Tropical Force" because it had been specially enlisted for service in the tropics. Pethebridge established the administrative structures that remained through the period of military occupation. Although required by international law to follow the German forms of government, the territory gradually acquired the appearance of a British colony. As a result of the peace settlement under the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Germany lost all of its colonial possessions, including German New Guinea. The colony became the Territory of New Guinea, a League of Nations Mandate Territory under Australian administration in 1921. It remained as such until 1949, when it was merged with the Australian territory of Papua to become the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, which eventually became modern Papua New Guinea.

  • 日本語訳を教えて下さい。

    この英文の訳を教えてください。 A growing number of experts argue that economic growth may be more dependent on a state of mind rather than on the traditional factors,such as welfare spending and labor market regulation. While"state of mind"is an admittedly vague concept, it broadly includes attitudes of people towards business, work, and risk-taking. In other words, people's mentality plays probably an even more important role than the government policy. Edmund Phelps, a renowned American economist, discovered in 2006 that these attitude - as measured by international surveys - are much more powerful in explaining the differences in countries' actual economic performance than the date economists had looked at previously. The implications of these findings are significant. If the population attaches little importance to entrepreneurshipb , the majority will be reluctant to start their own companies or engage in the innovative, yet risky business activities. So, the governments are taking notice and trying to implement a range of policy options to address this situation. Mark Fuller, who advises governments on economic policy, claims that one of the most effective ways to boost innovation and encourage people to take risks is to use education to improve the cultural value of going into business. The government of Denmark, for example, has ordered a revision of the curricula for primary and secondary school to focus more on creativity and entrepreneurship. Denmark also took steps to reform its bankruptcy law to lessen the shame associated with business failure. In France, critics have long complained that the current education system trains the young to be suspicious of business. The French Education Ministry has requested areview of textbooks, seeking to improve economic knowledge and attitudes towards business. It is too early to say whether this theory will affect the way we conduct business transactions in the future - published research on the subject is still quiete limited. What is certain, though , is that a nation's economic performance cannot be considered in isolation from the attitudes and preferences common among its citizens. Encouraging people to work hard is not simply a matter of dollars and cents- it is a much more complex process involving cultural norms, social rules, and educational values.

  • 全文を日本語に訳してください。よろしくお願いします

    The koala is not only a national icon of Australia but also a symbol of Australia`s biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variety of all life forms within an ecosystem. Life forms include plants, animals, and micro-organisms, while an ecosystem consists of these life forms as well as their physical environment such as rocks, warer sources, and the atmosphere. In Australia, there are more than one million species of plants and animals, many of ( 1 ) are found nowhere else. In fact, there are a number of rare animals there, including Tasmanian devils, wallabies, emus, wombats and kangaroos. ( )の中にに適切な単語を補ってください。

  • 日本語訳お願いしますm(__)m

    Polar bears are the subject,spirit,and essence of couutless lnuit myths.By far the largest Arctic animal,polar bears are also intelligent,inquisitive,and highly individual.The polar bear is not merely a symbol of this region,but the very embodiment of life,the Arctic incarnate.The great white bears are not the only creatures that have adapted to Arctic conditions. Arctic foxes trail polar bears out onto the winter ice and scavenge their seal kills.On land,the foxes listen acutely for the sounds of mice scurryin under the snow,stalking and pouncing on them like cats.Most Arctic animals,the polar bear excepted,change coats from white to brown to match the snow in winter and the tundra in summer :the fox...the ptarmigan...and the snowy owl...all wear camouflage.Wild swans'tattoo patterns across the sky,wild peese return for the brief Arctic summer to nest.Many birds breed in the Arctic:Eared grebes...seagulls...and arctic loons.Under the midniggt sun,arctic cotton bursts into bloom,and the Arctic sky soars blue and limitless over the burgeoning life of summer.

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    Haisla artist,Lyle Wilson:“This process of doing sculpture today is quite different from the past in the sense that today the buildings are so finely designed that the people who carve are actually requested to do a scale model that is exact.Whereas in the old days when they do a house post or a totem pole they do it entirely from memory or their experience,so there are no scale models there are no drawings as opposed to today where every thing is really finely tuned.”“This piece has been commissioned by the First Nations House of Learning,which is a center for aboriginal people at the University of British Colombia and it’s made out of red cedar.And it will be two figures that are half-human and half animal.And one side will represent the Eagle and the other side will represent the Beaver Clan,which is on this side.And the reason why I picked them was because the Beaver is my Mother's crest and Eagle is my Father's crest.So I wanted to present both of those on this post because it dose represent myself and my family from Kidamount.”Thatcertain pride in its ethnicity has given Vancouver a multicultural atmosphere.The Chinese arrived in this area in 1858.The attraction was the Fraiser River gold rush and all who came hoped to strike it ribh.Today Vancouver is enriched and enlivened by its substantial Chinese population. Early in the morning,people gather to practice Tai Chi.The teachings and techniques have been handed down from generation to generation.

  • 日本語訳お願いします!

    West of the Rockies line one of the most exiting cities in Canada,Vancouver.Crowds come out at night to sample the fun and temptation of its night life.But the lights of the night give way to sunrise,as the morning warmth blankets the mountains surrounding the city.Vancouver probably has the mildest climate in all of Canada thanks tn the influence of the Japanese Current,a submarine river of warm water that flows just offshore.That may help explain why Vancouver is the largest city in British Columbia,and the third largest in Canada.On the other hand,it may be the setting.Poised at the edge of the Pacific with forested mountains in the background,the city takes full advantage of all its possibilities.“l’ve been living here for two and a half years and the parts l like about it are the weather,the people,the business that is going on here.The climate is fantastic,you can sail one part of the morning and then ski for the afternoon and then,you know,be out partying and having a good time in the night.So it’s a lot of fun.”And of course Grous Mountain and its skiing are only fifteen minutes from downtown.With one thousand acres of sun-filled gardens and cool,dark forests,Stanley Park is the largest Park in Vancouver.Accessibility for everyone makes a beautiful day all the more special. Even a stroll along the seawall can provide a good chance of seeing seagulls migratory ducks,or a great blue heron.Tucked into a corner of Stanley Park is the Vancouver Aquarium.More than 9,000 aquatic animals call the Aquarium home, including beluga and killer whales. Under the Granville Bridge is the Granville Market,a huge public market overflowing with the bounty that comes from the combination of rich soil and a beneficent climate. All the best of the West Coast is sold in its season.The challenge is choosing! 全然わからなくて(;_;) お願いいたします...