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TIME誌の記事からの質問です。 Nobel Prize Discoverers of "brain's GPS" How do our brains know whether we're in an office or lounging on a beach? We have the winners of this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine to thank for identifying the brain cells that function as our inner GPS system. John O'keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser received the award on Oct.6 for discovering that the brain works like a satellite, pinpointing the cells that beam signals for triangulating our location. In 1971, O'Keefe identified "place" cells in the hippocampus of rats that were active when the animals moved to specific locations. Those nerves oriented the brain in space--the cage, for example, or in humans' cases, our homes. The Mosers, a husband-and-wife team, found another group of nerve cells that pool such place information into coordinates that map precise locations--the left corner of the cage or the sofa in the living room. It takes these cells working together to allow us to know where we are. 最後の It takes these cells working together to allow us to know where we are.の英文なのですが、 「私たちがどこにいるのか知ることを私たちに可能にすることは、協力するこれらの細胞を必要とする」、と訳すのでしょうか? ここは強調構文ですか? these cells は another group of nerve cells を指しているのですか? takeの訳し方がよくわからないのですが、「必要とする」で良いのでしょうか? 教えてください。 よろしくお願いいたします。


  • 英語
  • 回答数5
  • 閲覧数80
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  • 回答No.2
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It takes these cells working together to allow us to know where we are. Itは、仮主語とかいうやつでしょう。 で、実質的な主語はto allow us to know where we are 「我々が自分の所在を知るのを可能にすること」 takesは、「必要である」の意味。 these cells working togetherは、「これらの細胞が協力すること」 these cellsは、O'keefeが発見した"place" cellと、Moser夫妻が発見したanother group of nerve cellsの両方を指していると思います。 全部まとめると、 「我々が自分の所在を知るのを可能にするためには、これらの細胞が協力して機能することが必要です」のような訳になります。




その他の回答 (4)

  • 回答No.5

No1です。 質問者さんとNo2の回答者さんの内容でOKです。 It は 「私たちがどこにいるのか知ることを私たちに可能にすること」 の方です。 失礼しました。




  • 回答No.4

>takeの訳し方がよくわからないのですが、「必要とする」で良いのでしょうか? そうですね。 「30 [transitive, no passive] to need or require something in order to happen or be done 」(http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/take_1を参照のこと) >these cells は another group of nerve cells を指しているのですか? 「 "place" cells in the hippocampus of rats that were active when the animals moved to specific locations」と「another group of nerve cells that pool such place information into coordinates that map precise locations」ですね。 >最後の It takes these cells working together to allow us to know where we are.の英文なのですが、 「我々が自分のいる場所を知ることが出来るにはこれらの細胞が相互に機能することが必要です。」 以上、参考になれば幸いです。




  • 回答No.3

高校で必ず習う構文が It takes (人)+時間 to 原形. という構造です。 (人)の部分は「人に(とって)」で、あることもありますが、ないこともあります。 基本レベルでは「(人にとって)時間がかかる」のように訳すように習います。 これは日本語で「時間がかかる」とすると自然な訳になるだけで、 英語としては「必要とする」という意味合いです。 実際、英英辞典には need の意味で出ています。 「かかる」で貫くなら「時間がかかる」→「時間をかからせる」とはなりますが。 そして、「時間」の部分は「労力」とか「条件」になることもあります。 It takes two to make a quarrel.「喧嘩するには2人が必要、喧嘩両成敗」でおなじみです。 it は形式主語とも、時間の it とも言えないような中途半端な it です。 普通には形式主語と教えるのでしょうが、to 以下を訳的には「~するためには」と訳す方がぴったりです。 to 以下を「~すること」は、と訳しても「必要とする」につながりますが、 Three days took me to finish the work. のように、時間の方が主語になって、to は「~するために」としか訳せないこともあります。 時間の it と説明する人はこの表現をもとにしています。 日本の英語教育は批判されることも多いですが、こういう表現をしっかりと教えてくれます。 それを素通りして適当に読むことは避けたいものです。



「It takes (人)+時間 to 原形」構文について詳しいご解説と、英文を読む心得について回答して頂いてありがとうございます!

  • 回答No.1

1)最後の It takes these cells working together to allow us to know where we are.の英文なのですが、「私たちがどこにいるのか知ることを私たちに可能にすることは、協力するこれらの細胞を必要とする」、と訳すのでしょうか? It takes の It は下の文で出てくる "another group of nerve cells" のことですね。 another group of nerve cells that pool such place information into coordinates that map precise locations--the left corner of the cage or the sofa in the living room. 訳: 「それ(もう一つの細胞グループ)はこれらの細胞(場所情報細胞 と 地図的にコーディネートする細胞)を共に働かせて私たちに自分たちが何処にいるか知ることを可能にします。」 2)ここは強調構文ですか? these cells は another group of nerve cells を指しているのですか? takeの訳し方がよくわからないのですが、「必要とする」で良いのでしょうか? these cells は another group of nerve cells と "place" cells とを指していると思います。 又、この take は使役で make などど同じような用途で ”やらせる” ”トリガーとなっている” の様な意味になると思います。





  • 英文の和訳です。

    全体的には長く大変でしたが、これといって一文が長いものはなかったので、まだ訳せました。 ただ、ところどころ知らない単語や忘れかけていた熟語が出てきたので、覚えておこうと思います。 スペルミスには気を付けましたが… お願いします。  Some of the world´s most famous persons have suffered from a similar disability. Albert Einstein, the physicist. Thomas Edison, the inventor. Auguste Rodin, the artist whose statues are in museums around the world. What disabled these three highly-intelligent men? Strange as it may seem, they all suffered from learning disabilities, the name given to a number of related learning disorders.  Persons with learning disabilities are of normal or higher intelligence. Yet they have great difficulty learning to read, write or use numbers.  Almost always, there is a problem with one of the mental processes needed to understand or use written signs or spoken language. A learning-disabled child sees and hears perfectly well. Yet he or she is unable to recognize differences in sizes, shapes or sounds that are easy for others to recognize.  Learning disabilities are very common. They affect perhaps 10 percent of all children. Four times as many boys as girls have learning disabilities.  Since about 1970, new research has helped brain scientists understand these problems better. Scientists now new there are many different kinds of learning disabilities and that they are caused by many different things. There is no longer any question that all learning disabilities result from differences in the way the brain is organized.  You cannot look at a child and tell if he or she has a learning disability. There is no outward sign of the disorder. So some researchers began looking at the brain itself to learn what might be wrong.  In one study, researchers examined the brain of a learning-disabled person who had died in an accident. They found two unusual things. One involved cells in the left side of the brain, which control language. These cells normally are white. In the learning-disabled person, however, these cells were gray. The researchers also found that many of the nerve cells were not in a line the way they should have been. The nerve cells were mixed together.  This study was carried out under the guidance of Norman Geschwind, an early expert on learning disabilities. Dr. Geschwind proposed that learning disabilities resulted mainly from problems in the left side of the brain. He believed the left side of the brain failed to develop normally. Probably, he said, nerve cells there did not connect as they should.  Researchers are continuing to investigate many possible influences on brain development and organization. They know that the two sides of the brain control opposite sides of the body. Usually, the left side of the brain is stronger than the right side. So most persons are right-handed. They use their right hand for most actions. Researchers long wondered why left-handed boys develop learning disabilities more often than right-handed boys. 以上です。

  • 英文を教えて下さい。

    下記の英文を教えてくれませんか?お願いします。 I wanted to ask you for a favor, as you know we have been using a lot of prints and among them some animation characters but in 2015 we want to acquire “Anime” characters to use as part of our design. Since all Anime characters originate from Japan I wanted to ask you if you know where we can acquire the rights to some character designs. Here in USA, normally there is a website service that we can purchase the designs for use but for Anime characters most of them are in Japanese so we’re having a difficult time searching for the right company. Can you help us?

  • 英文和訳、お願いします。

    ◆Swimming develops every part of the body. Proper breathing plays a big role in increasing lung capacity. Stroking and kicking develop the muscles in arms, legs and back. Timing and mental alertness are important, for the good swimmer must take advantage of every opportunity offered. ◆One of our most important duties is to give our guests the best possible service and to satisfy them. Because we serve them well, they come to our restaurants, and spend their money. Our guests keep us in business. In the last analysis, our guests really pay our wages. ◆Since we make daily use of the newspaper, and we base much of our opinion upon what it tells us, we should make efforts to understand it. Unless we know what newspapers are, and how they are made, we shall not know how to tell a good newspaper from a bad one, or whether we should believe any particular piece of information.

  • 高校英語の英文和訳お願いいたします!

    少し長いのですがお願いします。 自力で訳してみたものの、ところどころ関係詞で苦戦しています。。。 (1)The biggest trick that older brains employ is to use both sides of the brain at the same time to handle tasks for which younger brains rely on mainly one side. Electronic images taken by cognitive scientists at the University of Michigan, for example, have slown that even when doing basic recognition or memorization exercises, seniorsexploit the left and right brain more extensively than more men and women who are decades younger. Depending on both sides of the brain gives them a tactical advantage, even if the pure speed of each side's processing is slower. (2)Animal experiments prove that an undamaged nerve cell can take over the functions of a neighboring nerve cell that has become damaged or that has simply declined with time. The brain creats ways to keep itself sharp by making these kinds of adjustments on a widespread scale over time. お願いいたします!!!

  • 日本語訳お願いします。

    Until now,we have used the terms “brain “and “mind “ somewhat loosely. For our purposes,we’ll set up couple of simple,straightforward definitions based on the ever-growing understanding of important mental processes. These definitions in particular express the ways in which the structures of the brain operate harmoniously to turn raw sensory date into an integrated perception of the world outside the skull: the brain is a collection of physical structures that gather and process sensory, and emotions that arise from the perceptual processes of the brain.

  • 英文の意味を教えてください。

    アメリカのネットショップで小物を購入予定です。とても安くて小さいものなのでまとめ売りらしいです。 発送ができるか質問を相手にしていたのですが返事がきました。すみませんが意味を教えてください。お願いします。 We are in receipt of your below mail and thank you very much for your interest in our articles. Of course we would be pleased to welcome you as our new customer and we could deliver our articles directly from LA to your address in Japan. Please kindly note that we have quite a few customers in Japan and it is absolutely no problems to import our goods. Since you have not clarified which articles you would like to purchase we suggest to have a look at our homepage 11111 and choose the requested items. Once you will let us know which items you would like to purchase we can send you our best offer. Since most of our articles are packed in boxes containing 2 or 3 pieces we normally request a minimum order quantity of a complete box. In case of orders for less than a complete box our prices get increased by 30 %. If the order is for more than 5 pieces of one article our prices will get decreased. Hoping to have been of assistance to you and awaiting your detailed inquiry.

  • 英文要約について

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  • 英文を訳してください。

    How is it possible for all the millions of cells in our growing bodies to go on doing what they do without our being conscious of their working?

  • 英文の長文、和訳お願いします

    Does the Earth have the natural resources to support this many people? Unfortunately, the answer to this question depends on information we don't have. For example, we don't know how people will choose to live in the future. We don't know what their standard of living will be. We also don't know what new technologies will be available in the future. We do know that the Earth's natural resources are limited. Fresh water, for example, is crucial for health and food production. However, more than 97% of the water on Earth is salt water, which is poisonous to both people and crops. Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh water, and three quarters of that fresh water is frozen at the North and South Poles. Today, the demands for fresh water is greater than the supply in roughly eighty countries around the world. By 2025, scientists predict that forty-eight countries will have chronic shortages of water. At present, disalinization, or the removal of salt from salt water, is not a solution to the shortage of fresh water. It takes a lot of energy to remove the salt from ocean water, and that makes the disalinization process very expensive.

  • 訳お願いします!

    "And when we put in a crop, why, we'd be there to take the crop up. We'd know what come of our planting." を、訳してほしいです!