• 締切済み
  • 暇なときにでも


以下の英文訳で困っています!! どのように訳すのでしょうか? お暇なときで構いません、よろしくお願いします。 Innovation and investment Agrodiversity can be viewed in two ways. One way is to see it as the contribution of skillful but essentially passive adaptation to local diversity in the context of changing conditions. Another is to stress innovations that impose greater control on the farming environment. Both are elements of diversity and sometimes both are present in the same general region, the same community territory, and even on the same farm. Ecological niches are carefully selected, but whereas some are used with little modification of the land surface and biota and others are managed in a uniform manner, still others are used only by the creation of substantial and enduring physical changes. These are the so-called landesque capital, investments with a life expectation well beyond the present crop or crop cycle. Landesque capital is defined by Blaikie and Brookfield (1987:9) as “any investment in land with an anticipated life beyond that of the present crop, or crop cycle. The creation of landesque capital involves substantial saving of labor and other inputs for future production.” The term was developed within agricultural economics, and I cannot recall from where I borrowed it when I first used it in 1984. In the broad field of cultural ecology it is often attributed to me, but unfortunately I cannot claim that credit. Landesque capital includes terraces, irrigation and drainage system, large mounds, and deliberate changes in the mixture of trees grown on land that has been cultivated. Landesque capital also includes soils that are so modified by their users as to be almost manufactured, as will be discussed in chapter 5. 長文で申し訳ないです・・・


  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数67
  • ありがとう数0


  • 回答No.1
  • bakansky
  • ベストアンサー率48% (3495/7224)

革新と投資 農業多様性には2つの見方がある。 1つは、交換条件という状況における局所多様性に対する熟練してはいるが基本的に受動的な適用であるという見方。 もう1つは、農業環境に対するより大きな制御を強いる革新を強調するもの。 どちらも多様性の要素であり、しばしば両者が同じ一般的な地域に、同じコミュニティーの地区に、また同一の農場にすら存在する。 生態的地位は注意深く選択されるが、一方では地表面や生物相の改良がほとんど行われないものもあれば、画一的な方法で管理されるものもあれば、さらにそれ以外にも、豊富な永続的な物理的変更の創造のみによるものもある。 これらはいわゆるLandesque(土地依存)資本、現在の作物もしくは作物サイクルよりも優れた平均余命による投資である。 Landesque資本というのはブレイキー&ブルックフィールド(1987年)によって次のように定義された。「現在の作物あるいは作物サイクルのそれを越える寿命を期待を持ってなされる土地への投資。Landesque資本の創出は、相当な労働の節約と将来の生産への投入を含む」。 その用語は農業経済学の分野の中で作られたもので、私が1984年にその用語を用いた時に、どこから借りてきたものなのか思い出せない。 広範囲にわたる文化生態学の分野において、しばしばそれが私によるもののようにみなされるが、私には確信がない。 Landesque資本は、段々畑と排水システム、盛り土、耕作された土地に生えている木々の混合を慎重に変えることを含む。 Landesque資本はまた、使用者によってほとんど製造されたように改良された土も含むのであり、それは第5章で論じる。 * ご覧のように、辞書を引いて訳語を当てはめただけの、全くの直訳で(ほとんど機械翻訳並みかもしれません)、農業経済学も生態学も知識が皆無の私には、これ以上のことは出来ません。誤訳なども含めまれていると思いますが、悪しからず。



  • 以下の英文はどう訳しますか?

    以下の英文はどう訳しますか? Much of this book is concerned with agricultural change, involving a certain amount of historical reconstruction. It is important to set doctrinal assumptions aside and, in particular, not to assume without evidence the existence of any process such as degradation or intensification. Change can take many forms, and the adoption of practices that are more intensive in use of capital or labor is only one form. Comparatively, it is useful to describe one system as more intensive than another, but the terms to intensify and intensification are used loosely in the literature. I introduce the theory of intensification in chapter 4 but discuss it in some depth only chapter 11. Elsewhere in the book, I avoid these terms as far as possible. Certain other themes are also of major significance. 長いのですが、よろしくおねがいいたします!!!!

  • 英語が得意なjかたこの英文の和訳をしていただけませんか

    This is because plants support various living things in the environment. At present, there are 25 regions in the world that have been classified as hot spots. Together, the combined land area of these regions dose not exceed 1.4% of the total land area of the earth, but over 60% of the earth’s land creatures are distributed in these regions. However, 70% of the original plant life in these regions has been lost. Furthermore, in the areas where species are declining, it has been reported that more than 90% of the original species have disappeared. Japan is a country with many forests and 67% of the land area of the country consists of forests.

  • 英文の構造を教えてください

    The phenomenon of intetest is in itself a most interesting subject . It is not too much to say that a man's interests are a sure guide to the real man. We certainly act on that assumption when we choose our friends. It is just as reasonable to suppose that what a culture defines as interesting is no less a guide to its own values, goals and self consciousness. という英文で、it is just as reasonable to suppose that …のところのasが前文の内容が比較対照が明らかなので、省略されているらしのですが、これは it is just as reasonable to suppose that what a culture defines as interesting is no less a guide to its own values, goals and self consciousness as it is just as reasonable to say that a man ' s intetests are a sure guide to the real man ということでいいのでしょうか?あとhe is rich and you are just as rich[as he is]のようにto say that a man ' s intetests are a sure guide to the real man をthatとし、it is just as reasonable to suppose that …as that isのように書き換えられるのでしょうか?

  • Parmenidesについての英文

    Parmenides of Elea c. 510–? 440BC ‘One cannot know that which is not –that is impossible’ Little is known of Parmenides’ life and background, and fragments of a poem entitled On Nature are all that survive of his work. Nevertheless, it contains one of the first examples of reasoned argument in which, perhaps as a reaction to Heraclitus, Parmenides attempts to prove that change is impossible and that reality is singular, undivided and homogenous. In the first part of his poem, ‘The Way of Truth’, which was revealed to him, he claims, in meeting with a goddess, Parmenides distinguishes between an inquiry into what is and an inquiry into what is not. The latter, he says, is impossible. ‘One cannot know that which is not –that is impossible –nor utter it; for it is the same thing that can be thought, that is’. The essence of this somewhat cryptic argument is that in order to think of something which is not –let us say, ‘a unicorn’ for example –one must be thinking of something: there must be some idea present to the mind, presumably the idea of a unicorn. But to think of a unicorn means that the unicorn (or the idea of a unicorn) exists in the mind, and therefore it cannot be truly said that unicorns completely fail to exist. The argument turns principally on two complex issues. 冒頭の ‘One cannot know that which is not –that is impossible’ について 「人はそれが存在していないことを知ることができない。それは不可能である。」という意味ですか?thatは代名詞、whichは関係代名詞ですか? ‘One cannot know that which is not –that is impossible –nor utter it; for it is the same thing that can be thought, that is’. について for it is the same thing that can be thought, that is’.のthat isはthat is impossibleですか? 最後のit cannot be truly said that unicorns completely fail to exist. について fail toは、~し損なう、という意味だと思うのですが、 fail to existで、「存在し損なう」と訳すと意味が取りにくいです。ここのfail to~はどういう意味合いになるのでしょうか? 以下次の英文が続きます。 First, exactly what is meant by ‘exists’ here? What is the difference between existing in the world and existing in the mind? This begins a controversy that will reappear throughout much of the history of philosophy in many different contexts, but most notoriously in Anselm’s ontological argument, some 1500 years later. Second, what are the connections between thoughts, words, and things? If that debate started with Parmenides, it has taxed almost every major thinker ever since, up to and including the seminal works of the twentieth century by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and W.V. Quine. よろしくお願いたします。

  • 翻訳お願いします><

    Multiple camera angles are used to deconstruct the space as well as time, so each time we revisit the passage of play, it is the same moment of time presented from a different perpective. It does seem rrather overstating the case to call the slow-motion replay in a spoting event a synchronic deconstruction, and yet it is undeniable that something is happening to our sense of time when these 'sub-texts' are presented. Threre is this compulsion to analyse when we witness the slow motion - we are being told that this is a moment of significance and worthy of closer, slower examination. The telecast itself takes such interruptions and rather than losing the sense of the immediacy of the images actually strengthens that sense. 英語できるかた宜しくおねがいします。

  • 以下の英文を訳してください。急いでます

    I believe that the same iconoclastic tendency is present in certain phases of modern thought not confined to the Soviet Union. There is always the recurrent fear among theologians that Art might in some sense replace God, and ever since Kierkegaard formulated his Either/Or, these religious philosophers have been busy telling us that a reliance on the reality created by the artist leads ultimately to despair. That, as I see it, is the attitude of an age that has lost all contact with the actuality of art---an age that can only conceive art as idea, and is utterly divorced from the creativ experience, even in the humble form of handicraft. 長いですが訳が出来る方お願いします>< 急いでます!

  • エジソンの伝記についての英文です。 日本語訳をお願

    エジソンについての伝記の一部分です。日本語訳をお願いします。 Tom Edison is part of our everyday lives in dozens of ways ; the legacy of the typewriter is one of them. Although actual typewriters have now fallen out of use , the modern computer keyboard is nearly identical to a typewriter’s. Its letters are arranged in the same sequence , the shift from lowercase to capital letters is achieved the same way, and the act of typing a message on a computer uses the very same finger and hand movements that Sholes and Edison explored. よろしくお願いします。

  • 英文翻訳おねがいします!

    Let's take a brief tour of a raw meat-eating region. Welcome to the polar region of Canada's Melville Peninsula. The native peoples used to be called Eskimos. This was a derogatory term given them by native peoples from the south, meaning raw meat eaters. They are the meat of caribou, seals, and walruses raw. "Meat" includes the innards, which are considered the most exquisite parts of the animals. You might remember seeing documentary films of lions going straight for the innards of their victims. Of course, in that frozen part of the world, fruits, vegetables, and grains are unobtainable. The native peoples do not suffer from scurvy, and in fact have glossy faces, thanks to their diet of raw meat. A japanese cultural anthropologist who lived among these northern people learned that because of the bland flavor of raw meat, it is possible to eat a lot of it at each meal as a staple food, in the same way Japanese eat rice. Some parts of the innards are bitter while other parts are sour, so if you chew on them as you eat the raw meat, the meat tastes "seasoned" and you never get tired of it. Horsemeat is called cherry meat or sakura-niku in Japan. It may mean that the color of the meat is as beautiful as that of cherry blossom. But it may also mean that horsemeat is a sort of fake meat, sold by con men to unsuspecting passers-by under an exotic-sounding name. Take your choise as to which is the truth. There are those who love horsemeat for its deliciously light flavor. There are few restaurants that serve authentic tartar steak made from horsemeat. Most people do not realize that horsemeat is "the real thing", and that there is no reason to discriminate against it. Where food is concerned, when all is said and done, likes and dislikes are just a matter of taste.

  • この英文を訳してください!

    Concern about health is one of the driving forces behind the rapid expansion of organics,the fastest growing segment of an otherwise Sluggish food industry.In some ways organic has become "a victim of its own success." Agribusiness is swallowing up the very farms that started as a reaction to the industrialization of America's food supply. Small organic farms rebelled against conventional farming methods that relied on Synthetic pesticides and other toxic chemicals that exhaust the soil and pollute water, but there were other aspects to the organic movement that got lost when the U.S. Department of Agriculture established organic standards in 2002. Organic farmers wanted to move away from the large corporate farms that grew only one crop such as corn or WHeat, and return to the old way offarming with various crops and farm animals all coexisting. They envisioned small regional farms supplying Americans with local, seasonal, and natural foods. However, as organic farms grew they started to look a lot like their conventional counterparts, minus the harmful chemicals. Even as critics claim that organic has been "industrialized" and taken over by big business,there is no question that a lot of good has come out of the organic movement. The conversion ofland into organic has been greatforthe environment.It has enabled consumers to have more access to fruits and vegetables grown without pesticides and to meat from animals raised on heal thier feed. However,food still often has to travel thousands of miles from farm to table,the average distance for produce being about 1,500 "food" miles. One researcher, Louise Pape, director of Climate Today,found that wheat traveled 5,110 miles from a farm in Nebraska to a Wal-Martin New Mexico, stopping in four other places on its journey from the field to a box of cake mix. Organic foods are expensive, often requiring a 20 to 50 percent price increase, depending on the product and whether it's in season, and they aren't always available. It can be especially difficult to find certified organic meat. This is all likely to change as Wal-Mart adds a substantial amount of well-priced organic foods to its shelves, much of it packaged organic versions of conventional foods like boxed macaroni and cheese and breakfast cereals. Wal-Mart's appetite for organic will surely resultin the conversion of hundreds of thousands more acres of farmland to organic. The land won't 30 necessarily be in the United States, but it's good news that consumers will have more access to organic. There are also worries about the constant pressure to weaken the organic standards, which will only increase as big business gets more involved. As the meaning of "organic" is Weakened, some farmers go "beyond organic" by using words like "local" and 'sustainable" in reaction to the industrialization of organic. There's no official definition of "sustainable," but it's essentially a way of raising food that's healthy for those who eat it as well as the farms that produce it -the animals, the farmers, and the land itself. Chemical pesticides are minimally used, animals have access to pasture, and the farm itselfis viewed as an extension of the local community. What's taken out of the environment is put back in so that it can be maintained permanently and available to future generations. Local food is fresher, doesn't have to travel thousands of miles to reach you, and is less expensive When you buy it directly from the farmer.It's also better for your local economy. When you choose local you are supporting conservation of fuel resources, economic viability of local communities, freshness, and better taste. Eating locally and in-season foods is also a more traditional way of eating. The disadvantage to local is that unless it's guaranteed to be organic you have to do allthe work yourself to know how it was produced.

  • 下記の英文を訳してくださる方はいませんか?

    Perhaps the most disturbing thing about the empty nest, however, is that it is a sign that youth has gone. This sign, together with the evidence confronted in the mirror and the menopause, which occurs at about the same time as the empty nest, make the loss of youth impossible to deny. Given the worship of youthfulness in our society, especially youthfulness in woman, the effect is a real crisis. Of little comfort to the present generation, the declining birth rate and increasing longevity have combined to increase the average age of Americans to 29 years. If the trends continue, our ideal may also mature. お願いします。