World's Most Famous Persons with Learning Disabilities

  • Some of the world´s most famous persons, including Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, and Auguste Rodin, have suffered from learning disabilities. But what causes these disabilities and how do they affect individuals?
  • Learning disabilities are common and affect about 10% of all children, with four times as many boys as girls being affected. Extensive research has led to a better understanding of the different kinds and causes of learning disabilities.
  • Brain studies have revealed that learning disabilities are linked to abnormalities in the brain's organization, particularly in the left side of the brain. Nerve cells in the left side may fail to develop normally, resulting in difficulties with language and other cognitive processes.
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全体的には長く大変でしたが、これといって一文が長いものはなかったので、まだ訳せました。 ただ、ところどころ知らない単語や忘れかけていた熟語が出てきたので、覚えておこうと思います。 スペルミスには気を付けましたが… お願いします。  Some of the world´s most famous persons have suffered from a similar disability. Albert Einstein, the physicist. Thomas Edison, the inventor. Auguste Rodin, the artist whose statues are in museums around the world. What disabled these three highly-intelligent men? Strange as it may seem, they all suffered from learning disabilities, the name given to a number of related learning disorders.  Persons with learning disabilities are of normal or higher intelligence. Yet they have great difficulty learning to read, write or use numbers.  Almost always, there is a problem with one of the mental processes needed to understand or use written signs or spoken language. A learning-disabled child sees and hears perfectly well. Yet he or she is unable to recognize differences in sizes, shapes or sounds that are easy for others to recognize.  Learning disabilities are very common. They affect perhaps 10 percent of all children. Four times as many boys as girls have learning disabilities.  Since about 1970, new research has helped brain scientists understand these problems better. Scientists now new there are many different kinds of learning disabilities and that they are caused by many different things. There is no longer any question that all learning disabilities result from differences in the way the brain is organized.  You cannot look at a child and tell if he or she has a learning disability. There is no outward sign of the disorder. So some researchers began looking at the brain itself to learn what might be wrong.  In one study, researchers examined the brain of a learning-disabled person who had died in an accident. They found two unusual things. One involved cells in the left side of the brain, which control language. These cells normally are white. In the learning-disabled person, however, these cells were gray. The researchers also found that many of the nerve cells were not in a line the way they should have been. The nerve cells were mixed together.  This study was carried out under the guidance of Norman Geschwind, an early expert on learning disabilities. Dr. Geschwind proposed that learning disabilities resulted mainly from problems in the left side of the brain. He believed the left side of the brain failed to develop normally. Probably, he said, nerve cells there did not connect as they should.  Researchers are continuing to investigate many possible influences on brain development and organization. They know that the two sides of the brain control opposite sides of the body. Usually, the left side of the brain is stronger than the right side. So most persons are right-handed. They use their right hand for most actions. Researchers long wondered why left-handed boys develop learning disabilities more often than right-handed boys. 以上です。

  • 英語
  • 回答数1
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5904)

世界で最も有名な人々の中にも、良く似た障害に苦しんだ人がいます。物理学者のアルバート・アインシュタイン。 発明家のトマス・エディソン。 像が世界中の博物館にある芸術家のオーギュスト・ロダン。これらの3人の非常に知的な人々に障害を与えたのは何だったのでしょう?奇妙に思えるかもしれませんが、彼らは、全員、いくつかの関連する学習障害につけられた名前である、学習能力障害に苦しみました。 学習能力障害の人は、普通または普通以上の知能があります。それでも、彼らは、読み、書き、数字の使用、を学ぶのにとても苦労するのです。たいてい、書かれた記号や話し言葉を理解したり使用したりするために必要な精神的なプロセスの1つに問題があります。学習能力障害がある子供は、申し分なく目も見えますし耳も聞こえます。それでも、彼/彼女は、他の人が簡単に認識できる大きさ、形状、音の違いを認識することができないのです。 学習能力障害は、非常に一般的です。学習能力障害は、すべての子供たちのだいたい10パーセントに影響を与えています。女子の4倍多くの男子には、学習能力障害があります。 1970年ごろから、新しい研究のおかげで、脳科学者はよりよくこれらの問題を理解できるようになりました。科学者には、今では、多くの異なる種類の学習能力障害がり、それらが多くの異なるものに起因するということが分かっています。すべての学習能力障害が、脳の組織され方の違いから生じるということに、もはやいかなる疑問もありません。子供を見ただけでは、彼/彼女が学習能力障害があるかどうか見分けることができません。その障害の見た目の徴候がないのです。それで、研究者のなかには、どこが良くないのかを知るために脳そのものに目を向け始める人も出てきました。 ある研究で、研究者は、事故で死んだ学習能力障害がある人の脳を調べました。彼らは、2つの異常なことを発見しました。一つは、言語をつかさどる脳の左側の細胞に関わっていました。これらの細胞は、通常白いのです。しかし、学習能力障害がある人では、これらの細胞は灰色でした。研究者は、また、神経細胞の多くが、あるべき状態に整列していないことも発見しました。神経細胞が、混ざり合っているのでした。 この研究は、学習能力障害の初期の専門家のノーマン・ゲシュヴィントの指導のもとに行われました。ゲシュヴィント博士は、学習能力障害が、主として脳の左側の問題から生じると提唱しました。彼は、脳の左側が正常に発達することができなかったと思っていました。おそらく、神経細胞が、そこでは、あるべき様に結びつかなかったのだと彼は言いました。 研究者は、脳の発達と組織化に対する多くの見込まれる影響を調査し続けています。彼らは、脳の2つの側が体の相反する側をコントロールするということを知っています。通常、脳の左側は、右側より強いのです。それで、ほとんどの人は右利きです。彼らは、ほとんどの行動に右手を使います。研究者は、なぜ左利きの男子が右利きの男子よりしばしば学習能力障害を引き起こすのかについて、長く疑問に思ってきました。



解答、ありがとうございます。 今回は思ったより文が長く、内容も自分の知らない問題についてだったので難しく感じました。 回答内容を見て、脳の働きについて初めて知ったことが多かったです。 ありがとうございました。


  • 英文和訳

    There are also diverse opinions on how great a role faith and religion play in happiness. Many researchers, however, agree that spirituality does play at least role. Fully rational people, they believe, are less likely to be happy. どなたかお願いしますm(__)m

  • 英文でわからないところがあります。

    TIME誌の記事からの質問です。 Nobel Prize Discoverers of "brain's GPS" How do our brains know whether we're in an office or lounging on a beach? We have the winners of this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine to thank for identifying the brain cells that function as our inner GPS system. John O'keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser received the award on Oct.6 for discovering that the brain works like a satellite, pinpointing the cells that beam signals for triangulating our location. In 1971, O'Keefe identified "place" cells in the hippocampus of rats that were active when the animals moved to specific locations. Those nerves oriented the brain in space--the cage, for example, or in humans' cases, our homes. The Mosers, a husband-and-wife team, found another group of nerve cells that pool such place information into coordinates that map precise locations--the left corner of the cage or the sofa in the living room. It takes these cells working together to allow us to know where we are. 最後の It takes these cells working together to allow us to know where we are.の英文なのですが、 「私たちがどこにいるのか知ることを私たちに可能にすることは、協力するこれらの細胞を必要とする」、と訳すのでしょうか? ここは強調構文ですか? these cells は another group of nerve cells を指しているのですか? takeの訳し方がよくわからないのですが、「必要とする」で良いのでしょうか? 教えてください。 よろしくお願いいたします。

  • この英文の和訳が分かりません教えて下さい。

    Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of communication-having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected. The explosion around the world in mobile phone use has some health professionals worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, there has been a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phons are bad for your health. この英文の和訳が分かりません教えて下さい。できればいやくはしないでください。

  • 【至急】英文の和訳です。よろしくお願いします。

    In the third period, the child makes rapid progress in increasing his or her vocabulary and learning new skills in discovering the meaning of unfamiliar words by the way the words are used in the reading material. In addition, children during this period of reading development learn to read for different purposes and in different subjects, such as science and history. They learn that reading, besides being something that one dose at school, is also something that one can do alone,for fun, for factual information, or to learn more about the world in general. Finally, in the fourth period, the student improves the skills that have been leaned. He or she develops the ability to connect ideas from one piece of writing to another, and learns to compare the opinions of different writers on the same subject. Young persons should reach the fourth period of reading by the time they are 13 or 14 years old, and, if they try, they can continue to increase their reading ability for the rest of their lives. They can read by themselves and are prepared to learn more about reading.

  • 英文和訳です

    An electrode implanted into the brain of a man who is unable to move or communicate has enabled him to use a speech synthesizer to produce vowel sounds as he thinks them. The work could one day help similar patients to produce whole sentences using signals from their brains, say the researchers. Frank Guenther of Boston University in Massachusetts and his colleagues worked with a patient who has locked-in syndrome, a condition in which patients are almost completely paralysed ― often able to move only their eyelids ― but still fully conscious. Guenther and his team first had to determine whether the man’s brain could produce the same speech signals as a healthy person’s. So they scanned his brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he attempted to say certain vowels. Once the researchers were happy that the signal were the same, they implanted an electrode ― designed by neuroscientist Philip Kennedy of the firm Neural Signals in Duluth, Georgia ― into the speech-production areas of the man’s brain. The electrode will remain there for the foreseeable future. The electrode is different to others used for brain-computer interfaces, most of which are fixed to the skull rather than within a specific part of the brain. This means that the electrodes can move around, making it difficult to record from the same neurons every time or to leave the electrode in place for more than a few months at a time. The electrode used by Guenther’s team is impregnated with neurotrophic factors, which encourage neurons to grow into and around the electrode, anchoring it in place and allowing it to be recorded from for a much longer time. 長文でスミマセンがよろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文和訳です

    Dr. Frank Guenther is a cognitive neuroscientist who studies speech production, speech perception, and sensory-motor control. He and his team helped a completely paralyzed but conscious patient communicate with the use of brain sensors. First, the researchers watched the patient’s brain activity by using functional MRI (fMRI) as he tried to say certain vowels. Next, they implanted an electrode into the part of the man’s brain that deals with speech production. The electrode can sense brain activity very quickly and transmit it instantaneously to a machine that can show which vowels the patient is thinking about. After more vowels and consonants are added to the list of understood letters, it is hoped that the patient will be able to communicate whole words to the researchers. Other projects have used electrodes to allow a paralyzed person to move a robotic arm, but this is the first project to have a specifically designed brain-computer interface for speech. A future patient may have additional electrodes implanted so that more information can be transmitted from the speech-production area of the brain to the researchers, leading to deeper communication. よろしくお願いします^^;

  • 英文和訳について、です。

    次の英文を和訳していただけないでしょうか? 宜しくお願い致します。 Assistance users, without considering the harsh employment situation and the possibility of having disabilities that cannot be seen from the outside, "be lazy or choose too many jobs and hang out from daytime even though they should be able to work. It tends to be blamed.

  • 和訳をお願いします。

    As scientists slowly but surely unlock the mysteries of the brain, they are helping us find solutions for many of our most serious behavioral and social problems. Here are a few recent examples of neuroscience in action. It happens to all of us. As we perform a monotonous task, our brains seem to slow down and we become increasingly prone to making mistakes. Well, it turns out that such tasks actually do numb the brain and make it easier for us to slip up. A recent Norwegian brain-imaging study has found that while we are doing dull, repetitive chores, blood flows into the part of the brain that is more active during states of rest, including sleep. The researchers also found that this usually happens about 30 seconds before we make a mistake. This raises the possibility that workers could somehow be alerted before they make a mistake, thereby improving workplace performance and safety. Another interesting brain-scan study using MRI technology was conducted at Baylor University in Texas. The results show that a baby`s smile actually activates the part of a mother`s brain associated with emotional reward and well-being.

  • この英文を和訳してほしいです。

    There is some evidence that these improvements in the characteristics of elders have resulted in more positive views of aging. Tibbitts claimed that during the past 30 to 40 years, U.S. society has moved from holding negative stereotypes of old people to holding positive views in which elders are seen as being able to contribute to the quality of life for themselves, their communities, and society as a whole. Schonfield even argued that the assumption of negative attitudes toward old people is a "social myth" perpetuated by the gerontological literature. We will be examining these attitudes in derail in Chapter 2, but there does appear to be a substantial shift from negative to positive attitudes. The improvements in the physical, mental,social, and economic characteristics of elders have been so marked, and there have been so many programs and services developed for elders only, that many have begun to criticize these programs as discrimination in favor of the aged, or positive ageism. We will be discussing examples of positive ageism throughout this book; but the ones that have drawn most criticism so far are the Medicare program and some features of the Social Security System, such as the automatic cost of living increases in benefits and the tax-exemption of Social Security benefits for most elders. Perhaps these programs have been criticized the most because they involve the most money. Critics are beginning to argue that since elders are no longer deprived economically and since they are now much better off mentally, physically, and socially than they were in the past, it is no longer necessary or fair to continue the enormous expense of these special supports and programs available only to elders. Some argue that the way to reduce positive ageism is to make these supports and programs available to all ages on the basis of need. For example, they recommend that the national health insurance, which only elders now enjoy, be extended to all ages. It is clear that positive ageism is becoming an important issue and promises to become even more important as we are faced with more older people and more expensive programs for "seniors only."

  • 英文和訳です

    英文和訳です No one should spend too much time on memories. Some people start doing that when they are twenty and never get over living in the past. And it is my feeling that too many memories are sad. They are of friends or events that are gone. The other day someoe asked me what year my father died and I could't remember. The date never seemed like one to memorize, and I don't think of him any less often for having put it out of my mind. 全体的に分かりにくいのですが、特に最後の一文がよくわかりません。 宜しくお願いします。